Internship Report Electrical Department FFC-MM

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2013

[Internship Report (E & I)]

Internship Period from dated 20-07-13 to 30-08-13 (6 weeks)

Prepared by:

Shahid Zulfiqar

Undergraduate Student

The Islamia University Of Bahawalpur

Shahid10EL39@ieee.org

Date: August, 2013

Prepared for:

Technical training center (TTC)

Title:

Internship report

E & I

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo In the Name of Allah

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENT ... 5 SUMMARY ... 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO FFC ... 7 FINANCIAL INFORMATION ... 8 INTERNSHIP SCHEDULE ... 9 SAFETY ... 10 PPE, S ... 13 SAFETY LESSONS ... 14

OVERVIEW OF FFC-MM POWER SCHEME ... 16

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM... 17

GENERATORS ... 19

SUBSTATIONS ... 22

TRANSFORMERS ... 23

GENERATOR CONTROL ROOM ... 24

ANSI STANDARD NUMBERING USED AT PLANT ... 25

PROTECTION DEVICES ... 26

RELAYS... 28

SIPROTEC 4 7SJ62 ... 30

POWER CENTERS ... 32

BUSBAR ... 34

MOTOR CONTROL CENTRE………35

SPECIFICATIONS………38

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

First and foremost I am thankful to Allah Almighty, the Gracious and Merciful, who granted me this wonderful opportunity to do an internship at such a reputable organization. For an electrical engineering student in Pakistan, Fauji Fertilizer Company is one of the best places to gain experience. Ultimately, I have completed my report with all the hard work which I have been doing for the last four weeks. Without Your Willingness, I would not have been able to complete any work. It would be impossible to acknowledge adequately all the people who have been influential, directly or indirectly, in providing me with a great assistance in understanding the process and the working of the plant. I would never forget to mention the names, which played a great role in the successful completion of this internship, and helped me, whenever I required any guidance from them, provided me with books for assistance and gave me ideas on different thoughts. I would like to take this opportunity to express my deepest gratitude to the GMP Mr. Zaheer Anwar, SE-TS (TRG) Mr. Anjum Baig, Department Manager

Mr. M. Jamil and Deputy Manager Mr. Raja Asif Majeed who have given me their

constant encouragement constructive advises and their patience in monitoring my progress. I am very much thankful to FFC which provided a chance for me to integrate my classroom knowledge with industrial practical knowledge in a four weeks internship program.

I am thankful to those persons who were a great help for me by monitoring my learning and helping me understand the process in numerous interactions. A special thanks to

Engr. Ans Bin Khalid, for excellent guidance on Industrial awareness, and to the

Engineers, especially Engr. Govind Ram, Engr. Tayyab, Engr. Shafique, Engr.

Azhar, Engr. Yasir, and Engr. Afsah. Last but not the least I am thankful to my fellow

internees who increased my understanding of the processes by engaging in lively and productive discussions.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

SUMMARY

This report is basically an overview of a Six weeks internship program at FFC, Mirpur Mathelo. It includes a brief history of the company along with an analysis of the basic method utilized in the production of urea, which is the sole product of this company. It also discusses the measures taken to ensure safety of the environment and human beings alike. In addition, this report tries to demonstrate the corporate culture prevailing at the company, the general methodology of working and the working environment.

During this Six week FFC taught me more about electrical engineering operations than anything I have taken in university. I had a huge variety of experiences and was fortunate to get the opportunity to learn from so many different and extremely talented people. That is what made my internship special.

FFC will challenge you to take on as much as you can, even if it means making mistakes or not knowing the answers to simple questions for the first time around. With little over a week under my belt at FFC MM, I realized that it wasn’t just an internship experience, but an institute helping me in knowing the actual philosophy of what electrical engineering is all about.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

AN INTRODUCTION TO FFC

HISTORY OF FFC

For an agricultural country like Pakistan, Urea carries a paramount importance. Fauji Fertilizer Company Ltd. is the leading urea producing company in the Pakistan. FFC started its production in 1982. First plant of the FFC is located at GOTH MACHI in SADIQABAD. After the excellent performance and the successful achievements of the first plant, FFC installed the second plant at the same place in the year 1993. First plant is called the BASE UNIT and the second plant is called the EXPANSION UNIT. In order to fulfill the increasing demand and importance of urea, FFC thought for another plant. Therefore, In the year 2002, FFC acquired ex Pak Saudi Fertilizers Limited (PSFL) Urea Plant situated at Mirpur Mathelo, District Ghotki from National Fertilizer Corporation (NFC) through privatization process of the Government of Pakistan. This acquisition at Rs. 8,151 million represents one of the largest industrial sector transactions in Pakistan.

COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION:

FFC commenced commercial production of urea in 1982 with annual capacity of 570,000 metric tons. Through De-Bottle Necking (DBN) program, the production capacity of the existing plant increased to 695,000 metric tons per year. Production capacity was enhanced by establishing a second plant in 1993 with annual capacity of 635,000 metric tons of urea. FFC participated as major shareholders in a new DAP/Urea manufacturing complex with participation of major international/national institutions. The new company Fauji Fertilizer Bin Qasim Limited (formerly FFC-Jordan Fertilizer Company Limited) commenced commercial production with effect from January 01, 2000. The facility is designed to produce 551,000 metric tons of urea and 445,500 metric tons of DAP. This excellent performance was due to hard work and dedication of all employees and the progressive approach and support from the top management.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Key Performance Indicators

KPIs 2010 2009 10 vs 09

Sales revenue (Rs in million) 44,874 36,163 8,711

Profit after tax (Rs in million) 11,029 8,823 2,206

Earnings per share (Rs per share)

16.25 13.00 3.25

Dividend per share (Rs per share)

15.50 14.15 1.35

Shareholders’ equity (Rs in million) 15,447 13,082 2,365

Return on equity (%) 71.40 67.44 3.96

Current ratio 0.84 0.84 –

Debt : Equity ratio 20:80 26:74 6

Market capitalization (Rs in million) 85,396 69,841 15,555

Interest cover 16.00 14.82 1.18

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

INTERNSHIP SCHEDULE

SN Assignment Days Duration Coordinator

1. Study of one line diagram and

Orientation of switchgear. 6 22-07-13 to 28-07-13 ABK

a. Study of ANSI standard numbering for various protection functions. b. Study of protection relays

installed on various incoming and outgoing feeders at SS-1. c. Protection Relay coordination

concept.

2. Study of Motor Control Center 7

29-07-13 to 07-08-13

AFA

3.

Case Study. Detail Below

a. TG-701 A/B incomers b. Study cycles & interlocks of

B & S conveyer belts. c. Orientation of B & S PLC

system & weighing machine d. Micrologic 1000

e. Siprotec Relay & DIGSI4

23

06-08-13 To 16-08-13

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

SAFETY

Safety of human and site resource is the paramount concern of any industry. It ensures maximum production and loss prevention and contributes to the wellbeing of unit. With media being more alert and alarming, safety has also become a concern of good name and repute for organizations. Therefore, industry encourages its members to improve safety management and manufacturing procedures and practices to minimize hazards.

Occupation Health and Safety Management System, OHSAS 18001:1999 regulates an industry to remain committed to maintain a safe and healthy environment.

The safety trainings are carried out in the much disciplined manner. It resolves to attain the highest standards of safety and health through consistent improvements in on-the-job and off-the-job safety.

Manufacturers are required to follow detailed steps in ensuring adequate training, comprehensive operating procedures, thorough analysis of processes of hazards and investigations of accidents. Injury to personnel and property damage ask for high price, not the least of which are production break off and loss of trained man force and equipment.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo Personal Protection Equipment:

FFC-MM provides personal protection equipment to its members working in risky areas. Those were also provided to internees as they were there to learn on the plant site.

Starting in 1994, employers are required by OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 1999), to perform hazards assessments to determine if workplace hazards are present that require personal protective equipment (PPE). This could include:

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hard hats

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

(3) respirator masks

(4) gloves

(5) safety shoes

Note:

And also may include long-sleeve shirts, long pants, and nets over long hair depending on the condition of the work.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

SAFETY LESSONS

For any new person on the plant first of all the presentation and lectures are held in the Technical Training Center of FFC-MM. Then that person is Sent to learn Safety lessons from the Safety Section which controls all the Safety issues of the plant at FFC-MM.

The training comprised of:

 Importance of Safety at Plant

 Use of Personal Protective Equipment

 Use of Fire Extinguishers

 Ammonia Disaster

FFC ensures safe work environment by providing safety training to all personnel on plant.

