• No results found

The influence of the Venetian Republic on the architecture of Boka Kotorska


Academic year: 2021

Share "The influence of the Venetian Republic on the architecture of Boka Kotorska"


Full text


The influence of the Venetian Republic on the

architecture of Boka Kotorska

Extended Essay Final Draft

Name: Sava Petović

Candidate Number: 000197-061

School: United World College of the Adriatic

Supervisor: Maria Canfora

Subject: World Arts and Cultures

Word Count: 3999


Page 2 of 24


This essay consists of the study of the architecture of South-Western part of Montenegro and reveals the cultural interaction with the Venetian republic during the three centuries of its rule. Some coastal cities of Croatia and Montenegro show architectural similarities to Venetian buildings; this phenomenon prompted the investigation of the research question

to which extent did the Venetian conquest of 1420-1797 influenced both the interior and exterior architecture of the cities Kotor and Perast?

Firstly, I analysed the architecture of the city of Kotor considering two examples: Drago and the Grgurina palace, evaluating the characteristic features in the architecture each of the artistic styles in both.

Secondly, I analysed the architecture of Perast focusing on the interior architecture in the example of the Mazarović palace, as an analysis of the typical Baroque palace and the features it has in common with the Venetian palaces.

Furthermore, the aim of the research was to show the outcomes of an interaction between the Venetian republic and Kotor and Perast, in terms of architecture. In order to understand this phenomenon, I first visually investigated both abovementioned architectures, followed by my exploration of the architectural plans, scripts, and books, including reference

bibliography found in the local archive and library. Finally, the question of the importance of the cultural interaction and exchange related to the selected works of art arises. With regard to this research, I came to conclude that besides the architecture and the other material evidence examined, this influence also had a significant impact on the culture and customs as well as on the lifestyle in general.


Page 3 of 24


I would like to acknowledge and extend my heartfelt gratitude to the following persons who have made the completion of this Extended Essay possible:

My supervisor prof. Maria Canfora, for her vital encouragement and support.

My fellow teacher prof. Henry Thomas, for the guidelines and inspiration throughout my research.

M.Arch. Zorica Ćubrović, my external supervisor, for her understanding and assistance, as well as for the reference providing.

Pomorski muzej Crne Gore, Gradska Biblioteka Kotor and Istorijski Arhiv Kotor, for the constant help and supply of required bibliography.


Page 4 of 24

Table of Contents

1. Introduction………..………5-6 2. Background ……….………7-8 3. Part I: The architecture of Kotor ………..………8-10

a. Houses and fortification………8 b. Drago Palace……….9 c. Grgurina Palace………..10 4. Part II: The architecture of Perast……….11-15

a. Bujović palace………10-12 b. Mazarović palace……….12-14 5. Conclusion………15

6. Bibliography………16 7. Appendix………..17-22

a. The architecture of Kotor……….18 b. The architecture of Perast……….19-22


Page 5 of 24


This is the flag of Montenegro, an officially independent country since its referendum in 2006. The flag is red and with the coat-of-arms in the middle and golden borders. In the middle of the coat of arms the golden lion is featured, bearing some similarities to the motif present in the coat-of-arms of the Republic of Venice, the winged lion, symbol of St Mark, who had substantial impact in the history of


This symbolic similarity between the Venetian republic and

Montenegro is just one of many which show the cultural interaction between these two areas. In fact, this contact is also reflected in both the artistic expressions and the social customs of the South-Western region of Montenegro – Boka


The construction of unique houses and palaces, along with the development of buildings in Boka Kotorska was closely connected with historical circumstances as well as the social, economic and cultural development of the area. 1

My personal interest in the Venetian influence on the architecture of my hometown was sparked by my curiosity of the various impacts from the different cultures this region was exposed to across the centuries. My approach for this essay has been to analyse both the exterior and interior architecture of two cities – Kotor and Perast, to see how the Venetian conquest influenced the entire process of construction as well as to try to compare them to the Venetian characteristic architectural buildings. This research is of particular value since the culture of many cities of Boka Kotorska has been influenced by the Venetian republic , yet no recent publications has shown a particular engagement towards the cultural interaction between these two areas and its consequences. The main references for this research were books published by Miloš Milošević –

historian, archivist and versatile artist, who deeply investigated the situation in Boka Kotorska in that period.


