Basics in Arranging.pdf

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Basics

in Arrangitrg

Paris Rutherford

Fall 1999

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BASICS

IN ARRANGING

O 1998 Paris Rutherford

CHAPTER I . SIMPLE ARRANGEMENTS

STEP ONE: GETTING STARTED

T u n e S e l e c t i o n . . . 1

. S h e e t M u s i c a n d F a k e B o o k s . . . z

S t a r t i n g T o W o r k . . . 4

STEP TwO: MELODY - I

Simple Analysis 5

M e l o d i c D e v e l o p m e n t . . . . . . . 1 0 A d a p t i n g T h e M e l o d y . . . 1 6 T u n e W r i t i n g . . . . . . 1 8 STEP THREE: HARMONY. 1

A n a l y z i n g T h e C h a n g e s . . . 2 3 F u n d a m e n t a l B a s s . . . 2 4 C h o r d S u b s t i t u t e s . . . 2 7 STEP FOUR: HORNS - I

T y p i c a l C o m b i n a t i o n s . . . 3 3 Transpositions

STEP FIVE: RHYTHM . 1

Function Of Rhythm Composite Rhythm Part

STEP SIX: WRITING FORMATS Two-line Sketch

Part Extraction

CHAPTER II - THE SMALL GROUP

STEP ONE: SIMPLE FORMS

S o n g F o r m s . . . . . . 4 3

A B A B . . . 4 3

A A B A . . . 4 4

O u t e r F o r m . . . . 4 6

STEP TWO: MELODIC DEVELOPMENT

A d d i n g N o t e s ( N o n H a r m o n i c s ) . . . . . . 4 9 E m b e l l i s h i n g A M e l o d y . . . 5 0

Compositional . . . 5 1

STEP THREE: HARMONIZATION

H a r m o n i c C o l o r . . . 5 5 Reharmonization .... 55 Target Chords ... 58 A d d i n g T o T h e C h a n g e s . . . 6 0 3 7 3 8 4 1

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STEP FOUR: HORNS AND HARMONIC DENSITY 99 100 1 0 1 r02 1 0 3 104 1 0 5 1 0 6 107 1 0 8 1 1 0 l l l t12 t t 4 l 1 6 tt7 l l 8 1 1 9 r20 1 2 2 r23 t24 t25 Horn Combinations Harmonic DensitY 6 3 6 4 STEP FIVE: RHYTHM SECTION

F u n c t i o n s . . . 7 1

R e i n f o r c e m e n t . . . . . . 7 3 l n d i v i d u a l R h y t h m P a r t s . . . . . . 7 4 STEP SIX: MEDIUM FORMATS

F u l l S k e t c h e s . . . ' . . 7 5

T h e F u l l S c o r e ' . ' . ' . . ' 8 0

A P P E N D I X ( b e g i n s o n p a g e . . . ' . . ' . . . 8 ' t App. 1 Standard Tunes, bY song form.

App. 2 Scales and Modes App. 3.1 Jazz Nomenclature App. 3.2 Jazz Chord

App. 3.3 Add Chord

App. 4.1 Instrument Ranges Agp. 4.2 DensitY Levels App. 4.3 Voice Leading

App. 5 Rhythm Section lnstruments, grooves. App. 6 Laying Out A Chart (p/us business) App. 7 Transcriptions:

7.1 Dolphin Dance 'l.Z Black Orpheus 7.3 Down In The Depths 7.4 Stella By Starlight 7.5 Night Dreamer '1 .6 Reunion '1.7 Black Nile

7.8 Contents Under Pressure 7.9 Au Lait (Metheny) 7.10 In Case You Missed It 7.ll King Cobra

7.12 Devil's Island

7.13 You Don't Know What Love Is 7.14 Day In Vienna 7.15 Cathay 7.16 Postcards 7.11 Skylark 7.18 Wildflower 7.19 Intrigue 7.20 Indigo 7.21 Anthem 7.22 Stolen Moments 7 .23 Sho 'Nuff Did

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CHAPTER

ONE:

SIMPLE ARRANGEMENTS

STEP ONE: GETTING STARTED

1A: TUNE SELECTION (this page)

1B: SHEET MUSIC (see page 2)

lC: STARTING TO WORK (see page 4)

To arranging music is to adapt it to a specific style, or to prepare it for performance by a specific ensemble. Adjustments may be needed in the melody or the harmony; the original key may be unsuitable; tempo may need to be determined, to fit the rhythm patterns of a chosen style. A chart for small or large band will certainiy involve voicings for the horns. The list goes on: these are some of the decisions that must be made by an arranger.

Basic arranging should avoid adjustments, though, that actually alter a tune in the process! The successful arrangement enhances the original without treading on the composition itself. Obviously, arranging can become quite subjective.

1A: TUNE SELECTION

The first step in arranging is selecting the right tune, or becoming thoroughly acquainted with one that might be pre-selected for you. If the choice is yours:

1. Select your tune from "standard repertoire". (Standards have been proven effective, through hundreds of arrangements for great recordings and live performances.) Pick one that you know well. Appendix L contains lists of a few older standards, any of which might fit your need. They are grouped according to their song forms.

2. Select a tune in which there is room for expressing some ideas of your own. A tune written with lyrics may have fewer actual notes; removal of the lyrics may increase the room you have for expressing yourself.

3. Avoid extremes in tempo, rhythmic/harmonic complexities, etc., when first using any technique or concept. You can stretch out later.

Working materials Good tunes come in many different formats, each with its own inherent problems. The next few pages show some common ways that tunes are printed, copied, or in other ways made available to the writer.

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Procedures- I

18: SHEET MUSIC

Sheet music is the retail printed version of published music. Sheet music, whether sold singly or in a collection, appears in a 3-line format. Melody, chord symbols and lyric appear on the top line, a simple piano arrangement on the bottom two lines. O^ly the original sheet music version of a song is reliable to furnish the entire song as intended by the composer.

Three-line versions (sheet music) show the harmonization of a tune two ways: chord symbols (above the melody) and the written piano arrangement. In the sheet music of many older tunes, the chord symbols frequently disagree with the piano arrangement. If the chord symbol doe.s not show a change of bass, then when the lead line is

separated from the rest of the print, the changes will be wrong. (A problem with older fakebooks)

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Embraceable You

LFict by IRA GERST{Wbyr,ludc bry GEORGE GERSfIWIN

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Procedures-l

Chord symbols correctly reflect the changes found in the original piano chart. Compare the two. versions; note the changed-bass nomenclature.

Fake Books - volumes containing a wide selection of tunes, usually in the form of lead sheets or lead lines, extracted from the sheet music. Older fakebooks are illegal (no royalties paid the copyright owners), and the changes need scrutiny. \ewe1 "legal" fakebooki are somewhat less of a problem, and are good for the publisher. But, due to the overall choice of tunes, most legal fakebooks are less appealing to the iazz crowd. The Real Book - fakebooks designed to appeal more to the jazz community. Most of the leadsheets contained in these editions have changes that follow well-known recordings. The logic is great: if you like the changes, fine - if you don't, talk to the artist who recorded them! Real Books have long been the staple f.or jazz musicians. Transcriptions - the best answer of all! By quickly transcribing a tune that you want to arrange, from a performance you enjoy hearing, you improve your ears, you hory where the rhythms and changes came from, and you give your ear/hand/eye combo some good workouts.

