CLAS-ACT: Conformal, Lightweight Antennas for Aeronautical Communications Technology

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www.nasa.gov

CLAS-ACT: Conformal, Lightweight

Antennas for Aeronautical

Communications Technology

PI: Mary Ann Meador

NASA Glenn Research Center

September 18-20 , 2018

Co-PI: James Downey

NASA Glenn Research Center

ARMD Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program

CONVERGENT AERONAUTICS SOLUTIONS PROJECT

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Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) are increasing in

use but range is mostly limited to line of sight

Satellite Communication (SatCom) links

would enable beyond line of sight (BLOS)

coverage for UAS

Currently only large UAS platforms can

accommodate dish antennas

Even so, they take up a lot of payload

volume

Smaller class UAS cannot accommodate

SatCom Dish

Solution: Conformal, Phased Array Antenna

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ArticShark/Navmar Applied Sciences Corporation Global Hawk/Northrop Grumman

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NASA UAS that could be BLOS enabled by

CLAS-ACT antenna (445-800 lb)

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Range of UAS

enabled by BLOS

communications

for coastal

monitoring

mission

L3 Viking 400 Navmar Tigershark XP

U.S. Navy/ NASA SIERRA

NASA (ASAB) Concept UAS

(4)

What we are trying to do

Microwave antenna with high

enough power for SatCom link

Ultra low side lobes

attenuated via electronic

means to avoid interference

with ground

Built out of lightweight, low

dielectric aerogels

Conformal design to reduce

drag and increase simplicity

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Roll· -Broad-Side Direction\

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Yaw Radiation Pattern

End-Fire 1 - Direction

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CLAS-ACT builds on aerogel antennas developed

under Aero Seedling

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8 element array shown in far-field range

As much as double the gain and efficiency achieved depending on

frequency

77 % lower density than same antenna array from conventional

substrates!!

Award 2015 Scalable Enhanced Performance 20 16 12 4400 ---a-~1ex,.itm1nt ....... ~14:.:2tlttntl"l'lill'1 -&-Aietoge14X2eletn11n:iilt2 ---<>--Aertlgltl4J"2illllfflll"ll#3 .. .,....~14J.2..,..,li=.4 ~tl.if0d4.QIIN)J'rWII 4600 4000 5000 frequency, MHz

5200 4400 4600 4000 sooo S200 frequency, MHz

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What difference will the CLAS-ACT antenna make?

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This will enable BLOS for small to medium UAS

CLAS-ACT antenna using electronic

beamforming will reduce

interference to acceptable levels

Side lobes

Potential interference

issues with ITU*

provisional Ku-band

SatCom allocation for UAS

*International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

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Goals and challenges

Challenge: Use phase

array antenna

beamforming to

mitigate ground station

interference for ITU

compliance for UAS

Challenge: Fabricate a

tightly integrated antenna

system after inventing a

more flexible form of the

aerogel

Goal: Advance

technologies for a

Ku-band phased array

antenna using an aerogel

substrate to reduce SWaP

(size weight and power)

on UAS SatCom systems

Rigid aerogel

Broken

antenna

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-- Proposed IT O 8 . U Mask~a;td4no;.~:--

-- -- . m Dish Model (B Lat, 1 km altitud Phased A essel) e rray beam 0 synthesis (49x49) -80 50 100

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Where we are now:

Making the aerogels more conformable

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Rigid polymer backbone

25 to 75 % flexible

links included in

polymer backbone

25 % of rigid links replaced

by flexible links

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Antenna Design Process

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Circular Patch Element Triangular Lattice Sub-Array Conformal Prototype

Array for Flight Test

Realized Gain Plot 1

120 -~.o Minc-<Ul.46

120

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Making an Antenna Lightweight & Conformal

Phased array composition

• Flexible aerogel layers (~3.3 mm) maximizes the benefits of the low dielectric constant • Thin multi-layer stack of higher dielectric materials for the feed network

• Commercial transmit/receive (TR) chip modules provide electronic weighting of each element • 64 element sub-array to demonstrate feasibility of 500-2500 element full scale antenna