The palates Boka Kotorska. N.p.: Expeditio, 2009. Print.

Figure 1: The flag of Montenegro with the coat of arms in its center


Page 6 of 24 During the 17th and 18th centuries, when Kotor, together with some other settlements, placed itself under the protection of the Venetian Republic, a specific type of Baroque architecture had developed within that area. In the beginning, it was characteristic only for the settlements of Perast, Prčanj and Dobrota, which, in that period, acquired the status of seafaring communities, but later spread towards Kotor, where noble families built their palaces. 2 Throughout these three centuries, when the Venetian Republic was on the territories of Boka Kotorska, its architecture has faced the gradual change from Gothic to Renaissance to Baroque.

Concentrating primarily on the military power, the Venetian Republic had to devote a particular attention to the fortified towns, fortresses and various minor military

organisations. In that period Venice had already built or partially built a decent number of military fortifications in the territory of Boka. 3

Professional Italian architects were not the only constructors of the prominent structures in this region. Some houses' creators are still unknown but it is assumed that the sailors and merchants, having had clear ideas about the living needs, were in charge of projecting the house models. 4 As a result, the new type of house was created, built by local sailors. They were relatively simple but always enriched by changes of tension by some baroque details which they have observed while being in the constant contact with the Medditeranean ports.5

Therefore, by studying the influence of Venetian Republic on the architecture of Boka Kotorska, and specifically cities Kotor and Perast, it is possible to perceive how

-corresponding to the different historical circumstances were occurring before and during the Venetian rule of this area- the architecture faced the development including the new building appearances and new motives copied from the buildings in the Venetian Republic. However, as the architecture in Kotor is not restricted on the building in the canals, as those in Venice; There are no complete replications of the buildings, just general architectural structures and motifs. The aim of the following research is to illustrate how the cultural interaction between the different areas can exist through trade and how important this is in terms of culture and customs.


The palates Boka Kotorska. N.p.: Expeditio, 2009. Print.

3 Milošević, Miloš.

Boka Kotorska, Bar and Ulcinj from the end of XV until the end of XVIII century. Podgorica: CID, 2008. Print.

4 Zloković, Milan. Civic architecture in Boka Kotorska during the Venetian rule. Beograd: n.p., 1953. Print. 5 Milošević, Miloš.

Maritime traders, warriors and patrons (studies of Boka Kotorska during the XV-XIX centuries). N.p.: CID, 2003. Print.


Page 7 of 24


Along with the name ‘Boka Kotorska’, the

expression ‘Venetian Albania’ was commonly used in the Venetian sources. This remained the official name for the Venetian territories in this part of the Adriatic. It originally represented the area along the coast, which is nowadays the northern Albanian parts and the coast of Montenegro but the Albanian and southern Montenegrin parts were lost to the Ottomans in 1571. 6

The Venetian republic was present on the coasts of the bay for almost four centuries (1420-1797). Its reign fell into a dramatic period full of wars and constant insecurity on both land and sea; this was what presented the first and main aspect of this historical period. However, this epoch was characterised by big cataclysms such as

devastating earthquakes, plagues, frequent famines and ammunition explosions.7

The strategic significance of Kotor was increased immensely right after Turkish conquest of the nearby city, Risan. It happened in the end of the XV century, but, moreover, the strategic importance of Kotor further

strengthened after the fall of Ulcinj and Bar under the Turkish control (XVIc) because it remained separated from the other territories. At that moment, it remained without any support, dramatically isolated, surrounded and without any contact with other Venetian

territories, Kotor became the most recessed point of the Turkish territory, and was placed in the ‘lion’s pharynx’, as it is written in the

decision of the Senate in 1517. 8


Cecchetti, Bartolomeo. About the political establishments of Venetian republic in Albania. Vol. 3. N.p.: n.p., 1874. 978-98. Print. Ser. 4.