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hocedures-l

lC: STARTING TO WORK

e The lead sheet Provide yourself with a clean lead sheet of the tune you are about to arrange. (See pp. 20 and 53.) The best lead sheet is one that you copy yourself onto full size, 1O-line paper. This will give you room to write some of your earlier ideas as they occur to you. Full size paper (9x12") is available in most music

stores that sell printed music, particularly the bookstores that service college and university music programs. It is available in single sheets (pads of 40 or 50) and in double folds (sold most economically by the quarter or half ream.

. Learning at the piano Even if you are not a pianist, keyboard is the very best instrument on which to develop your tune. Pianos and synthesizers give you access to the entire range of octaves. Writers who are not primarily keyboardists can soon develop reasonable "piano chops" for use in writing. This is called "arranger's piano" - the ability to play the changes with interesting alterations, to find horn voicings easily, and to keep reasonable time while using simple voicings.)

While learning the tune, experiment with melody and changes separately. This is called "working the tune". (Step Chapter II, Step 1.)

. Sketching and materials Sketching means that you write down some of the interesting ideas from early stages of experimentation. Write down the ideas that appeal to you, as they occur. Use 2-line systems (even if you are working only the melody), to make room for harmonic ideas that occur to you later. Keep your first sketches in a folder, together with the lead sheet.

Sketching should generate more material than you need. Save only the best: as you become more fluent you will automatically pick up speed in the creative process. This is also true for musicians who write computers or at a keyboard with an inboard sequencer.

The aalue in sketching first, then writing or computing, is one of efficiency. You cannot use eaery good idea you haue. It is good to work out some of the early stages of deueloping an idea before deciding whether to continue with it. The sketching process will help you saae time and energy.

Awareness of fonn Every standard will have a good musical form. If you are composing your own tune, it should be written to a recognizable songform as well. Working with simple song forms will enable you to make best use of your time.You may also gain further insight by playing (or listening to) songs with the same song form as the tune you are writing.

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STEP

TWO: MELODY

2A SMPLE ANALYSIS (this page) 28 ADAPTING A MELODY (page 16) 2C BASIC TUNE WRITING (page t8) Melody is the ingredient which establishes the identity of music. Melody is most responsible for the memorability and success of a tune. This is not to discount the importance of harmony and orchestration. Success in writing music, though, can be' no greater than the writer's ability to handle melody.

The art of writing and arranging melody begins with the analysis of great tunes.

2A SIMPLE ANALYSIS

Analysis of music is the study of its various elements. Musicians analyze music for the purpose of learning from the successes (and failures) of those that preceded them. Analysis in this area is kept simple, and limited to melody.

Simple melodic analysis may be divided into three broad areas: ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE (2A-1, page 5)

Most music is constructed with phlsss that end with cadences. Melody is made coherent and memorable through the use of devices developers. and all hanes toeether in a musical form.

ANALYSIS OF IMPLIED HARMONY (2A-2, page 12)

A melody, while in motion, will express a sense of harmony. This implied harmony may or may not be the same as the harmonization written by the composer as an accompaniment.

ANALYSIS OF CHARACTER (2A-3, page'J,4)

All melody is either active (vertical) or passive (horizontal). Good tunes profit from a deliberate combination of both characteristics, carefully placed to give the desired emotional effect.

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Melody-l

2A-"1.. STRUCTURE describes the way a piece of music is held together. The most basic strucfural devices are phrases, cadences, developers. musical form.

PHRASES: A phrase is the shortest section of melody that feels complete. The most common phrase length is four bars. Four bar phrases combine into eight bar sections which are called double phrases or periods. A phrase normally ends with a longer note, or a more pronounced rest, before the melody proceeds. This break in motion (cadence) allows the music to "breathe".

Periods (or double phrases) are the primary eight-bar building blocks for a standard length 32-bar tune. Formally, these periods are identified by letter names according to the simple song forms: AABA, ABAB, etc.

The pause (or breath) at the end .... than the pause (or breath) at of an 8-bar section will be more the end of its first 4-bar phrase. pronounced...

. If breathing is slighted (or inadequate), music will feel forced or busy. . If pauses are too long or pronounced, though, melodic flow is damaged.

(The letters above appear for demonstration of form and are not those found in the individual parts of performance-ready charts, called "rehearsal letters" - for

communication and location during rehearsal, and having little to do with the actual form of the tune being played.)

8 BARS

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Melody-l

CADENCES are combinations of notes, chords, and rests that slow the movement of music, thus causi.g u sense of pause. Some cadences are shorter, some longer, depending on size or complexity of the music being sectioned. Cadences occur in harmony, melody, rhythm and texture.

In Step 2, we deal only with harmonic and melodic cadences.

HARMONIC CADENCES are chord progressions that slow or stop the feeling of forward movement in harmony. Cadences occur at the ends of phrases and periods. We use four harmonic cadences: half. full. modal and deceotive.

The half cadence uses a ii-V or tV-V progression. With the half cadence, the music pauses (and breathes) but moves on. Music following a half cadence will feel like a continuation of what went before.

. Half cadence

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-The full cadence uses a V-I or vii-I progression. Movement stops when a full

cadence is used. Material that follows a full cadence will feel like the beginning of a new section. . Full cadence The modal modal and . Modal cadence

cadence is a IV-I progression. The music pauses, but with a sound that is somewhat "bluesy"

The deceptive cadence moves not from V to I, but from V to vi. (In jazz application, a deceptive cadence may also move from [V to iii, and on.) Harmonic motion feels as if it should "tun:r around"- deceptiae describes the effect well, These cadences can be used to briefly postpone the use of a full cadence.

o Deceptive cadence

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Melody-l

On page 9, cadences in "Stella By Starlight" are identified and labelled. Plav this example at the piano! Listen to how the cadences work.

-o fu bars 1.-2, and 17-1.8, the ii-V progressions are not cadential. but provide good forward motion.

The full cadence in bar 6 and 7 proceeds to a minor IV chord (bar 8) which Progresses across the double bar to a I chord. The effect is reminiscent of the modal cadence, contributing to the special qualities of "Stella."

The first L6 bars ends with a half cadence. The bridge begins with another ii-V progression; since it is the beginning of a section and not a phrase end, the effect is that of generating additional motion.

The ii-V half cadence in bar 28 is borrowed from a different key. The feeling of half cadence is strong, and the harmonic interest is enhanced by this increase in harmonic color.

WHY ARE THESE THINGS IMPORTANT? These cadences provide the great sense of motion felt in this old standard. Cadences L" and 3o act normally, and do not "give away" the unusual progressions to unpredictable key centers. In this way, these normal ii-V cadences help keep the energy level high. The cadence at mid tune is predictable, thus lowering the energy appropriately.

Enerw levels

-in the typical AABA tune.

This is a good energy graph for a 32-bar tune. \A/hen arranging, be careful not to damage the energy flow.