• 50 % mass savings over conventional design

Stacked Patch Element 2.5 mm Aerogel

0.8 mm Aerogel

Microwave Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Stack ~1 mm T/R Module

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• Developed technique to align and bond the

aerogel substrate with the radiating elements

as well as a microstrip feed layer

• Tested in an anechoic chamber at Glenn

Research Center (GRC)

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First Antenna Array Prototype Tested

iii' ~ C 0

-

-

-

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-~ - - Gain Phi (sim)

ro - -Gain Phi (meas)

E o -20 z -50 0 50 iii' Theta [dB) ~ 0 C 'iii <.!> -10 "O

-~ -20 - - Gain Theta (sim)

ro - -Gain Theta (meas)

E -30

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z -50 0 50

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Antenna Subarray Design for Fabrication

Flight prototype antenna circuit board design fabrication underway.

Anechoic chamber characterization planned late September

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Placement of 8x8 Array on Aircraft

Null Steering of 8x8 Array

-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 -180 -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Gain [dBi] Theta [deg] Phi = 0 deg, array centered Phi = 0 deg, array off-center

Radius = 16 in.

-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Elevation Angle (degrees)

-80 -60 -40 -20 0 Normalized Power (dB)

Elevation Cut (azimuth angle = 0.0

° ) without nulling with nulling interference direction -90 -45 0 45 90 135 180

Angle off Zenith (deg) -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 Normalized Gain (dB)

ITU proposed mask Standard Beam, 22.7 dBi Synthesized Beam, 21.6 dBi

-1 -0.5 -20 V 0 -1 0.5 -0.5 U 0 0.5 Gain (dB) 1 1 0 20

Simulated performance of 64 element sub-array

Conformed to 16” radius

Antenna-aircraft coupling effects

Beam synthesis (with quantization) and null

steering methods to meet ITU mask

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Antenna Pattern Simulations

~20 dB sidelobe reduction

r -c _ _ _ _ _ _I t..

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Antenna Range testing – this Fall

• Capture the expected performance of the array including gain and beam steering pattern

• Validate performance after environmental testing (e.g. vibration)

Hanger Testing on a UAS - January

• Capture installed antenna performance, including fuselage/radome attenuation effects

Flight testing on a UAS - February

• Capture antenna array performance and ground interference at low elevation angles (5º to 25º) during a UAS flight

Antenna Array Simulation and Testing Flow Diagram

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Planned Testing of the CLAS-ACT Antenna

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Flight Test of CLAS-ACT Antenna on Global Hawk

Working with Global Hawk team at

Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC)

Testing in restricted airspace around

Edwards Air Force Base (AFB)

Antenna will be mounted on simulated

fuselage

Designed and built at Langley Reseach Center

(LaRC)

Mockup placed under radome inside the

Global Hawk

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New Portable Antenna Metrology System

Developed at GRC to characterize antenna in-situ

Deployed robotic scanner to AFRC hanger

Brought antenna range to aircraft

Results on NASA’s Ikhana aided ground station design

Pre-flight testing of antenna on Global Hawk in Jan.

Collaborative robotic arm and laser tracker used to test antenna on UAS at AFRC

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Flight Testing on a UAS

Measurement ground station (MGS) will capture antenna

array performance and ground interference at low

elevation angles (5º to 25º) during UAS flight

• Aircraft will fly paths of varying altitude and constant range • Characterize installed antenna pattern

• Real world feasibility assessment of side lobe reduction

Example Flight Passes for Measuring a

Region of the Antenna Pattern

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Challenge: ground stations sensitive enough to measure

a signal specifically designed to be very small

CLAS-ACT Antenna In-Flight Characterization

~

~ MGS

1736km AGL

Indicates UAS passes required

to characterize a ITU mask region of interest

871km AGL

- Proposed ITU Mask at 40° Lat, 1 km altitude

- -0.8 m Dish Model (Bessel)

- -Phased Array beam synthesis (49x49)