7 Milošević, Miloš. 1973. Boka Kotorska during the rule of Venetian

(1420-1797). Kotor: n.p., 1973. Print. PhD dissertation


Novak, Slobodan Prosperov. Boka Kotorska from bells to bells. Zagreb: n.p., 2011. Print.

Figure 3. Venetian Albania occupied the territory presented in red colour


Page 8 of 24 The Venetians were comparing the military significance of

Kotor with the Greek island, Corfu, which was a safe place for ships in this period. The fear of Venetians that they, in case of Kotor’s failure, would lose the control over the whole Boka Kotorska, encouraged their desire for the walls to be even stiffer. This fear manifested because of the constant danger that Turks, after the Risan’s conquest, would try to take over the control of Kotor and make a shipyard and the harbour so that they can control the whole area of Albania and Apulia. 9

Part 1: The Architecture of Kotor

The research was initiated by close examination of the architectural style of civic houses as one of the simplest and most common forms of buildings people used to live in. The initial small and simple rural houses were located right above the present villages next to the sea. Arable lands with rare summerhouses or chapels belonged to the Kotor’s nobility and church. Later, the villagers began involving themselves in the maritime economy. They grew rich and purchased the feudal land and estates so that they could build their

own buildings, palaces and churches. The houses were sometimes built further from the sea, making them less susceptible to sudden pirate attacks.10

However, as a consequence of the fear that was coming from the Turks, the Venetian authority either reinforced the previous or built new walls, which could be used against the fire weapons. The walls got their current shape in 1555 and are constructed at the time of Venetian Providur Bernard Renier and his initials ‘’B.R’’ stand above the main gate of the city. The gate was built in

the Renaissance and Baroque style, the proof of which is the pillar and the arch done in the Bunjato technique. 11


Novak, Slobodan Prosperov. Boka Kotorska from bells to bells. Zagreb: n.p., 2011. Print.

10 Milošević, Miloš. 1973. Boka Kotorska during the rule of Venetian

(1420-1797). Kotor: n.p., 1973. Print. PhD dissertation

11 Đurović, Vinko. About

the walls of city of Kotor. Beograd: Spomenik SAN, CV, 1956. Print.

Figure 6 A lion of St Mark on the fortification


Page 9 of 24 Drago Palace is situated in the St.

Tryphon’s Square, in the centre of Kotor. The palace, as its name suggests, belonged to the noble family Drago.

It consists of two wings. The one in the South, facing St. Tryphon’s Square, has largely retained the characteristics of the Gothic style–double windows, trefoil, and relief tympanum amongst other elements. The Northern wing was built in late Gothic style of the 14th-15th century, and the southern, facing St Tryphon’s Square, was rebuilt in the

Renaissance-Baroque style at the end of the 17th century. Its façade

is decorated with a large trifora and monoforas on the second floor, and a monofora and the entrance portal that is reachable by staircase on the first floor. However, the façade has been completely restored after the earthquake in 1979 with the special attention given to its decorative elements.12.

Trifora is a type of window opening divided vertically into three equal parts. It is usually separated with two columns or pylons. The columns are connected in the arcade with three arches. Figure 8 presents us the part of the Fortuny palace which is built in the Gothic style in 15th century and in consideration with the

figure 8 it is clearly visible how Drago Palace has the same, characteristic type of windows, typical of the Venetian Gothic period. Taking into account that, in many cases, only single elements were copied instead of entire buildings, this represents the characteristic element of transition between Gothic and Early Renaissance period.


The palates Boka Kotorska. N.p.: Expeditio, 2009. Print.