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Primary cadences in "Stella

Melody-l

By Starlight"

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The melodic cadence is a break in the forward movement of the melod-y toward the ns&barphrases.(Longernotevalue,orrests.).Notel|atyh:r'Ithe

monic cadences oicur separately, the music breathes but keeps both cadences occur at the same time, the music stoPs'

cadences keep music from moving ahead. Too few cadences $ s- Choice and placem ent of cadences is influences the

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Melody-l

Developers are the, qriryry devices used to de.velop

a fragment of melody first into a coherent phrase, later these phrases into a fuil tune.

The most common developers are repeat, sequence, answer, and mirror.

' *."p":t isjust that: the reuse of a figure, using most of the same notes. ("The Girl From Ipanema" develops inis way.f

Note: when a fragment of melody repeats (bars '1,-z, g-4), the chords change.

The sequence is a repeat of the previous phrase or fragment, transposed up

or down, usually by only a step. check olt the ru.or,jp"riod of "fio*

Insensitive" as it sequences the first period, a step lower.

when a- fragment or phrase sequences up, the energy level escalates a bit. Ih:l the tranposition.is largei than a siep (eithertirection), the energy level jumps significantly! (See bar 9, below)'

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Melodv-l

The answer is a section of melody completing the thought from a previous phrase or period. The answer may be as short as a fragment, or as l,ong as a full eight-bar period, all depending on the material being answered.

The sense of movement, and the resulting rise in contour, are both stronger from an answer than from a repeat. In the following example from "Stella" make note of the different ways tension/release occurs, and its causes.

The mirror is a reuse of melodic material in inverted (mirrored) or reversed (retrograde). tension than a simple repeat.

which intervals are either The mirror produces more

amzds) ezsusfis;

Melodic motion from bar 1 into bar 2 is inverted for bar 3 into bar 4. The use of different rhythms adds interest, and doesn't damage the mirror.

Augmentation and dirninution are opposites. A melody is augmented when resued with doubled note values. Diminution occurs in reuse when note values are reduced (usually by 50Vo). Augmentation and diminution are valuable tools, but are not part of simple arranging. answer (consequent)

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Melody-1

LA-L.IMPLIED HARMONY (and Musical Tension)

Every melodv suggests a sense of harmony as it moves...

... and all music has a level of tension. (excitement and/or expectation)

Higher tension results from unexpected or opposing ideas. The composer/arranger builds and releases tension to create an interesting product.

Harmony implied by a melody may or may not be the same harmony found in the chord progressions that come with the song. Implied harmony is expressed four ways, as demonstrated on page 12.

o When the implied harmony agrees with the chord changes, tension is low. The effect is calm and consonant. (Good for beginnings and cadence areas in jazz and pop music, and for music needing a simple, childlike quality.)

. When the implied harmony differs from the changes, tension increases. The energy level and interest go up. (Good for contemporary jazz, even for

developing the phrase structures in music requiring lower tension levels.)

Implied hannony agrees with the changes. Lowest tension.

Implied harmony difreEg from the

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In the above example, the implied harmony of the in bars 1 and 2; the resulting tension level is low. 4, resulting in a rise in tension.

melody agrees with the changes They begin to differ in bars 3 and

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MelodY-l

Implied harmony is expressed through . . .

Stepwise movement beginning on or approaching a strong beat.

(Identify the scale - it becomes the implied harmony for that area of melody.)

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A broken chord or arpeggio. (Analysis is made according to any position of the chord: root or inversion.)

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Appoggiaturas and escape notes (The outer two of three notes will suggest a chord)

Any of the above, when out of sequence or obscurred by too many notes. (Too many stepwise notes obscures the analysis. Find repetitions or a single leap; analyze

accordingly.

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Application: In iazz, agreement between implied harmony and the actual changes is usually not a good idea. Tension levels are too low. Use subs to move the bass line around a bit.

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Melody_l

2A-3 CHARACTER. A melody line is said to be either active or static. Active describes

";i.]"1t *,"d.: up. of skips and./or sudden changes of register. o An active melody moves betteiin uniions (or 8ves) than whe"n chorded.

Example: "In Case you Missed It" - See Appendix Z.

NOTE: Rhythmic complexity alone does not classifu a melody as,'actiue,,. Leaps, abript changes'o7 reiister, etc., must also occur.

static i"s the opposite of active. A static tune (or a portion of the tune) is one in which the movement is mostry stepwise, and/or J.,rtuir,"d.

' voicings feel "more at home" on static

Tg.lodl than on one with more activity. Example: "You Don't Know rA/hat Love Is', - see Appendix 7.13

However, a static tune can also sound good with unison, preferably in the lower ranges.

Example: "Black Orpheus" - See Alpendix 2.02

unisons, when played by a color

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Melodv-l

28: ADAPTING A MELODY

Adapting a melody is the simplest form of arranging, and involves only four steps: 1) Determine the style in which the tune should be played.

2) Select the best key for the circumstances.

3) Makg simple adjustments to the melodic rhythm (if needed) to put it into the desired sfyle.

4) CoPy (or print) the material accurately for the performers. (Transposed, if transposing instruments are to be involved. See Step 6, this chapter.)

When adapting is all that the arranger needs to do, it may be accomplished in a matter of minutes. The tune need not be altered at all, and will only be played once. When the project calls for a chart that is more involved, the arranger should still begin with these same three steps.

SELECTING THE BEST KEY (28-2)

Place the range of the tune (distance from top to bottom notes) within the average playing range of your top or lead horn. For average playing ranges, see Appenaix a.

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If there is room within the span. locate the tune closer to the bottom

of the average playing range if the lead is a higher horn (trumpet, alto sax, etc.). Locate the span closer to the top of the average playing range if the lead is a lower horn (tenor sax, trombone, etc.). Then choose the key that makes this possible.

Fine tuning the selection of "best key"

Brass and Sax players are most experienced playing in keys ranging from one sharp to five flats (concert). Therefore, when choice of concert key is between, say, Bb Major and B Major, the ensemble is most likely to play its best in Bb Major.

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Melody-l

ADIUSTING THE MELODIC RHYTHM (2B-3)

If your style will be jazz (swing), analyze the melody for rhythmic placement. If too many strong notes fall "on the beat", move some of them off the beat, thus

providing a looser relationship between melody and accompaniment (bass line). The process of moving notes to unaccented beats is called "syncopation".

Syncopation is a key element in the melodic style of jazz artd jazz-related music. The decision of how much to syncopate a melody is influenced by the amount of motion in the accompaniment.

r When music is felt in "2" fewer syncopations are needed than when felt in "4". o When music is felt in "4", syncopation should keep the melody from hitting the

strong beats in the accompaniment too often.

When properly adjusted to swing, a melody will not line-up perfectly against the background, and stay there. There must be a few soulful surprises.

Useful routine for adiusting melodic rhythm, to swing:

1) Locate a phrase containing too many quarter notes or downbeats. Move its last note ahead '1./2beat. (The process of moving notes from strong beats to weak beats is called syncopation.)

2) Treat additional bars the same way until you have done eight bars.

Adjust the melodic rhythms in 4-bar segments so there is a good flow.

Listen to recordings of uncomplicated small jazz ensemble music: when the arranger syncopates at the wrong time, the style changes. This is not good. Watch for symmetry (equal motion to the left and right) that damages the good unpredictability of your melody. Adjust the syncopation to relieve some of the unwanted symmetry.