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-•

Ames Research Center (ARC) developed

realistic flight paths for low elevation passes

-5 degree to -25 degree negative elevation

wrt aircraft wing

Input to Northrup Grumman to produce

Final Mission Plan

Main Lobe 4thside lobe 3rdside lobe 3-D Antenna Pattern

Sensitivity analyses

Wind effects on flight path and antenna

measurements

Dynamic noise floor analysis

Position uncertainty effects on antenna

measurements

Proposed Flight Test Plan for Global Hawk

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CLAS-ACT Team

• James Downey • Bryan Schoenholz • Marie Piasecki • Bushara Dosa • Peter Slater • Seth Waldstein • Anne Mackenzie • Bill Fredericks • Scott Kenner • Ray Rhew • Mark Cagle • Jeremy Smith • Andy Gutierrez

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• Patricia Martinez • Ricardo Arteaga • Kelly Snapp • Rick Alena • Aaron Cohen • Baochau Nguyen • Stephanie Vivod • Haiquan Guo • Jessica Cashman • Rocco Viggiano • Marcos Pantoja • Kevin Cavicchi • Dan Oldham

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Backup

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Conformal Lightweight Antenna Systems for Aeronautical Communication

Technologies (CLAS-ACT)

Lead Center & Partner Centers: GRC, LaRC, ARC, AFRC • External Collaborators: University of Akron

• Aeronautics Barrier to Overcome: Reduce sidelobes to meet requirements for provisional Ku band use for UAS for Beyond Line of Site Communications

• ARMD Strategic Thrusts and associated Outcome(s) addressed:

– Thrust 1: Safe, Efficient Growth in Global Operations

• BLOS enabled conformable antennas for UAS will transform NAS through NextGen technologies

– Thrust 3. Ultra-efficient commercial vehicles

• Improved vehicle efficiency through reduced weight and drag

– Thrust 6: Assured autonomy for aviation transformation

• Enable continuous, system-wide information connectivity supporting autonomous operations

• Idea/Concept: Antennas which enable beyond line of sight (BLOS) command and control for UAS to

take advantage of newly assigned provisional Ku-bands for UAS; Unique antenna designs to avoid interference with ground; Unconventional substrates to reduce weight; Conformal designs to reduce drag

• Feasibility Assessment: Demonstrate conformability of aerogel substrates and feasibility of

fabrication; Demonstrate high directivity antenna with reduced sidelobes using beamforming

• Feasibility Assessment Criteria: 20 dB reduction is sidelobes; 1 m bend radius of aerogel

• Duration of Execution & total full-cost: 2.5 years & $3.5 M

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Approach to more flexible aerogels

Utilize aliphatic diamines to replace 25 to 75

mol % of aromatic diamine

Goal is

More bendable aerogels in 2-3 mm thicknesses

Lowest dielectric constant

Best mechanical properties

Best moisture resistance

Three different aliphatic diamines studied

Modeled data from three studies to make

comparison among them and come up with

optimum formulation(s)

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H2N O NH2 O NH2 H2N H2N NH2 1,3-Bis(4-aminophenoxy)neopentane (BAPN) 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane (DAMP) 1,12-diaminododecane (DADD) H2N NH2 2,2'-Dimethylbenzidine (DMBZ) vs. O H2N NH2 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA)

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Antenna Pattern Calculations

Radiation Pattern for an 8x8 Array on A/C,

Half Cylinder Approximation for A/C Body Placement of 8x8 Array on Aircraft

Null Steering of 8x8 Array to Avoid Interference 50x50 Array Pattern With a 2° Beam Width,

Cylindrical Approximation for A/C Body

Array layout on cylindrical platform, 16- in. radius.

X Z Y

Normalized power pattern in two planes.

-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 -180 -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Gain [dBi] Theta [deg] Phi = 0 deg, array centered Phi = 0 deg, array off-center

Array layout on half-cylinder

platform, 16- in. radius 3-D Gain pattern

Radius = 16 in.

-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Elevation Angle (degrees)

-80 -60 -40 -20 0 Normalized Power (dB)

Elevation Cut (azimuth angle = 0.0

° ) without nulling with nulling interference direction

-

~-·

....