Figure 8 Trifora on the Fortuny palace, Venice Figure 7 Drago Palace, Kotor with the trifora


Page 10 of 24 The Grgurina palace is found in the square called ‘’Grgurina

Square’’ or ‘’Museum Square’’. The palace belonged to the noble family Grgurina who moved from Kopar to Kotor, where they soon obtained the position of nobles. It was built by Marko Grgurina, the notable count, merchant and

mediator of the famous Venetian architect Francesco Cabianca. The palace was crafted in the late Baroque style, following the principles of construction typical of the palaces of Boka Kotorska such as the symmetrical main façade with an emphasis on the vertical axis, dominated by balconies, profiled portals and centered by the main entrance.13 The Venetian style of construction was not imitated only in the architectural concept and exterior stylisation of palaces, but also in their interior layout. The space on the first floor (‘’piano nobile’’) was divided according to the Venetian ‘’four rooms and a salon’’ concept (Ital. Quattro stanze, un salon), where the rooms were arranged around a central salon and was used as the reception area for friends and guests. ‘’Piano nobile’’ (Ital. ‘’noble floor’’) is an architectural term for the main floor of a Renaissance building.

In a typical palace, the main reception rooms were in an upper story, usually the story immediately above the basement or ground floor. Moreover, they had higher ceilings than the rooms on the other floors of the palace and were more elegantly decorated. On that northern side of the palace there is a spacious terrace with a loggia, constructed over a vaulted storehouse, and a garden with a Baroque layout.14

Consider figure 10: we can see that four rooms are arranged around the

great grand salon (portego) in the centre. The Grgurina palace was restored and turned into the Maritime museum of Montenegro.


"Grgurina Palace." Montenegro Tourist Service. n.d. Web.

<http://www.montenegrobookings.info/grgurina_palace_description.aspx>. 14 Milošević, Miloš. 1973. Boka Kotorska during the rule of Venetian

(1420-1797). Kotor: n.p., 1973. Print. PhD dissertation

Figure 9 Grgurina palace’s appearance


Page 11 of 24

Part 2: The Architecture of Perast

The one of the most beautiful buildings on the Adriatic coast, designed by the Venetian architect Giovanni Battista Fontana, is Bujović palace. 15 The palace faces onto the waterfront in the western part of Perast and it was built by brothers Vicko and Ivan Bujović.

The palace is a simply formed three-story building, with a hipped roof. Its Renaissance style is seen on the large scale square pillars of the monumental arcaded porch which is designed in the ''bugnato'' technique.

There is a serene harmony in the five balconies on three façades and a clear transition to the Baroque shown by the rich

ornamentation of the arcades, balustrades and decorative details. A vast porch stretches along the length of the ground floor topped with a balustraded terrace. The richness of the façade is fully expressed by double stone portals on all balconies.16

The common architectural features found in palaces of this region are rustication and use of balusters. Balustrade is a molded barrier or railing consisting of a horizontal member resting on a series of balusters.17

The example of balustrade is found on the terrace of Bujović palace along with the two St. Mark’s lions placed on the edges of the terrace and the coat-of-arms in the middle of the terrace.


. Monograph KOTOR. Zagreb: Grafički Zavod Hrvatske, 1970. Print. 16

The palates Boka Kotorska. N.p.: Expeditio, 2009. Print.


"Baluster." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baluster>.

Figure 11 Bujović palace, Perast


Page 12 of 24 Rustication is an architectural feature that texturally contrasts the smoothly finished,

squared block masonry surfaces called ashlar. It is used to emphasise the elevated status of the piano nobile and is made to look like large individual stone blocks which are separated from each other by deep joints, give a bulky appearance.18 The resemblance of this

architectural characteristic is found in Venetian palace Ca’ Pesaro, built in mid-17th century, and it was used to make a façade with two rows of windows. In this example, we see the necessary presence of ‘’Piano nobile’’, because of its architectural restriction caused by the entire Venetian lagoon fulfilled by the maze of canals.