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Melody-1

2C. BASIC TUNE WRITING

Most top jazz performers write at least some of their own material. Yet, the ability to write a good tune is elusive to many capable musicians. Their primary difficulty is in waiting too long for inspiration, rather than being willing to start with an idea that can be developed.

Where to start: Most writers begin either with a fragment of melody or an appealing chord progression. There is no set rule, and it may change for you from one day to the next. Try the following routine:

When beginning to write an original tune

either: begin with an interesting chord progression (3-4 bars at most), Develop it according to guidelines found on the next few pages, but don't go far before you put melody to what you have.

--- or: write a fragment of melodE that appeals to your ear (two bars at most). Begin to develop it using one or more of the of the simple devices found on page 16. (Developers) Don't go too far before you begin to harmonize! then: write music! Let the techniques covered so far help you make decisions. (The best selection of a song form is made after you have developed your

first material for 8 or 16 bars, not before. At that time, you can refine and rewrite. This process is normal to song writing.)

. The beginning of a good chord progression may be as short as this:

. And, a beginning fragment of melodv can look like this:

Combined, they form a very brief beginning to a tune. (The fragment is short enough that it should be reused immediately.)

The first four bar phrase has two positives working for it: 1) the short fragment has a leap, and is reused immediately, and 2) the intervals between primary melody notes and bass notes are interesting and aggressive. Note, though, that the tune itself is not aggressive.

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MelodY-l

Starting with a melodic fragment is usually easier. The fragment should be short and simple, but should have a quality that calls for immediate reuse of some kind. As you harmonize the first fragment, start with a chord whose bass will provide an interesting interval relationship to the melody. (7th, 9th, 4th, etc.) But, don't be too dissonant!

Reuse the material. The key to a well written melody is reuse. When melodic material is imitated, then contrasted, it is time to repeat or in some way reuse. The number of options is large: analysis of great tunes will help you locate a model tune, to imitate. this is good business, at first, and unnecessary once you get rolling.

The demo fragment may be developed through the devices shown on PP. 16 EE17. The fragment has a good

interval relationship to its harmony (3rd, 7th, 9th, etc.)

A repeat can call for a change of harmony. Stay close to the key at first, but borrow from other keys as you develop the melody.

The contrasting answer may now proceed to a different key center. (The first material has been used and reused adequately by now.) The second four bars will answer the first four. Since the fragments

have leaps, the contrasting answer is more step-wise. The contrast between leaps and the stepwise movement sets up the need for a cadence and a reuse.

In the 2nd eight bars, a repeat in the melody should be more aggressive, calling for more color in the harmony.

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RESULT: Two similar "A" periods, the second of which has a higher energy level. r a u x i l i a r g s

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1 ) MelodY-l

Two repeating sections of music call for a contrasting area: the bridge. The AABA form, with its bridge, is right for this tune. (The decision to repeat "A" with a similar 8-bar period calls for the contrast of a bridge, thus the AABA form.) To find the right sounds for an effective "8" bridge, use these measurements:

. If the A sections have an active character, the bridge should be less active. If they were not, then the bridge should be more active.

o If they were both in the same key center (and this is normal), then the bridge should go elsewhere.

o If they stayed in.a mid-range area, the bridge should go higher. . If the A sections were rhythmic, the bridge may be less so.

This demo bridge will provide needed contrast through the use of leaps and a higher range. The style is tuneful, though, and stays away from heavy sounds: a

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The return to " A" should begin the same as either of the previous "A" sections. (Usually the second "A", since the higher contour is needed after a bridge.) The same beginning fragment can be developed many ways. Here are iust two:

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Answer flrst, tnen reuse. (sulr aPProPrrare ror a rlrst

period in a simple song)

Ablc Dm7 -t eb/D Em7 L ) f t l t D w t w l L l f . c l D E g u E r r L E . \ u l e s e q u e r t c e u P w r r r

good policy for first and second experiences at tune writing.

6gy(no 3)

suggest you're in A1.)

pg 20

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Melody-l

Final version of the demo tune, in AABA form

Developers

Pui R|r(brtiotd

Eabr"iz

t abz GmZ /c c9 abz

(25)

Melody-l

Opening fragment, developed into a longer idea, for different song form. When generating material for an ABAB song form, the initial idea should be

longer. Two similar 4-bar phrases call for a contrasting answer, thus forming the 16-bar " AB" section of an ABAB. 'When things become difficult, imitate the structure of a model tune you'like.

MODEL: "I REMEMBER APRIL"

F maJT

g7(iet

Original fragment, developed into a 15 bar section, following the logic from "I Remember April"

.+EQIIEIfiCE

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Harmony-l

STEP

THREE: HARMONY-I

ANALYZING THE CHANGES (this page) REHARMONZATION AND

CHORD SUBSTITUION (see page 27 .)

Jazz and popular tunes are written with chord progressions called "the changes." It is the arranger's choice whether to use what is given, or to make adjustments as needed. Rarely will an arranger leave the originai progressions entirely unchanged. Before reharmonization comes analysis - for familiarization, and for measuring the amount of harmonic color already present between the tune and its changes. In the next example, changes represented by the chord symbols suggest a wrong bass line.

"Someone To Watch Over Me"

Thcre's I some - bod - y I'm long-in3 to rcc. I hope thet he Turns out to b€

Chord slmbols in older songs may not show the correct bass morr"m"ti. . * The changes in bars 2-3 should read: Eb/G - F#'? | Bb?/F - Eo7

The fundamental bass of the changes represented by the generic piano arrangement contains a descending bass. The chords above are rather plain. If that is okay, there is no need to adjust. When the level of harmonic color does not fulfill the need, though, reharmonization takes place, involving chords that are more colorful (see page24), and/or chord substitutes, which effectively alter the bass line. (See page 27.) Nomenclature is the system of symbols that identify the chord sounds that are used. Letter names and numbers are used to express root, mode, and other important characteristics. See Appendix 3 "Nomenclature".

3A: 3B:

E I ?

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Harmony-l

FUNDAMENTAL BASS

Fundamental bass is a series of notes written to show the bottom notes from a set of changes. One note is sustained for each chord, no matter how long it may last. (Fundamental bass is not intended for performance by the bass player, bui is an analytical tool for the arranger.)

"Have You Met Miss Jones"

Fundamental bass simplifies the analysis of two-part structure. Two Part Structure

Music with melody and harmony will always have at least two parts moving. Melody is thought of as Part 1 and harmony (in this case the fundamental bals) as Part 2. These two lines have a contrapuntal relationship to each other. That is, they moJe together but are not allowed to become "tied" to each other. (Except at

cadence points, where forward movement is supposed to slow down.)

The intervals between fundamental bass and melody are strategically important. 2nds, 9ths, 7ths, are more aggressive than 3rds and Sths, 6ths, and create i highet interest level. Sths and 8ves are less energetic, and are most useful at beginnings and cadence areas. In more aggressive tunes, they are avoided.

' In the example below, the chords in bar two created Sths between the parts. Chord subs change the Sths to 3ids, for a different sound.

(Miss Jones)

A

FU

Substitute to change 5th (top-bottom) to 3rd * Passing tone chord for interest

fundam.entalbass

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Harmon.v"-l The level of harmonic color in jazz is higher than in other popular styles. For most PurPoses, major and minor triads, major 6th chords, and straight dominant seventh chords are too plain. Shown below are common devices used to colorize harmony, including extensions, suspensions, alterations and changes of bass note.