FFC MM has also received IMS 2009 certification for safe working other than ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and ISO 18001. FFC believes in Safety first. FFC-MM safety section Works for:

 Managing Safety Program

 Inspection

 Fire Protection

 Regulatory Compliance

 Hazardous Material Management

 Training

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo Use of Fire Extinguishers

Fire is the most common form of disaster for any industry but could be dealt, if well prepared. Fire erupts due to unsafe work, and could be avoided if well planned and followed. In order to avoid any unpleasant accident, personnel are trained for fire fighting. Internees were told taught to use the fire extinguishers for self safety.

Ammonia Disaster

Leakage or unwanted release of ammonia from plant has been termed as Ammonia Disaster. Ammonia being a hazardous gas chokes respiration process resulting in death. Therefore, for safe escape, plant personnel and township residents are trained for plan of action in case of ammonia disaster. All offices, buildings and homes are constructed with an ammonia shelter, in case of emergency. Shelter has no windows and only single door which can be sealed in case of ammonia release. Personnel and families can remain save in shelter until safety announcement is made.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

OVERVIEW OF FFC-MM POWER SCHEME

The power scheme at FFC-MM includes

1) Two steam driven units tagged as TG-701A and TG-701B having capacity of 8 MW.

2) One Gas driven unit tagged as GT-703 having capacity of 12.58 MW. Hence the total generating capacity of FFC-MM is 28.58 MW whereas the load including the plant and township varies from 12-14 MW.

For emergency purposes the power scheme also includes a Diesel Emergency Generator tagged as MG-701 having capacity of 1.5 MVA to drive the emergency load in order to ensure safe shutdown of the plant.

The power scheme at FFC-MM incorporates five main bus bars tagged as A, B, C, D and E. power scheme is divided into following five categories in accordance with voltage level:

SWG Medium Voltage Switchgear 6.3 kV

PC Power Center 380V

MCC Motor Control Center 380V

ASPB Auxiliary Service Panel Board 380/220 V

DCPB Direct Current Panel Board 110 V D.C

The power scheme at FFC-MM includes Medium Voltage Level

Distribution as well as Low voltage Level Distribution. The 6.3 kV

medium voltage distributions include Motor Feeders up to 2 MW and transformer feeders up to 3000 kVA whereas 11kV medium volte distribution includes Township feeder and Well Area Feeder. Power Scheme includes 12 substations among which 8 substations (SS-1 to SS-8) are at Plant Site whereas 4 substations (TS-1 to TS-4) are in Township.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

A single line diagram is the simplified notation for representing three phase power system. It graphically depicts the paths for power flow between entities of power system. In a single line diagram elements are represented by standardized schematic symbols.

Simplified Single Line Diagram Of Power System:

G TR1A-1 TR1A-3 TR1A-4 TR1A-5 T/S-1(D1) M MP-101A MP-102A MK-601 MP-1701A 42G1A 28gT1A 124AC TG-701 A 6.3kV 10,000 kVA SS-7 G 42G1B 28gT1B TG-701 B 124BC P yro bre ak er T/S-1-D2 124DE G 42G3 28gT3 GT-703 G 42G2 28gT2 MG-702 152CD 152C1D1 52 42 52 42 52 42 42 TR1A-2 TR1B-5 TR1-6 TR1-8 TR1C-1 MP-101B MP-101C MK-602 MP-800E MK-211 MK-201 MP-301A MP-601C TR1B-1 TR1B-2 TR1B-3 TR1B-4 Well Area MK-1001 MK-1002 MP-604 6.3kV 10,000 kVA 6.3kV 17,000 kVA 6.3kV 1900 kVA

Bus A Bus C Bus B Bus D Bus E

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

Single Line Diagram of Medium Voltage Switchgear: G M M 6.3/ 0.380 kV 380 V 6.3 kV 6.3/11 kV M M M PC

Medium Voltage Swithgear

MCC ASPB MCC-E PC-E Miscellaneous Loads T/S–1-D2 T/S–1(D1) 6.3 kV

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

GENERATORS

Gas Generator (GT-703)

There is a single Gas driven turbine installed at area 07 manufactured by TURBOMACH Titan 130. This is a synchronous generator. It was installed in 2011.