Another example of palace that can be used for the analysis is built in the mid-18th century called Mazarović palace. Even though the Mazarović palace consists of three clearly defined parts– the palace, extension to the annex and an older house, they are all related with the internal communications and function as one unit. It is a four-story building, with a belvedere decorated with volutes which carry the coat-of-arms of this family. Portal built in the ‘’bugnato’’ style is placed between the two elliptic Baroque windows on the ground level. The second floor is elaborated by a balcony resting on six brackets. The palace has preserved the original layout of the rooms, with a central salon and presence of ‘’piano nobile’’ and the authentic interior with

decorations in mortar on the walls, traces of which have been preserved despite long exposure to the elements. It has been in a ruined state for more than a century.

In the 18th century the new type of baroque palaces with belvedere is formed in the region of Boka Kotorska.

One of the main features of baroque in the Adriatic residential architecture is emphasised central vertical axis on the main façade, accentuated with a portal, centrally placed

balconies and an attic i.e. extended belvedere. 19


"Rustication." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rustication_(architecture)>.


Prijatelj, Kruno. Baroque in Croatia. Zagreb: n.p., 1982. Print.

“ ....osnovna koncepcija sa još uvjek prisutnim odjecima ranijih stilova barok se ipak izrazitije javlja u rasčlanjenosti fasade, u naglašavanju središnje osovine s portalom, glavnim prozorima i mansardom, u pojavi dugih balkona s kamenom ogradicom, u raskošnije profiliranim vratima i prozorima i u bogatijoj plastičnoj ornamentici.”


Page 13 of 24 Belvedere, although the

element of the

traditional architecture, in this case used in another purpose, and from being the

secondary element in the attic of the house turns into the new story and obtains the features of belvedere. Palaces get elongated

rectangular base with three or four floors, with an emphasised central axis upon which, on the last floor is a belvedere. On the second story there is a central balcony of which there are four out of six remaining molded

consoles and the pair of molded baroque balusters.

The internal organisation of space is characterised with the accentuated transverse axis of symmetry which coincides with the central vertical and on which a central salon with four bedrooms located is located on all four sides.

The interior layout of the palaces and their courtyard offer an insight into the culture and way of living in the area of Boka Kotorska during this period.

The basic spatial concept of the Mazarović palace is tripartite. On the ground floor there is spacious cellar consisted of three parts: the central hall, used for entering the palace, and two side rooms. All three parts of the cellar are vaulted with the barrel vaults. The floors are covered with square stone slabs that are orthogonal syllable. In the northeast corner stone staircase runs through all four floors.

People never lived on the ground floors i.e. cellars of houses in Perast. The ground floor consisted of a storage area for navigation equipment and boats, vaults for barrels, stone oil containers and storerooms for household supplies and tools. In some cases where the ground floor was so large it was used as granaries while in the case of a separate magazine or storehouse built next to the palace it was used as the storage for merchandise

accumulated through maritime trade transported by the palace owners in their ships. 20


Butorac, Pavao. Cultural history of city of Perast. Perast: n.p., 1999. Print.

Figure 14 Cross section of Mazarović palace - view towards the east 1. Cellar 2. Salon 3. Belvedere 4. Garden 5. Courtyard


Page 14 of 24

The salon is located on the first floor–the biggest room in the palace, 6m wide and 9m length, used not only for normal visits but also for the ceremonies and festive. 21In all the

rooms on the first floor the remains of the original walls were preserved–characteristic baroque decorations in plaster. This decoration was in its richest form in the main salon, where it was preserved the best. The wall surfaces between the doors and the window were covered with geometrical decorations executed in plaster, using a template.22 The attic contained a kitchen and utility rooms. The standard of life and lifestyle of the noble families in Perast, during the 18th century are reflected through the elements and the organisation of the kitchen. In many cases it was not created in the same time as the palace but built onto as an annex later.