COMMON COLORING DEVICES

PI,AIN E)(IENDED

1. Extensions are the notes one adds to chords or hamonies from the scale most representative of the chord. A triad is built by stacking 3rds. The triad or 7th is extended by then adding additional Srds.

DOMINANT

2. Suspensiorls, or "sus-chords", are the result of putting the 4th into a dominant chord and removing the 3rd. Suspensions are described by chord symbols that read *sus-4'.

DOMINAIVT AI..|TERED

3. Alterations are chromatic changes made to chords. The most common alterations involve the 5th 9th scale degrees. While even a triad may be altered this way,alterations usually take over after the chord has already been extended.

4. Change-bass describes the chord whose bass note is not its own root. Change-bass runs the garnut from the common inversion to the hybrid chord (whose bass note is outside the chord's own key center)

PI,AIN & E)MENDED Ebg BbmajT Dm

CHANGE OF BASS

See Appendix 3 for a detailed coverage of jazz chords.

C7sus4 BbmaiTlC

c 7 ( i l 1 1 ) c 7 ( b e ) c+7(ile)

obrcb eb lo orcb

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Harmony-l

Determining when to use more colorful chords

When a tune is relatively diatonic (even an aggressive jazz tune), especially if its tempo is high, then the quality of chords used in the changes can remain simple. 9ths, 13th, sus chords, etc. are adequate. This is true in most of "Black Nile"

---BT ACK NILF

abr s Ehng alg'.'. Fmg

Ebr 3

Wh..rnegtuttr E 9

a b r :

When a iazz tune needs to tell a more modal story, has a slower tempo, or contains a greater number of accidentals, then the quality of chords should be more colorful. Alterations and change-bass are added to the extensions and sus chords in Wayne's "Stella By Starlight" - see also this tune in the Appendix.

DomT altered Minor sus-4 and DomT (b5) -DomT altered Change > bass and sus-4's

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Harmony-l

38: REHARMONIZATION AND CHORD SUBSTITUTION

Reharmonization is the process of conforming u set of changes to the requirements of an arrangement. The process occurs every time an arrangement is written for a jazz group. Normally, two items receive the closest scrutiny: level of harmonic color, and the 2-part relationships (bass against melody). Adjustment of color level

mvolves the extensions, alterations, etc.; adjustments in the 2-part structure involves chord substitution.

The substitute is a chord which provides the same kind of harmony as (or function as) the chord which it replaces.

Chord substitutes are used for one of two reasons:

L) The fundamental bass malr cause an unwanted interval against the melody. The use of a "primary chord substitute" will change the fundamental bass, thereby altering the two-part structure of the tune. Basic harmony remains.

SKYIIRK L t E l ' , E n t b E rr*t)bttCrttrrl GE7 C!7 r - | l i 5 . E l . l t h.L H. F' F - .

-El5 Eo7 El?

W - i F { .tr ry bt r rbr rt c , I r t a b * o t ? j c r t . t -L ? b . | E r E . a r h c . G t L - . . a r d (lrbt Fo? }7 - r b t c - - ' | r d . t - L H t AdbT BE7 . l b - - d . d h t - A l b F b - i l l l . _ b r - d t F b J t - . . h

2) The arranger may just want a different sound. The original may be too too bland, or it may even be too aggressive and need taming somewhat. The arranger may want for a particular modal sound to prevail.

(nPm>cr*g^e/

Dearlv Beloved

J

Med. Swing

Lvric bv fohnny MercerMusic bv Jerome Kern

G7

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Harmony-l

Common Substitutes (primary and secondary) are built over bass notes a third or fifth above or below or below the original note.

1) A primary substitute is based a third away from the original chord; they have two notes in common.

Locating the "subs" Major chords:

Locate the new bass note and select the right chord over it. The number of common tones between sub and original will influence the energy level in the music.

Minor chords:

Locate the new bass note and select the right chord over it. The number of common tones between sub and original will influence the energy level in the music. There are more minor scales (than major), so there are more choices of subs for minor chords. Dominant chords:

Locate the tritone (#4, b5). Build another dominant (or a diminished 7th chord) containing the same tritone. The "tritone sub" is based an aug.4th or dim.Sth away and contains the same tritone as the original.

2 The secondary substitute has only one note in common with the original, and is based a fifth awdf , up or down. The energy level of a secondary is higher than that of a primary.

Cm? Cm1lF CmajT CmajT/F

keep the sanre riad, change thebassnote

keep the same triad, change the bass note

keep the same tritsne (3rd + ?th) move bass up or dqwn #4 or b5

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Other substitutes include the inversions and the change-bass chords.

These substitutes tend to be those chosen for choice #2 of "Whv Use Subs?"

Suspensions:

-A "suspension" is the sus-4, the dominant whose 3rd is replaced by the 4th. This chord updates the sound of the harmonic progiession, while leaving bass movement unchanges.

Inversions:

For major and minor chords, build the voicing over the 3rd or 5th of the chord. (The only difference between a Lst-sub and a first inversion is one note in mid-voicing.)

Changgbass chords:

Change-bass chords, in general, are available for substitution, so far as their bass notes OR their chord functions meet the needs of the ananger.

Harmonv-1

cg cgs|t. c2 C g g a F m a ; ?

fuplace the 3rd wit}r the 4th. The chord still sorrrds dominant

Keep the chord and ....to change a melody$ass relationship move to ib inver:ion... without changing the harmony

ct Eal orcgtE E+7le E+le c+f

Dorninant .... bass up a 3rd neeriso mairesmversron ctrange.... or the halfdim.

... sr a riifferent dsmnant chord builtbetvreen the sarte outer notes (C + E)

See

Appendix

3: Jazz

Chords

and Add-Chords

L . t l t-+ t - l n [o-page29

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DEMONSTRATION OF THE REHARMONIZATION PROCESS. "AUTUMN LEAVES,"

The original changes are good. The few adjustments are numbered and explained below. (Original changes) 6maj7 Harmony-l Em/D Ar6/C

SOLUTIONS (applied on next Page) (1) Extend or add to the longer triads. (2) Sub to sus-4's and tritone subs. (3) Sub down to change-bass: min' sus4 (4) Extend the Em to create new line. (5) Sub down to C6/9, tritone the next bar. (6) Sub 29, delay the Cbass, extend 87. page 30

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B ? CmajT ^ I -a

PROBLEMS (with the original) (1) Long triads on strong beats (2) Too many straight dominants (3) Bar 17: octaves in 2-Part. (4) Bars 19 + 20 are boring. (5) Bar 21: octaves in 2-Part. (5) Last 4 bars: cadence too long.

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Harmonv-l

"AUTUMN LEAVES'' --- FOLLOWING REHARMOMZATION. Q! (Extend the trrads)

@ Suspend part of the domnant

($ create sus4 from ong, @; s"U ciown to keep pedat @ extena to create "rnterest hne" , - y 7 t e 6 7 t i e t - E n r 7 / B B b o ? - s m / C D 9 ' c 5 ( A b t ( i s )

1i;___g;

The C9 is a tritone substitute to the Flf07, thus making the appoggiatura even more coherent yet!

