Multiculturalism Vs Pluralism
Multiculturalism ( Australia ) Pluralism ( United State) What is multiculturalism ?
- communities containing multiple cultures. - multicultural nature of such a society
should be welcomed and celebrated. - Societies with single unitary cultures that
are no longer a result of migration but play a vital role to coexist with multiple
cultures by having equal respect.
What is pluralism?
- smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture provided they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society
- Various interest groups working against each other, balancing one another out so that the common good is achieved. Pros
1. Multiculturalism has created isolated ethnic and religious enclaves.
Sydney suburbs like Bankstown and Lakemba, home to substantial Lebanese Muslim populations, are prime examples of hotspots where ethnic communities have chosen to isolate themselves from the mainstream, instead of participating in society and being committed to Australia. Community leaders foster values incompatible with fundamental principles of Australian society – for example, promoting intolerance toward other faiths and expressing objectionable views about women.
2. Some ethnic minorities have not fully accepted Australia’s basic values and norms.
Multiculturalism relies on everyone accepting a basic set of core norms and principles, but this is not occurring for some. For instance, while most Muslims may live peacefully in Australian society, the violent protests in Sydney showed that some members of the Muslim community still cannot or are unwilling to observe accepted norms of behaviour or appropriate types of political expression. They resort instead to anti-social behaviour that intimidates those with views different to their own.
1. competing interest groups are necessary to good government because they not only give people a means of contributing to the democratic process but also prevent any one minority from imposing its will on the majority. Interest groups therefore are a vital party of a healthy democracy
2. Preserving Traditions and Cultures
Technology has allowed humans to travel and communicate on a global level. This, in turn, has led to people spreading out from their point of origin. As small groups of people leave their native cultures and traditions behind, they learn new traditions and embrace new cultures. Over the course of generations, older and smaller cultures and traditions are being lost as a result. Embracing cultural pluralism will aid in preserving some of these cultures and traditions.
3. Fostering Acceptance and Understanding Learning about and experiencing other peoples' culture and traditions can greatly improve acceptance of others. People often fear or criticize what they do not understand. By bringing the art of Chinese calligraphy to the United States or teaching Irish folk dancing in Asia, people are able to get a greater understanding of the different cultures surrounding them and will learn to embrace the differences rather than fear them.
3. Multiculturalism has degraded Australia’s culture and national identity.
Multiculturalism has privileged the maintenance of distinct cultural and ethnic affiliations instead of promoting a common Australian identity with its shared history, values, symbols and institutions. This has fractured Australian’s national identity by emphasising what divides us rather than what we have in common.
4. Multiculturalism has led to friction and violence.
Violent flare-ups like the 2005 Cronulla riots and attacks against Indian students in 2009 highlight the fragility of Australia’s social harmony. Tensions between different groups are increasingly coming to the surface in similar ways to what has been observed in western European countries. More broadly, members of ethnic minorities continue to experience racism on an everyday basis.
4. Identifying Commonalities
While all cultures have their own traditions and beliefs, many cultures embrace similar beliefs. Cultural pluralism helps people find these common beliefs and traditions, which promotes acceptance and reduces fears. It also encourages people to continue to embrace their own beliefs and culture.
1. Migrants are highly integrated in Australian society.
Immigrants and their offspring have integrated quickly into Australia’s society and economy. Research shows that almost all second-generation Australians are proficient in English, irrespective of their parents’ English ability, which has enabled them to find their way in Australian society and gain employment. This sets Australia apart from countries like Germany, where guest workers were brought in without a serious effort to include them in wider society.
2. The overwhelming majority of Australians coexist peacefully and respectfully. Despite ongoing fears of outbreaks of racially-charged violence – most notably the fear of another “Cronulla” – the reality is that major cases of racist violence remain rare. There is, moreover, a widespread political and societal consensus that opposes racism in all its forms. The vast majority of Australians, regardless of their ethnic or cultural identity, live harmoniously with each other.
Critics of pluralism contend that there is no such thing as the common good because there are so many conflicting interests in society: What is good for one person is often bad for others. They argue that the interest groups interfere with democracy because they seek benefits for a minority of people rather than the greater good of the majority. The National Rifle Association, for example, has repeatedly blocked new gun control legislation despite the fact that a majority of Americans actually want stricter gun laws. Other critics argue that the interest group system is really effective only to economic interest groups, which have greater financial resources at their disposal. Nearly two-thirds of lobbyists in Washington represent economic groups. Critics also argue that interest groups tend to ignore the interests of the poor in favor of middle- and upper-class Americans, who have more time and money to contribute.