The position of additional and old buildings in front of baroque palaces is not unusual. These buildings are usually clustered in one corner of the lot with the main façade always fully perceived. In the case of Mazarović palace, this is the whole range of houses in front of the palace that visually obscures the large part of its façade.

Some palaces had large and nicely arranged courtyards that were favourite places of retreat, especially during the summer. The courtyards usually extended into vegetable gardens or orchards. These were mainly terrace gardens consisting of several smaller areas of land encircled by walls. The palaces in Perast did not have a large courtyard. Mazarović palace had a very narrow and in the part in front of the main entrance in the palace it is only 1.5m big.

From my investigation I found the entire architectural complex of the Mazarović palace quite intriguing because it is consisted of few historical and artistic layers: from the series of houses next to the street line with the gothic portal to the old house with the renaissance-baroque characteristics to the old-renaissance-baroque palace which is the most dominant element of the complex.


Butorac, Pavao. Cultural history of city of Perast. Perast: n.p., 1999. Print.

22 Grgurević, Jasminka. "Elements of Baroque Venice"


Page 15 of 24 One of the characteristic

features the buildings next to the sea in Boka Kotorska possessed was small quay built of stone extending out into the sea–the so-called ‘’ponta’’.The sea surrounds it on three sides, while the fourth is connected to the coast. A ”mandrać“ remains as a sheltered enclosure for boats is found by ponta. In this period every house with direct access to the sea used to have one. Every mandrać had a ”tiradur”(Ital. “trirare”, meaning to pull) –a space that was used to pull boats on the coast during winter or when they needed to be repaired.23

The best quality materials were used in building the palaces. Both houses and palaces in Boka Kotorska were constructed with stone i.e. limestone from the quarries nearby. On the other hand, the secondary elements (frames which were surrounding the doors and

windows, elements of balconies, outer staircases, balustrades) were made of Korčula stone which was shipped from the island near Korčula. The main reason for importing this stone was because of the low quality stone from the mountain massifs of Boka Kotorska, which were unusable for precise shape making. However, the local stone was often used for walls, but when better quality and greater appearance of the walls was required, the stone was taken from nearby place called Strp.24

23The palates Boka Kotorska. N.p.: Expeditio, 2009. Print. 24The palates Boka Kotorska. N.p.: Expeditio, 2009. Print.


Page 16 of 24


As we saw through the study of architecture of both cities: Kotor and Perast followed by the brief analysis of historical circumstances as an important background for the complete understanding of this research and the comparison of the Venetian buildings with one in Boka Kotorska, this region did face the visible and significant alternation of the variety of artistic style periods which left more or less significant changes after themselves.

While analysing the influence Venetian republic had on the city of Kotor, we see that this city has faced a rather tough period of development, which was reflected in its architecture. However, it has experienced the alternation of few artistic styles from the Gothic to the Baroque including the introduction of the new architectural elements such as the addition of trifora, as the most important Renaissance feature found in Kotor as well as the balconies with balustrades, profiled portals and the presence of ‘piano nobile’.

Analysing the other example, mainly interior architecture of city of Perast, we perceived mostly the architectural innovations including the phenomena of already mentioned ‘’piano nobile’’ , ''bugnato'' technique, rustication and balusters seen on the analysed palaces named Bujović and Mazarović. We have noticed the similarity in ground floors between these two palaces with the most of the palaces in the Venetian republic during the Baroque. It is visible how the life in general was affected by this interaction from the decorations and the organization of rooms and outdoor space.

From this research we are able to conclude that interaction between Boka Kotorska and Venetian republic, which includes the trade and the constant visits, made huge alternations in the culture, customs and lifestyle in general. This makes sense because the merchants and sailors were the transmitters of the elements copied from the Venetians such as the constructing method and motives, discussed in this research. Does this perhaps say something about the nature of trade in this part of Europe? Does it suggest that trade was one of the most important ways of interacting with the others? With further research, perhaps the study of the trade routes and other historical events in this period could lead to the better understanding of the nature of cultural exchange and interaction.