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Harmony-l Final Balance

Finally, it is important for the arranger must see to if that the 2-part scheme (melody and bass/changes) are well balanced. That is, the harmonization can be as crafty as one is able, but the changes must remain subordinate to the melody.

The following should be true.

1) The changes must flow well. There can be no sudden changes or surprises, regardless of how clever the chord(s) responsible. Unless, of course, the sudden surprise is also present in the original comPoser-changes.

2) The changes must sripport the melod|, and not compete. That is, the amount of color or alteration in the changes should never be greater than the amount of coior or interval energy in the melody itself.

3) The changes must flow with the same scheme as the song form. That is, the rise in interest levels caused by substitutions etc. should progress with the form, and not contrarv to the form scheme.

Guidelines for using substitute chords:

1) Play and analyze the tune. Identify cadences or changes thlt should not be altered, e.g., those that are characteristic of the

tune itself. Example: the first four bars of "My Funny Valentine" have a characteriitic descending line in the harmony (either in the bass or above). Be careful of changing this characteristic! 2) Analyze the original changes against the 2-part structure of the

tune. Locate inaccurate or awkward chords from this standpoint. 3) Choose substitutions to correct the problems in #2.

4) Choose substitutions also to adjust the level of harmonic color (up or down), as needed

5) Start with lstlevel subs when the tune has a diatonic or gentle quality to if move to 2nd-level or change-bass subs to provide more liarmonic interest, or to keep the changes from being predictable. 6) Don't oversubstitute!

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Horns- I

STEP

4: HORNS IN THE SMALL GROUP (COMBO)

if: TffiSSo3ff"'il^'IoNS

Instrumentation for a small group is usually 2 to 3 horns with rhythm section. When there are three or more horns, they are usually mixed. That is, there will be a mix of brass and woodwinds.

Mixed horns provide more color, depth, and varief of sound than two or three of the same kind of horn. When only two horns are present, the mix may be in terms of instrument type. (Brass, woodwind, etc.) Or it may be in terms of instrument register. (High and low homs). In any event, the best mix is that which provides you the greatest versatility.

. The first simple arrangement should be written for two horns with rhythm. The emphasis is placed entirely on good melodic writing.

. These four combinations of two horns are effective with rhvthm section.

Front Line The homs that play in a small group, or five to six horn band are called the "front line". When trumpet is part of a front line, it should be placed on the lead. That is, when the horns are harmonized, trumpet should play the top part. Guitar, while not a wind instrument, is valuable as a doubling member of the front line. Doubling, in that guitar adds excellent color to unisons. Guitar can also comp, of course, increasing the versatility of that instrument.

Basic Ranges The basic ranges of any instrument are those into which most of their music tends to fall. For the first several charts, the wise arranger will keep close to these basic ranges. The best playing always takes place in the ranges where people have the most experience playing. See Appendix 4 for ranges and other information.

(1) Trumpet and Alto Sax (2) Trumpet and Tenor Sax

(3) Trumpet and Trombone (4) Trombone and Tenor Sax

Upper Registers IN GENERAT... Lower registers Average Playing

Ranges RangesExtended

Seldom used in writing small group arrangements.

Almost all of what is heard in small group music falls within this range. Useful also for selecting best keys. (page 16)

Seldom used in writing small group m u s i c .

Do not write in this range for small group arrangements

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Horns-l

48. TRANSPOSITIONS

A transposing instrument is one whose "C" is a different pitch than on the piano. All transposing instruments used in jazz music sound a lower pitch than written, so must be "transposed up".

o Trumpet and Tenor Sax are Bb transposing instruments.

o When writing a transposed part for a Bb horn, write everything a whole step higher than the concert pitches. This will also require adding two sharps to the concert key signature. For example, C Major for piano becomes D major for the Bb part, and F Major concert is written one step higher, in G Major. For trumpet, transpose up one whole step.

For tenor sax, transpose up a whole step plus one octave.

Note: The most common transposition errors in jazz occur in the tenor sax. Don't forget the extra octave!

The same written line, played both by trumpet and tenor sax, will sound in octaves.

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Horns- I

Alto and baritone saxes are Eb transposing instruments.

When writing a transposed part for a Eb hom, write everything a major 6th above the concert pitches. This will also require adding three sharps to the concert key signature. For example, C Major on piano becomes A Major when transposed for an Eb instrument and F Major is written in D Major. For alto sax, transpose up a major 5th from the concert (written) music.

For baritone sax, transpose up a major 6th plus one octave.

The same written line, played both by alto and baritone saxes, t will sound in octaves.

t

-Jg-ls

4zaut?art

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Rhythm-l

STEP

FTVE: THE RHYTHM SECTION

54: MAKEUP OF THE RHYTHM SECTION lthis page) 58: TIIE COMPOSITE RHYTHM PART (see pg 58)

The instruments keeping time and moving the changes in a jazz or pop chart is called the rhythm section. (Rhythm section is frequently shortened to Rhythm.) Rhythm function together as a unit, and are responsible for keeping a solid feeling of rhythmic time ("g3oove") alive in the playing of an arrangement. Even when horns play background figures, the rhythm section is responsible for the quality of the groove. They must play responsively to each other; thus, their part(s) must be kept as simple as possible.

MAKEUP OF THE RHYTHM SECTION The basic rhythm section

found in a small jazz group (or "combo") consists of:

. PIANO

(and/or GUITAR)

. BASS

. DRUMS

In a simple anangement, consisting only of a good plan, good changes, an intro, an ending, and instructions regarding style/tempo

The arranger may write one composite part for the entire rhythm section, to be photocopied to each rhythm player. This composite rhythm

part is discussed on page 50, and is entirely appropriate whenever rhythm players require only good changes and information on the layout of the chart. If more is required, a composite part is inappropriate.

PIANO (or KEYBOARD) can mean either the acoustic piano or a synthesizer. The piano plays stylistic rhythm patterns on the changes. The changes may also be played in this style

by GUITAR, or by both piano and guitar.

BASS may be upright, electric, or in some groups even a keyboard. ln a simple.urangements, the demands are very non-specific, so the choice of bass instrument should be made by the player, or by the leader of the group, but not the writer.

DRUMS indicates a standard drum kit. PERCUSSION may be present as well. For a simple arrangement, both the drummer and the percussionist read from composite parts (see next page) and decide which instrument(s) to play.

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Rhythm-l

THE COMPOSITE RHYTHM PART

In a simple arrangement, all rhythm players may play from a photocopy of a common rhythm part. This composite part gives the changes and any stop times that may occur. Instructions may be written to tell the drummer where to play something other than straight time (in whatever style)

Srru,n

l'frrv€ rxt Z

When a composite rhythm part contains specifically notated rhythms, it is understood that everyone in the rhythm section will play these rhythms.

When requirements of a chart cause a composite rhythm part to look as busy as the next example, the composite is no longer the correct format. Too many different sounds are called for. Each player should receive an individual part instead. (See Chapter II Step 5.)

. Not a good composite rhythm parh it looks too busy.

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Format-l

STEP

SIX: SMALL FORMATS

64. TrWO-LINE SKETCH (below) 68 INDTVIDUAL PARTS (pg 48) The best format for the final version of any arrangement depends upon two factors. 1) Size of performing group. The larger the group, the larger the format needed for

a final version.