1) Gas turbine use brushless exciters.

2) The starter motors of the Gas Generator are D.C Motors.

3) These D.C starter motors get their power supply from DCPB.

Turbine Type: TiTan 130 (T 20501)

1) Electrical power: MW 15.00 2) Heat rate: kJ/kWE-hr 10’200 3) Fuel input: MJ/s 42.6

4) Efficiency: 35.2%

5) Exhaust gas flow: kg/s 49.8 6) Exhaust gas temp. °C 496 7) Fuel: NG/LF/LPG/LBTU 8) Start system: DC

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo Turbo Generators

There are two identical turbo generators installed at area 07 manufactured by AEG-KANIS (West Germany). These are 4 poles synchronous generators. The shaft is connected to the steam turbine and D.C excitation current is given to rotor through slip rings and carbon brushes. The cooling of the generator is carried out by the closed air circuit using a heat exchanger, the air being circulated by means of shaft driven fans. Below the generator are the star point cabinet and resister for the neutral earthen. The excitation cabinet is housed in the main substation SS1.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo Diesel Generator

The diesel generator is manufactured by SACM (France) and is of the brushless excitation type designed to give a continuous output of 1900 KVA at 0.80 pf. The main base frame holds the diesel generator. The generator is located in unit 07 alongside the TG at the ground level. The electrical protection of generator comprises of differential earth fault relay, overvoltage, under voltage, aver current and earth fault.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

SUBSTATIONS

Substation 1 is the main substation with Medium Voltage Switchgear. The supply from one Gas Driven generator and two Turbo generators comes to SS1 and is supplied to other substations.

In these substations, collectively, Power Center (PC), Motor Control Center (MCC), Direct Current Panel Board (DSPB), Excitation panel board, Auxiliary Supply Panel Board (ASPB), Bus-ties, Transformer Feeding (SS1-SS7).

Power Scheme includes 12 substations among which 8 substations (SS-1 to SS-8) are at Plant Site whereas 4 substations (TS-1 to TS-4) are in Township.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

TRANSFORMERS

Three phase transformers are used in the plant for the step up and step down purposes.

These transformers are manufactured by ITALTRAFO of Italy and are rated as ONAN (oil natural air natural). That means cooling media is naturally flowing oil and air and naturally cooling flow.

All transformers have conservators fitted with bush-holes relay.

1) The full load ratio is 6300/380 V with primary taping +- 2.5% and 5%.

2) The windings are star-delta with neutral point of secondary solidly connected to the earth mat.

3) These transformers are of core type and immersed completely in the oil.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

GENERATOR CONTROL ROOM

In order to control and observe all parameters regarding the GT and TG’s there is a room called “GENERATOR CONTROL ROOM”.

 Power Factor  Line Current  Line Voltage  Frequency

 Excitation Current  Bus bar Voltage

 Interconnection Voltage

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

ANSI STANDARD NUMBERING USED AT PLANT

In the design of electrical power systems, the ANSI Standard Device Numbers (ANSI /IEEE Standard C37.2) denote what features a

protective device supports (such as a relay or circuit breaker). These types of devices protect electrical systems and components from damage when an unwanted event occurs, such as an electrical fault. There is a lot of standard numbering but I will mention only those which are in operation at FFC MM power system.

21- Distance Relay

25- Synchronizing check device 27- Underground Relay

32- Directional Power Relay

40- Field over/under excitation relay 50- Instantaneous Overcurrent 51- AC Time overcurrent 59- Overcurrent Relay

67- AC directional overcurrent Relay 87- Differential protection Relay 81- Frequency Relay

51N- Neutral overcurrent Relay 46- Reverse Phase current Relay 49- Thermal overload Relay 51R- Installed/Locked rotor Relay 64- Ground Detector Relay

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

PROTECTION DEVICES

Electrical equipments are highly hazardous, so they need a proper protection for their normal working. The major protection devices used to prevent damage to personnel or equipments are fuses, relays, circuit

breakers etc.

The part of Electric power system that is protected by a proper Protective scheme is called Protection Zone. There are different types of protection zones such as:

1) Generator protection zone 2) Transformer protection zone 3) Bus bar protection zone

4) Transmission and Distribution protection zone There are two types of protection

1) Primary protection 2) Backup protection

Primary Protection:

The first defending protection is known as Primary protection. It senses the fault inside boundary of equipment and operates to isolate a small part of Electric system.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo Backup Protection:

It works as a secondary protection. It covers a large part of the Electric system. If it operates, a large part of system is isolated. That’s why its operating time is comparatively larger than that of primary protection.

