Dissemination Report (Year 3)
Project acronym: OK
Project full title: OpenKnowledge
Contract no.: FP6-027253
Period covered: from 1st
January 2008 to 31st
Date of preparation: 27th
Project coordinator: David Robertson
Project coordinator organisation: University of Edinburgh
Project partners:UEDIN Informatics University of Edinburgh UK OU
Knowledge Media Institute Open University
Artificial Intelligence Free University of Amsterdam Netherlands
Artificial Intelligence Research Institute
Electronics and Computer Science University of Southampton UK
Department of Information and Communication Technology, University of Trento Italy
OpenKnowledge began as a research project to develop a novel style of knowledge sharing and to understand more about the engineering of this sort of system. We imagined at the outset that most dissemination would be to the computing science community. As the project has developed, however, we have opportunities for spreading our ideas more widely than originally anticipated. We describe below the three main areas of dissemination for the project: the Web site; engagement with the research community; and outreach to potential adopters of the technology. For each of these we summarise progress this year.
Project Web Site
The OpenKnowledge Web site at www.openk.org, has been extended as we predicted in last year’s report. In addition to the usual access to project deliverables, visitors to the new Web site (www.openk.org) have access to the following:
• The kernel site (D9.4), from which the OpenKnowledge kernel is downloaded. This allows visitors to download the kernel itself in its final form (via an open source distribution mechanism) plus a set of interactions ready to run using the kernel.
• The applications area, from which visitors can access case studies derived from out testbeds and from our early adoption activities (see “Engagement with Research Community” below for a list of these). Where possible we have included technical reports on the methods used and results so far; open source code; and links to URLs of relevant additional activities and projects. • The manual which caters for three different types of visitor:
o Potential users of the OpenKnowledge system, who are given a top level view of what OpenKnowledge could do for them and a quick start guide to using the system.
o Potential authors of interactions, who are given a guide to the LCC language, accompanied by enough background to the functionality of the OpenKnowledge kernel in order to write interactions for it.
o Potential contributors to the kernel, who are given a detailed guide to how the final version of the kernel is put together, at code level, that is structured from both the functional and component views of the software.
Engagement with the Research Community
• Marchese M, Vaccari L, Shvaiko P, Pane J. 2008. An Application of Approximate Ontology Matching in eResponse. 5th International ISCRAM conference.
• Giunchiglia F, McNeill F, Yatskevich M, Pane J. 2008. Approximate Structure-Preserving Semantic Matching. 7th International Conference on Ontologies, Databases and Applications of Semantics (ODBASE 2008), Monterrey.
• Giunchiglia F, Yatskevich M, McNeill F, Shvaiko P. 2008. Approximate structure preserving semantic matching (short paper). In proceedings of ECAI. :743-744.
• D'Aquin M. 2008. Building Semantic Web Based Applications with Watson. Demo at WWW2008 - The 17th International World Wide Web Conference - Developers' Track.
• D'Aquin M, Motta E, Dzbor M, Gridinoc L, Heath T, Sabou M. 2008.
Collaborative Semantic Authoring. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 23, 3, pp. 80-83. • Besana P, Patkar V, Glasspool D, Robertson D. 2008. Distributed
Workflows: the OpenKnowledge Experience. Proceedings of Semantic Extensions to Middleware: Enabling Large Scale Knowledge Applications Workshop.
• de Bas A, Sierra C, Schorlemmer M. 2008. Distributed Norm Enforcement Via Ostracism. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 4870:287-300.
• de Bas A, Sierra C, Schorlemmer M. 2008. Distributed Norm Enforcement: Ostracism in Open Multi-Agent Systems. Lecture Notes in Artificial
• Esteva M, Rodríguez-Aguilar JA, Arcos J, Sierra C, Noriega P, Rosell B. 2008. Electronic Institutions Development Environment. 7th International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems
• D'Aquin M, Lopez V, Motta E. 2008. FABilT – Finding Answers in a Billion Triples. On the Triple Challenge Demo Session at the Interational Semantic Web Conference.