2) Application. The best format is the least complicated format that will serve without compromising the chart.

Rule of thumb ... Simplify as much as possible. When music becomes difficult to follow easily, or looks cluttered, it is time to move to the next larger (or more comprehensivl) format.

6A. TWO.LINE SKETCHES

The two-line sketch is the smallest complete format. It is written in treble/bass clefs, always in concert key. A sketch may contain a fair amount of information,

including written instructions on style, number of rhythm to play, roadmap, etc. 2-line sketches are best

r When a simple chart has unison horns and a straight-ahead rhythm groove, via the composite rhythm part, use the two-line sketch. (For a chart more complex than this, move up to the three-line sketch.)

A g g r e s s r v e L a t i n f1 H = 1 4 4

$rDt-Alto)

When there is a lyric and only a simple rhythm background will be used. (If horns are used in addition to the vocal, then a 3-line format is better.)

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Format-l

Cautions: the following are common errors made in jazz charts. Be careful to check your work against this list before having the music played!

1. The sketch is always written in the concert key, without octave transpositions. Where homs will play in octaves, one line may be written with the indication "8ves" above or below the melody.

Z. Material for the composite rhythm part apPears on the bottom line, and is written in bass clef'

3. Bar numbers should appear throughout, placed at the bottom left of each bar. Computer notation progtams may place-bar numbers above the line. These are "iefault settingsi an-d can be chinged on most Programs. If not, the program is inadequate for serious notating.

4. Clefs and key signatures appear at the beginning of every line in published music. In abbreiiated manuscript, they may aPPear only once Per Page,at the beginning of line one, or when ihe key g$lq".t. (Note: any clef lacking a key signature automatically signals a key of C Major or A minor.)

5. Time signatures appear only once. unless there has been a change of meter. 6. When possible, title and authorship appear on line one of a Page of sketch; the

music begins on line two.

7. Changes should be written clearly, and with chord symbols choLen that are not hf.ely to be misinterpreted. (The style of nomenclature in Chapter One, Step 3, is highlY recommended.)

8. Lyrics, when preSent, should be "all caPs", and written over a straight edge for the sake of aPPearance'

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Format-l

Two Line Sketch of "Yesterdays"

Top line = Tenor solo, untransposed. Bottom line = same music exactly as to be copied for a composite rhythm part.

Yesterdays

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a e A m i n F I A 'rT16 AminT ' - \

*ril rfimz1b

sy

sus D9

F 2 ctE clD Am/C A I najT/B 813 Dn/E E 7 b 9 r 1 3 ' ll' C I D D 9 B/G F/G t 3 Fm7(f,5) pg40

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Format- I

5B. EXTRACTING THE INDIVIDUAL PARTS

Individual parts represent you as your music is performed. Material, appearance, and layout will introduce you before one note is played. This becomes more and more important every year!

In manuscriph

' Paper: Use professional lOline paper. (12-line paper will look crowded.) You will find good papers at Penders; also at the University Store. Be sure that the 1O-line is at least 80 lb. weight - 100 lb. weight is preferred. Also, though good PaPer is available in off-white or buff, white is preferred, especially for pencil. o Pencils: Use a soft lead pencil for individual parts. (Ex: the Berol Electronic

Scorer, sharpened frequently to keep stems and bar lines thin.)

o Eraser: Use the non-abrasive variety, which lifts a pencil's image without damaging the surface of the paper. (Example: the Staedtler Mars Plastic Eraser, available from art supply stores, and most University Book Stores)

. Rulers: Use a triangular, transparent "straight-edge" for bar lines, and to underline titles, credits, etc. (Available at most book stores and art supply stores. Also, when you purchase a straight-edge, be sure that it has a beveled edge, so that soft leads and ink pens will not smear.)

For computer generated parts:

. Print: Laser printing is so commonly available now that other platforms (ink jet, dot matrix) are used now only for personal "trial runs."

. Paper: Printers use an extremely light weight paper. Once you are sure that your music plays the way you want, photocopy your printed parts onto 80 lb. white ledger paper. This will give your music the right feel.

. Appearance: All notation programs use good fonts - Petrucci, Sonata, etc. In addition, several "jazz fonts" are readily available, causing your music more and more to resemble professional hand-copied manuscript.

o Formatting: The best format for individual parts, though, is not necessarily that which is built into the default file of your software. The best format is one that you construct through the editing process. Turn to page 48. See also Appendix 5.

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Format-1

FORMATTING INDIVIDUAL PARTS

Whether in manuscript or computer generated, follow these guidelines:

. Place the instrument name at the left (on line one, or where line one would be.) . Place the title in the middle of the page where line two would be.

. Music begins on line three.

o Group four bars to the line except where the music would appear cluttered (lyrics, too many 15th notes, etc.)

Number each bar, with the number appearing at the bottom left of the bar. Begin page two on line one; page number should appear at bottom center.

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Tenor

Yesterdays

Jerome Kern, arr. Paris Rutherford

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CHAPTER TWO: THE SMALL GROUP

The small group is a self-contained ensemble, usually with one to three leads (horns, synthesizers, etc.) and rhythm (tfuee or more). Over the years, the majority of great jazz sorllrlds have emanated from the small group. Most often, the small group features a combination of sounds. Small group sounds play a vital role within the orchestration of larger jazz ensemble music, and small group is also the most frequent scoring choice for good and aggressive vocal backing charts.

Writing creatively for the small group is as challenging as any music writing can be. This ensemble is totally transparent: orchestration cannot hide problems that exist. Lastly, writing for the small group makes efficient use of learning time: there is only a fraction of the copywork and other logistics associated with learning to write!

STEP ONE: FORMS AND LAYOUT

1A: SONG FORMS (this page)

lB: LAYING OUT A CHART (page 45) lC: WORKING THE TUNE (page 46) Song forms are the structures on which most of music is built. Chapter Two will focus only on two (AABA and ABAB) and how they impact upon the process of arranging. Stay with these two forms at first: they are most easily understood, thus freeing more of your creativity for profitable application.

Appendix I contains a list of standards, both older and contemporary, grouped according to song form.

THE ABAB SONGFORM contains two eight-bar periods (AB) that repeat to

complete the song form. (AB-AB) In the typical 32-bar song, each AB section is 16 bars long. As the music passes from A into B, the emotional level (contour) should rise. This usually occurs within the tune. If not, the arranger should make a change to accommodate the form. (An increase in orchestration or in rhythm section)

A}.TSWEN.ING REUSEORIGINAL AIISWEn, ENDING

Important: before the second period (B) can effectively contrast or answer the first period (A), music in the A section must feel like it has been developed at least once. Listen to the heads of Black Orpheus and Devil's Island (listening tape) and watch their lead sheets (Appendix 7). Answering and contouring occurs within the tune itself; in both cases, the chart wrote itself.

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Form and Layout The contour of an ABAB song looks like this:

The dotted line rePresents the level of interest (tension, energy) already built into the tune.

---The AABA soNGFoRM operates

differently

from tr

The first two periods

are

virtually the same, except for their cadences. This sets up the need for a contrasting section, called the bridge. Here, the arranger must decide how to provide a sense of departure for the contrasting bridge.