Other scholars have argued that interest groups have been too successful and use the term hyperpluralism to describe political systems that cater to interest groups and not the people. These
3. Racial and ethnic tensions have been driven by unrepresentative fringe elements. Violence or aggression on ethnic and religious grounds remains restricted to a small number of people who are unrepresentative of their communities as a whole, and as such does not reflect a fundamental problem in multiculturalism. For instance, Muslim community leaders and ordinary Muslim Australians immediately and emphatically condemned the recent outbreak of violence in Sydney in response to an anti-Islamic internet video.
4. The problems with multiculturalism show that it is a work in progress, not that it is failing.
It is true that migrants from some backgrounds have found it more difficult to integrate and to accept Australia’s fundamental values and
principles. However, this is a natural consequence of the transition from illiberal, autocratic societies to an open liberal democracy; such problems are not insoluble or permanent, and will decline in importance as new migrant communities adapt to Australian society.
critics argue that too many interest groups lead to demosclerosis, the inability of government to accomplish anything substantial. These critics contend that the U.S. government cannot make serious changes, even if those changes are
needed, because competing interest groups stymie the government from governing the country effectively.
2. Encouraging Stereotypes and Prejudices A definite disadvantage of cultural pluralism is that it could lead to increased stereotyping and
prejudice. By emphasizing differences, some people will choose to develop a prejudice to the differences rather than celebrate them.
3. Increased Violence and Terrorism
Some cultures teach their people that their beliefs are the only true beliefs. This model of thinking leads to increased violence among cultures that have completely different belief systems. Creating awareness of a society's beliefs and traditions on a global scale opens that culture up to violence that results when two cultures clash. Another result is terrorism, which, at its root, is violence intended to create fear for religious, political or ideological purposes.
Lack of dominant culture Dominant culture is the contagious stream
Multiculturalism Policy of Australia Primary fundamental aims
• All Australians should have a right to express and share their cultural heritage • All Australians should have a right to equality of treatment and opportunity
• All Australians should be able to develop and use their talents in Australia’s economy Goals with terms and restrictions
• All Australians, regardless of their background, should be united in their commitment to Australia and its interests
• All Australians should respect the basic structures and principles of Australian society, including non-discrimination and the rule of law
• The right to express one’s own cultural identity must be balanced by an obligation to respect the identities of others
Greet the instructor and audience.
Introduce the topic; tell about yourself and the panelist ( name )
explain the reason of having this panel discussion, Ask a question ( cause of matter) to begin the discussion. Eg Why is multiculturalism the best policy for Australia.
Each panelist should introduce themselves further before starting your discussion. (where are u from, what are u doing now)
Explain multiculturalism, the history multiculturalism policy of Australia. It difference with the white man policy (pluralism). How the white man policy damage Australia’s reputation and global
Backup the 1st panelist with the aim and goals of Multiculturalism policy. How multiculturalism and repair the nation thinking, behaviour and opinion of multiculturalism. Aside, bring out the pros of Multiculturalism ( Limit the pros to one )
Lengthen the second panelist statement about pros of Multiculturalism. Make personal comparison with Malaysia ( and SG) and Canada. How multiculturalism had develop the social, economics and politics of these country. How peace and diversity can be found in these country. Literate the variety of food, cultural celebration, knowledge and language in our country.
Explain pluralism , why pluralism should be the best policy. Reinforce the statement with pros of pluralism and example.
People often misunderstood about multiculturalism and pluralism. Explain the differences of pluralism, deter pluralism by deliberate the pros of multiculturalism.
Disagree with the cons of pluralism. Bring out some example to support the counteract 2nd person
Replied that there are downfall of pluralism that is left unseen. Give some example and case liking to one of it. Eg terrorism, and extremism
Support 4th person with some cons of multiculturalism. Later, compared it with pluralism. Show the right decision of the right policy for Australia. Tell about the reason of the one being chooses
For those who have doubt about the decision, state you own opinion, whether it be a deterrent or supporter on the person idea. Bring out a conclusion to summarise the discussion.
Analyses the discussion and state your ideology of multiculturalism and pluralism. construct opportunity for question from the audience. Express regards to the panelist, instructor and audience. End the forum with delight, Humble and polite lines, said out the moral of story.