• Hu B. 2008. Facilitating Lightweight Consensuses in P2P Environments. 3rd International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Applications,
• D'Aquin M, Lopez V. 2008. Finding Answers on the Semantic Web. Nodalities Magazine . (Sep-Oct 08)
• Atencia M, Schorlemmer M. 2008. Formalising Interaction-Situated Semantic Alignment: the Communication Product. Tenth International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Mathematics, ISAIM'08, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA. January 2-4, 2008.
• Hare J, Sinclair P, Lewis PH, Martinez K. 2008. Giving order to image queries. Multimedia Content Access: Algorithms and Systems II, 30-31 January 2008, San Jose, USA.
• Peroni S, Motta E, D'Aquin M. 2008. Identifying key concepts in an ontology through the integration of cognitive principles with statistical and topological measures. Third Asian Semantic Web Conference.
• Marchese M, Vaccari L, Trecarichi G, Osman N, McNeill F. 2008. Interaction models to support peer coordination in crisis management. 5th International ISCRAM conference.
• Atencia M, Schorlemmer M. 2008. I-SSA: Interaction-Situated Semantic Alignment. On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2008. LNCS 5331:445-455.
• Debenham J, Sierra C. 2008. Merging Intelligent Agency and the Semantic Web. Knowledge-Based Systems vol 21(3).
• Robertson D, Barker A, Besana P, Bundy A, Chen-Burger Y, Dupplaw D, Giunchiglia F, van Harmelen F, Hassan F, Kotoulas S, Lambert D, Li G, McGinnis J, McNeill F, Osman N, de Bas A, Siebes R, Sierra C, Walton C. 2008. Models of Interaction as a Grounding for Peer-to-Peer Knowledge Sharing. Advances in Web Semantics, vol 1, Springer-Verlag LNCS-IFIP 4891.
• Tang J, Lewis PH. 2008. Non-negative Matrix Factorisation for Object Class Discovery and Image Auto-annotation. Abstract
• Sabou M, D'Aquin M, Motta E. 2008. SCARLET: SemantiC relAtion discoveRy by harvesting onLinE onTologies. Demo at European Semantic Web Conference.
• Fernandez M, Lopez V, Motta E, Sabou M. 2008. Semantic Search meets the Web. International Conference on Semantic Computing ICSC.
• Hare J, Samangooei S, Lewis PH, Nixon M. 2008. Semantic spaces revisited: investigating the performance of auto-annotation and semantic retrieval using semantic spaces. Proceedings of the International Conference on Content-Based Image and Video Retrieval, Niagara Falls, Canada.
• Bundy A, Chan M. 2008. Towards Ontology Evolution in Physics. In the Proceedings of WoLLIC 2008.
• D'Aquin M, Motta E, Sabou M, Angeletou S, Gridinoc L, Lopez V, Guidi D. 2008. Towards a New Generation of Semantic Web Applications. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 23, 3, pp. 20-28.
At the close of the project, we are also preparing summative journal papers in the following areas:
• The kernel system.
• Proteomics data analysis and using peer ranking (for the Automated Experimentation journal).
• Proteomics data sharing (for the Bioinformatics journal). • OpenKnowledge in emergency response experiments.
Outreach to Other Communities
We have established the following efforts to propagate OpenKnowledge methods into application communities. These cover the areas anticipated in the original project proposal (proteomics and emergency response) and extend into healthcare,
biomedicine, finance, grid systems, e-science, computer games and automated
experimentation. Evaluation results this year using the Watson system also give us an impact on semantic web research:
• Proteomics: We have built a demonstration system for sharing proteomics laboratory data with the assistance of the ProteoRed network of proteomics laboratories in Spain (www.proteored.org).
• Emergency response: We have built a demonstration system for sharing GIS data with the assistance of the Trentino Regional Authority.