Page 17 of 24


Butorac, Pavao. Cultural history of city of Perast. Perast: n.p., 1999. Print.

Cecchetti, Bartolomeo. About the political establishments of Venetian republic in Albania. Vol. 3. N.p.: n.p., 1874. 978-98. Print. Ser. 4.

Đurović, Vinko. About the walls of city of Kotor. Beograd: Spomenik SAN, CV, 1956. Print. Grgurević, Jasminka. "Elements of Baroque Venice" Pobjeda [Podgorica] 28 June 2003: Print.

Milošević, Miloš. 1973. Boka Kotorska during the rule of Venetian (1420-1797). Kotor: n.p., 1973. Print. PhD dissertation

Milošević, Miloš. Boka Kotorska, Bar and Ulcinj from the end of XV until the end of XVIII century. Podgorica: CID, 2008. Print.

Milošević, Miloš. Maritime traders, warriors and patrons (studies of Boka Kotorska during the XV-XIX centuries). N.p.: CID, 2003. Print.

Monograph KOTOR. Zagreb: Grafički Zavod Hrvatske, 1970. Print.

Novak, Slobodan Prosperov. Boka Kotorska from bells to bells. Zagreb: n.p., 2011. Print. Prijatelj, Kruno. Baroque in Croatia. Zagreb: n.p., 1982. Print.

The palates Boka Kotorska. N.p.: Expeditio, 2009. Print.

Zloković, Milan. Civic architecture in Boka Kotorska during the Venetian rule. Beograd: n.p., 1953. Print. Web sites: http://www.montenegrobookings.info/grgurina_palace_description.aspx access: 08/09/12 14:02 http://www.tokotor.me/en/o-kotoru/17-palata-drago.html access: 07/09/12 12:14 http://www.lookingatbuildings.org.uk/styles/classical/features/rustication.html access: 19/09/12 09:45 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venetian_Albania access: 20/08/12 18:48 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baluster access: 15/09.2012 18:59 http://www.ovpm.org/en/serbia-montenegro/kotor access: 08/09/12 14:21 http://www.perast.com/html-ENGLESKI/palaces.html access: 17/09/12 22:03 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ca'_Pesaro access: 18/09/12 19:01 http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trifora access: 15/09/12 18:42


Page 18 of 24 Photos: Figure1: http://www.topnews.in/files/Montenegro-Flag.jpg Figure2: http://www.balkantravellers.com/images/stories/kotor-fortress-wall.jpg Figure3: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Montenegro_venezia.PNG Figure4:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Venetian_seside_properties_in_Montenegro_144 8.svg/589px-Venetian_seside_properties_in_Montenegro_1448.svg.png Figure5: http://ic.pics.livejournal.com/forion/1731359/566914/566914_original.jpg Figure6: http://radiokotor.info/mn/images/stories/kotor_-_mletacki_lav.jpg Figure7: http://www.itinereri.org/itinereri/grad/kotor/Palata-Drago.jpg Figure8: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Venezia,_Palazzo_Fortuny_-_Trifora_gotica_-_Foto_Giovanni_Dall%27Orto,_6-Aug-2006.jpg Figure9: http://www.itinereri.org/itinereri/grad/kotor/Palata-Grgurina.jpg Figure10: http://www.palazzozeno.it/images/piano_nobile.jpg Figure11: http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7175/6696497611_d29337c5de_z.jpg Figure12: http://www.alberghi-venezia.net/var/news/storage/images/musei-venezia/ca-pesaro/2872-1-ita-IT/ca-pesaro_large.jpg Figure13: http://www.bokabay.info/images/stories/palate_boke/mazarovic%20fasada2.jpg Figure14: http://www.bibliotekaherceg-novi.org.rs/PDF/Boka_24/boka_24_163.pdf Figure15: http://www.bokabay.info/images/stories/palate_boke/Palata-Mazarovic-2.jpg Figure16: http://www.turizm.ru/country_gallery/224/503.jpeg