~~· fol.i.1 Ci.}m [tlB1l

DimtlMlon Matrix U~t

... ,..,._, ~49(-l 6'.'i,9'-i ,jjS,0,e-3 !OCH 0 ;;,- -20 :2. " 3 ·40 fr_ ] -60 g ~ -80 -100 ·180

I

- FFl Gain Phi= 0 deg - FF2 Gain Phi= 90 Deg

-120 -60 0 Theta [deg]

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Antenna Fabrication in progress

Antenna Design

Fabrication

Control Design

Control Circuit

Fabrication

Splitting

Network

TR Module

Multi Layer

Bonding

+

~

-~

~

4

-Radome made out of polymer film for protection and to allow

standard fabrication TR Modules (heat producing electronics) RF Signal Feed Thru (may be many points) '-.... Antenna Mounting Surface

/

/4

,...,J--1 Mounting Plate

Antenna Elements (Cu)

- -Power and Control

' Feed Thru (may be ~ a n y points) RF Absorber? Optional component ' shelf " ' -Support Arms

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Effect of aliphatic diamine content on modulus

Modulus is effected by the increase in

density as aliphatic content increases

DMBZ backbone has higher modulus

than ODA even at lower density

Picture shows DMBZ with 25% BAPN

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10 100 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 30 40 50 60 70 M odul us , M P a Pol ym er c onc ., w t% Aliphat ic diam ine, mol% BAPN/ODA BAPN/DMBZ 10 100 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 30 40 50 60 70 M odul us , M P a Pol ym er c onc ., w t% Aliphat ic diam ine, mol% DAMP/ODA DAMP/DMBZ 10 100 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 30 40 50 60 70 M odul us , M P a Pol ym er c onc ., w t% Aliphat ic diam ine, mol% DADD/ODA DADD/DMBZ H2N O NH2 O NH2 H2N H 2N NH2 Density, g/cm3 0.090.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 M odul us , M P a 1 10 100 25 % BAPN w/DMBZ 25 % BAPN w/ODA 75% BAPN w/DMBZ 75 % BAPN w/ODA H2N O NH2 O

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High Data Rate Satellite Communications for 500 lbs. MTOW

Class UAS

• 500 lbs. MTOW class UAS cannot accommodate a satellite dish antenna due to system weight and volume

 Ku band 48” dish antenna and associated communications equipment weight is 168 lbs. as fitted to Global Hawk.

• Iridium satellite systems offer global reach and are compact and light enough for Group 3 UAS  A single iridium channel is only 2.4. kb/s per channel; useful for command and control but

generally insufficient bandwidth for most sensor data  Note that Iridium NEXT will support up to 1.4 Mbps

• For these reasons most Group 3 UAS are operated within line of site (LOS) of a ground station

LOS is 150 km for an aircraft at 5000 ft. altitude assuming a ground station antenna height of 10 m • CLAS-ACT enables Group 3 UAS to accommodate an antenna that supports high data rate (~25 Mb/s)

communications via geostationary satellites, enabling beyond line-of-site operations with real time sensor-data monitoring

Note: D.O.D. UAS Group 3 is 55 lbs. to 1320 lbs.

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UAS for CLAS-ACT

There are very few UAS currently available in the flight regime between relatively small (10

lb. payload) and very large (1500 lb. payload)

The lack of medium sized UAVs is likely due to restrictive regulations and because many of

the potential missions can be performed with manned aircraft

Current FAA regulations require a Certificate of Authorization (COA) to fly UAVs over

55lbs. beyond visual range within the region of jurisdiction of the FAA

Currently, a COA is very unlikely to be granted for flying a large UAV over populated

regions

It is often expedient to use a manned aircraft, rather than obtain a COA even though

using a manned aircraft is potentially more expensive and restricted in endurance to a

maximum of 12 hours or so

In the future, advanced autonomy that includes sense and avoid, plus proven very high

reliability is expected to allow operation of all sizes of UAVs within the NAS

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UAVs for CLAS-ACT

L3 Viking 400

No longer in production but NASA has several available for science missions

Dimensions Weights Performance Wingspan 20 ft. MTOW 540 lbs. Range 560 nmi

Length 15 ft. Payload 100 lbs. Endurance 8 h

Wing Area 43.7 ft2 Sat Comm Airspeed 70 kts

Aspect Ratio Empty Weight 337 lbs. Altitude 15,000 ft.