• Semantic web: We used the OpenKnowledge kernel to decentralise the Watson Semantic Web Gateway over a peer to peer and used this to develop “cautious knowledge sharing” scenarios. Our evaluations show negligible impact on recall, while spreading ontologies over a network of Watson peers and the use of the ontology signatures generated by the key concept extraction method improves the overall efficiency of the system.
• Clinical protocols: Cancer Research UK's Advanced Computation Laboratory (www.acl.icnet.uk/lab/index.html) has funded work on combining their
ProForma clinical protocol language (www.acl.icnet.uk/lab/proforma.html) with LCC. The Healthagents project (http://www.healthagents.net/) is using a version of the OpenKnowledge kernel system as part of its multi-agent
• Healthcare delivery: The UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and Medical Research Council (MRC) have jointly funded an 18-month pilot project with the aim of initiating a grand challenge within its Information-Driven Healthcare initiative. The project, with Cancer Research UK’s Oxford group and Imperial College’s medical school will demonstrate how peer to peer knowledge sharing methods (using
OpenKnowledge as a basic architecture) might revolutionise delivery of medical information closer to point of care. Assuming this goes well, it is expected to lead to a major grand challenge effort in this area in the UK.
• Biomedical research: The University of Macao has founded the Macao-Edinburgh Centre for Chinese Medicine and Global Health Informatics, in which OpenKnowledge is a key knowledge sharing mechanism. The centre will start with four dedicated researchers but further funding has already been sought from the Gates Foundation and from projects with universities in Hong Kong, and Beijing. Initially, work will focus on three areas: systematic reviewing (to improve the quality of the evidence base for Chinese
biomedicine); automated clinical trials (to devise new forms of automated trial appropriate to the scale and diversity of the Chinese population); and
automated experiments (needed to make the analyses of complex plant
compounds more rapid and thorough). Automation in all of these areas needs to apply distributed workflow, for which OpenKnowledge is well suited. • Finance: We are continuing (despite the recent global financial crisis) a
Masters by Research project funded by the National Australia Bank to develop system for intelligent execution of client buy/sell orders in non-displayed financial markets (dark pools). Dark pools allow transactions to be executed without anyone knowing the identity or existence of other liquidity -buy/sell orders- within them. The primary aim of the project is to develop a real time efficient and adaptive system that can seek hidden liquidity in dark pools and optimally fulfil order flows.
• Grid economies: The London Internet Centre (Imperial College) as part of the EU GridEcon project (www.gridecon.eu) have used the OpenKnowledge kernel language (LCC) as the basis for its platform for trading grid services and resources.
• Computer games: The Laboratory of Interactivity and Digital Entertainment Technology in Sao Paolo has obtained Brazilian funding for the JamSession project. This aims at the construction of a more open infrastructure for the development of systems based on human interactions through 3D virtual worlds (such as Second Life). Coordination in JamSession will be specified as LCC interaction protocols between agents and the environment, following the lead set by experiments in OpenKnowledge using the Unreal Tournament game environment.
• E-Science: Developing the OpenKnowledge approach to Web service coordination is part of the formal work agenda of the UK National e-Science Centre’s core research group (based in Glasgow and Edinburgh). This research is being funded via a “platform” grant from the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. This builds on the early adoption experiments we conducted with the AstroGrid project (a UK initiative to automate service orchestration for astrophysics experiments) and we hope it will lead to engagement with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope project (www.lsst.org) and/or other areas of e-Science.
• Automated experimentation: We have founded a new open access journal: the Journal of Automated Experimentation, supported by BioMed Central (http://www.biomedcentral.com) which is the main open access journal publisher in the biomedical area (recently acquired by Springer Verlag). This provides a publication route for those interested in describing formal
experimental protocols such as those used in OpenKnowledge. Each of the OpenKnowledge sites is represented on the editorial board and the joint editors in chief are from the OpenKnowledge project (so we can legitimately claim to be the founding project) and the remaining editorial board contains
key international researchers in this area, such as Peter Karp and Masaru Tomita (so we have buy-in internationally for this long-term dissemination effort).