Page 19 of 24


Table of Contents:

The architecture of Kotor...……….18 The architecture of Perast ……….………19-22


Page 20 of 24

Architecture of Kotor

Figure 1 Kotor city walls

Figure 2 Drago Palace


Page 21 of 24

Architecture of Perast

Figure 4 Cross section of the complex

A) Palace Mazarovic B) Old house Marazovic C) Courtyard D) Garden E) Series of houses in front a) Old road b) Coastal road

Figure 5 Upper part of Mazarovic family (right) with a focus on belvedere (left)


Page 23 of 24


Page 24 of 24


Related documents

Product Name Technical Licences Technical Licenses Required/ Optional GIS 8.0 Required GIS_INTERACTIONSERVICE 8.0 Required ics_custom_media_channel 8.0

In this PhD thesis new organic NIR materials (both π-conjugated polymers and small molecules) based on α,β-unsubstituted meso-positioning thienyl BODIPY have been

National Conference on Technical Vocational Education, Training and Skills Development: A Roadmap for Empowerment (Dec. 2008): Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department

Proprietary Schools are referred to as those classified nonpublic, which sell or offer for sale mostly post- secondary instruction which leads to an occupation..

It was decided that with the presence of such significant red flag signs that she should undergo advanced imaging, in this case an MRI, that revealed an underlying malignancy, which

BC Hydro recognizes that Aboriginal-owned companies have a variety of capabilities and can provide their expertise in: • Vegetation Management Services • Line Maintenance •

Th us, biliary transit fl ow restoration at the level of the main bile duct was possible, surgery completion not excluding at the time the possibility of axial prosthesis for

Field experiments were conducted at Ebonyi State University Research Farm during 2009 and 2010 farming seasons to evaluate the effect of intercropping maize with

After Day, in the lighting of Moon Night wakens under a prayer to call hush to Day, time to commune. with Night, windswept under

Based on the above-mentioned theories and empirical findings, we identified the following variables as possible mediators of change for the treatment effect of IR and IE for

‘kks/k leL;k o vo/kkj.kk % izLrqr v/;;u nwjn’kZu ls xzkeh.k leqnk; ij iM+us okys lkekftd izHkkoksa ds izfr funf’kZrksa ds lksp@vfHkerksa ij vk/kkfjr fd;k x;k gS ,oa

Methods/Design: This pilot randomized controlled trial will investigate the effects of a 6-month, individualized, moderate-intensity cycling intervention (20 to 50 minutes per

The objective is to investigate whether enriched enteral nutrition given shortly before, during and early after colo- rectal surgery, reduces POI and AL via stimulation of the

This new delivery system is supported by a financial in- centive system for high performance (pay-for-perform- ance, capitation payment and global budget) and by an

There are infinitely many principles of justice (conclusion). 24 “These, Socrates, said Parmenides, are a few, and only a few of the difficulties in which we are involved if

19% serve a county. Fourteen per cent of the centers provide service for adjoining states in addition to the states in which they are located; usually these adjoining states have

4.1 The Select Committee is asked to consider the proposed development of the Customer Service Function, the recommended service delivery option and the investment required8. It

Tests showed that while for older datasets ground control points have to be used to estimate boresight angles, for the newer dataset orthorectification and DSM

A policy in which all of the fixed assets of a firm are financed with long-term capital, but some of the firm’s permanent current assets are financed with short-term

Deletion mutants of FgABC1 showed reduced virulence towards wheat in crown and root infection assays but were unaltered in infectivity on barley.. Expression

• Follow up with your employer each reporting period to ensure your hours are reported on a regular basis?. • Discuss your progress with

By connecting the globally optimal scheme to the problem of scalar successive refinement, we argue that its gain over the proposed greedy algorithm is negligible.. This is