Engine Size 36 HP Fuel Weight 150 lbs.

Navmar Tigershark XP Long Range Navmar claim beyond line-of-sight capable. Variants of this UAV are widely used by the D.O.D.

Dimensions Weights Performance Wingspan 30 ft. MTOW 800 lbs. Range 1200 nmi

Length Payload 150 lbs. Endurance 15 h

Wing Area Sat Comm Airspeed 80 kts

Aspect Ratio Empty Weight Altitude 20,000 ft.

Engine Size Fuel Weight 180 lbs.

U.S. Navy/ NASA SIERRA Experimental aircraft, limited availability. Presumably additional aircraft could be built.

Dimensions Weights Performance Wingspan 20 ft. MTOW 445 lbs. Range 600 nmi

Length 12 ft. Payload 100 lbs. Endurance 10 h

Wing Area Sat Comm Airspeed 60 kts

Aspect Ratio Empty Weight Altitude 12,000 ft.

Engine Size Fuel Weight

NASA (ASAB) Concept UAV This is a conventional design powered by a small diesel engine

Dimensions Weights Performance Wingspan 30 ft. MTOW 500 lbs. Range 1530 nmi

Length 16 ft. Payload 50 lbs. Endurance 28 h

Wing Area 62.5 ft2 Sat Comm 75 lbs. Airspeed 55 kts

Aspect Ratio 15 Empty Weight 275 lbs. Altitude 20,000 ft.

Engine Size 50 HP Fuel Weight 100 lbs.

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Missions for 500 lbs. Class UAVs

There are many potential missions for medium sized UAVs; one example is coastal monitoring

Harmful algae blooms

Turbidity

Water temperature (input for weather forecasting)

Pollution, e.g. oil spills

Photogrammetry, to monitor erosion over time

Disaster assistance, hurricanes

Marine life monitoring (e.g. whales, turtles)

Safety and security (Coastguard reconnaissance)

Instrument package (weight < 50 lbs.)

Hyperspectral imager

High definition video and still camera

Thermal camera

Data processing computer

Data storage

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GT study: CLAS-ACT Benefits Summary

Increased responsiveness: ability to

quickly and effectively communicate

with aircraft

Airspace management: quickly and

easily redirect UAVs to prevent

accidents

Increased efficiency, communication,

and coverage in swarm applications

Vehicle health and performance

monitoring

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Source: Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

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GT study: Some examples of UAV mission types

and impact from CLAS-ACT antenna

Relative

Score Mission Examples CLAS-ACT benefits summary

First Responder and Emergency Support

•Search and rescue • Fire fighting • Medical assistance • Supplies delivery

• Recognition of situation changes

• Remotely providing help and support (supplies and instructions)

Disaster relief • Rapid response

• Rescue assistance • Disaster modeling

• Visualize and locate site and severity of disaster • Instant situation updates in harmful environments • Independence from ground-based systems that may be damaged

Scientific •Volcano measurement

•Species monitoring •Fishing and oceanic •Extreme environments

• Real time data gathering • Fast and accurate responder

• Minimal human risk and interaction

Package delivery •Mail

•Commercial and private delivery

• Real-time tracking

• Fast and accurate redirection

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~

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GT study: Surface area, drag, weight of CLAS-ACT

antenna

Surface area

– Assuming a steady 30°bank angle turn the

required area increases by 15% to 0.29 m2(3.11 ft2)

– Smallest size UAV (ThunderB) has a wing area

>6x larger than this (~2 m2)

Drag

– Thickness of 1 cm

– Will require a ramp to ensure lift not affected

– Estimated drag increase <1% if applied to

entire wing of smallest vehicle

Weight

– For required area the weight is 0.87 kg (1.9 lb)

– Smallest UAV has a payload of ~8.8 lb

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