Listen to Skylark and to You Don't Know What Love Is (listening tape) and watch their charts (Appendix 7) In both tunes, the A section will have a feeling of

development before reaching the cadence. This is a must; it is the arranger's responsibility.

The contour of an AABA song looks like this: AA B

The feeling of departure is usually caused by changes both in the range and the character of the melody itself.

. The bridge melody may go higher (as in Skylark) or lower (as in Down In The Depths). See Appendix 7.

. Or the departure may be very subtle, as in Black Nile (Appendix 7). The melody

line is chorded to strengthen the contrast, the feeling of departure.

I

I

t

t

I

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Form and Layout OUTER FORM (THE EXTERNAL FORM)

Song forms describe the structure of mo-re than just the tune. An arrangement has form of its own. The outer form shows .hory the larger sections of a complete arrangement relate to each other. In a simple head fhart, the tune itself (first and last playing) are represented as "A", the soios as ,,8,,. The outer form, is ,,ABA,,.

A q9o{ arrangement will introduce the tune, develop it (in various ways) and bring it back briefly at the end. (This same outline is quite common in classical symphonic music: exposition - development - recipitulation.) I nrno st j azz ch a rt s, th e tu n e its e lfu s u a 1 lyocc urs @.

solos, solis, and other developments, ociupy the B section. see the following section, and also Appendix 6.1 Layout.

A

A

LAYING OUT A CHART.

You must first answer this important question: How much clock time should be taken ,rp

i. the performunce of the chart? l-e1sth of the tune, best tempo, etc., together determine the elapsed time for each .li'orr,s of play.

The ideal clock-length for a chart is influenced by these factors:

1) The length of the original material helps determine the overall length of a chart' Longer tunes can survive long& arrangements. Shorter tunes should not last as long.

2) The application of an arrangement also influences its best length.

' Performances that include the lyric are usually shorter than those that are purely instrumental. A lyric tune can susiain only so much musical

. In this case, the arranger must specifically determine the length of the chart, and write it accorlingly. L J

' Performances that are purely intrumental can be sustained longer, if the solos t"lu.- interesting and vital. In this, the compor", oi arranger writes a qogd he_ad chart (with introduction and optional endings), leXving the overall length up to the performers.

' Head charts (above) that are sure to take extreme clock time should also include written transitions that can be inserted between solos from time to time to break ug lhe unending rhythm groove. The players themselves will provide some of the relief through changes in rhythm texture during solos.

DEVEI'PMENT . SOI'S, SOUS.

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Form and Layout WORKING THE TUNE

"Working the fune" refers to a process of experimentation, and usually involves the piano. During this time, ideas are worked out against the framework of the tutre being arranged. lhis process is indispensable in both composing and arranging, and does not need to bgin tempo. (Rubato experimentation w-orks dut ideas thit y"ou are beginning to hear.)

1. Play the cadences. what happens when you substitute cadences?

2. Isolate the ii-V progressions. What happens when they sequence where they shouldn't? What happens when ii-V progressions are placed over a pedal point? 3. Find the sequences (and other imitations). Can you carry these into new ideas? 4. Improvise with the non-harmonic leaps. Push them farther than they are

written. Do the results suggest other developmental ideas? 5. Create an interesting pattern in the rhythm accompaniment.

Can you maintain the groove against the tune? 6. Find the keynotes in your tune. (See page 42.)

Improvise melodic ideas on the changes that move around the keynotes. The Keynotes of a tune are the notes that form the structure on which the tune is built. All good tunes may be reduced to the outline of their keymotes.

In much of the standard repertoire, the strong interval relationships of 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 9th, etc. connect the kelmotes and the fundamental bass. Intervals of 5th and 8ve are weaker,

Tore commonly found in cadence areas, where the energy levels dlop anywfY, and in modal or pentatonic music, where a lower energy le-vel is idiomaticallv correct.

' Keynotes provide a structure around which the writer can add or change melodic material without compromising the tune.

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Form and Layout KEYNOTES alone are found on this leadsheet of 'Just Friends."

The standard changes appear above the tune. Alternatives appear below, on the bass staff. Notice how much easier it is to visualize the reharmonization, when only the keynotes are present. It becomes much easier to concentrate on the interval

relationships between the melody (keynote) and the bass of the changes. . KEYNOTES AGAINST FUNDAMENTAL BASS is the critical two-part relationship that influences the "right" and "wrong" choices to be made when reharmoniztng a tune. (See Step 3, this chapter.)

Cma17 Lm / E m 7 A g G ma17 ?I A5 A M? D 9 4t,h 6th

8ve

I

31 p g 4 7

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Form and Layout SKETCHING THE LARGER GROUP

Sketching refers to the process of outlining an idea, to be filled in and developed later. To sketch music is to write the most important ideas down as they occur, without allowing thoughts of orchestration to impede the flow. Vertical thoughts (chords, voicings, etc.) may be noted non-musically (abbreviations, shorthand, rhythms, etc.). - Melodies and chord symbols,,when accompanied by this system of personal shorthand, may quickly capture the beginnTry of a chart. Detail,

-orchestration,

and fine-tuned development may be addressed after the linear structure of a chart begins to take on shape.

SKETCHING IS ALWAYS IN CONCERT KEY.

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Melody-2

STEP TWO: MELODIC DEVELOPMENT

ADDING NOTES TO TI{E MELODY CONTRAPUNTAL LINES (page 86) In most arrangements, the original melody is developed in some way. No tune has been written that fits every style without adjustment of some variety.

Development occurs when a melody is treated one of three ways:

. The rhythm of a melody may be changed for the sake of style. (page 19) . Notes may be added to the melody. (this page)

. The melody itself may be changed. (Compositional: page 52.) 2A ADDING NOTES TO THE MELODY

A melody line may need to have additional notes (or rhythms) added when the tempo increases or when the style is more rhythmic. (latin, funk, etc.) When this occurs/ the keynote structure itself should not be altered. (page 47)

Adding notes to a melody is made easy through the use of non-harmonic shapes. (so named after LTth century non-harmonic tones) Added notes do not disrupt a tune when they maintain a stepwise relationship to the original. This is the logic of non-harmonic shapes.

Nowadays, we don't think of "non-harmonics" as dissonant. It is the shapes of these devices that are important. By adding notes according to these shapes, we leave the basic message of a melody intact.

THE NON-HARMONTC SHAPES MOST COMMON TO JAZZ. 2A 2B Passing Tone (stepwise movement) Auxiliaries (neighboring tones) Appoggiatura

(jump then step) Escape Note (step then jump)

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Adding notes to a melody increases its interest at different levels. 1st level: embellishing the melody. (lowest level of increase)

. Add notes to provide a lift in the energy level of a phrase. When the added notes conform to non-harmonic patterns, they act like embellishments. The choice of embellishment depends on the selection of horns (or leads) Different instruments sound best on different embellishments. ( Listen and imitate.) original

developed

. Add notes to combine two four bar phrases into one eight bar phrase. * original

developed

Add notes and increase the activity, to provide a strong boost in energy level at the end of a section. (Add some arpeggiation to the non-harmonic shapes.) (The broken chords facilitates the rise in meiodic activity.)

original adjusted

o's'5,o'rJ4!tae

Figure

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References

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