Different types of backup protection are listed below: 1) Relay backup

2) Breaker backup 3) Remote backup 4) Sensory backup

Fuses are used for under voltage protection while a relay is installed between main circuit and circuit breaker in order to sense the abnormality and isolate the faulty part from healthy part.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

RELAYS:

For protection of electrical apparatus and transmission line,

electromechanical relays with accurate operation characteristics were used to detect over load, short-circuit and other faults. While now a day’s digital devices now provide equivalent protective function.

A relay is a device used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuit) or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.

Application of Digital Protective relays:

1) Amplify a digital signal, switching a large amount of power with a small operating power.

2) Controlling a high current circuit with a low current signal, as in starter solenoid of an automobile.

Basic Elements of relay:

1) Sensing Element 2) Comparison Element 3) Control Element 4) Trip Circuit

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo Factors for selection of Protective Relays:

1) Speed 2) Sensitivity 3) Stability 4) Economy 5) Reliability

In past years electromechanical relays were used at the plant site in FFC MM. The basic drawback of the electromechanical relays was the space consumption. In order to replace the old electromagnetic relays, Siemens Siprotec Digital Relays (Microprocessor or numeric/ digital relays) are being used.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

SIPROTEC 4 7SJ62

The SIPROTEC 4 7SJ62 relays can be used for line protection of high and medium voltage networks with earthed (grounded), low-resistance earthed, isolated or compensated neutral point. With regard to motor protection, the SIPROTEC 4 7SJ62 is suitable for asynchronous machines of all sizes. The relay performs all functions of backup protection supplementary to transformer differential protection.

7SJ62 is featuring the "flexible protection functions". Up to 20 protection functions can be added according to individual requirements. Thus, for example, a rate-of- frequency-change protection or reverse power protection can be implemented.

The relay provides control of the circuit breaker, further switching devices and automation functions. The integrated programmable logic (CFC) allows the user to implement their own functions, e.g. for the automation of switchgear (interlocking). The user is also allowed to generate user-defined messages.

The flexible communication interfaces are open for modern communication architectures with control systems.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

POWER CENTERS

Power centers (PC) are block of the power systems. PC’s gets their power through transformers and breakers from bus bars of the medium voltage (6.3 KV). Motors and pumps that required power above 75 KW is directly connected PC. Motor control centers (MCC) and Auxiliary Supply Panel Board (ASPB) get their power from PC. The voltage level of PC is 380V.

For a power center PC1-X, X denotes the substation number on which the PC is installed. Transformers from MV busbar are connected to PC’s bus bars through breakers tagged 52 (normal status: closed) and bus tie 24 (normal status: open). If failure occur or under voltage relay of any bus bar is picked then changeover takes place and bus tie 24 becomes closed and 52 is opens and system remains alive. This whole operation is an automatic changeover. This changeover can also be carried our manually by a selector switch mounted on the panel.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

Our emergency loads which should remain alive in all conditions are connected to power center PC1E-X. (E shows the emergency bus bar connected to emergency generator). Usually the breaker is closed in normal operation. In case of power failure on emergency bus bar or fault condition if the breaker trips, another breaker makes its contacts automatically so emergency PC remains active and the load on emergency PC always remains active

Protection of PC includes under voltage relay, over current relay and lockout relay.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

BUSBAR

The term Bus is referred to collector of the electrical energy which may be bars, rods, or any other thing for giving energy to the transformer for transformation.

Material used for bus bars are Aluminum, copper or Steel. Aluminum has a specific resistance about 1.6 times greater than that of copper.

Aluminum bus bars must therefore have greater cross-sectional area for the same load and same permissible temperature as copper. The weight of Aluminum is 2 to 3 times less than the weight of copper. The copper has comparatively less specific resistance and high mechanical strength. Copper bus bars are used for heavy capacity current. The bus bars used at FFC are copper bus bars.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

MOTOR CONTROL CENTRE

Motor control Centers are the panels from where the motors, present in different areas get supply and are controlled. Motor control centers are present in almost all substations for motors of respective areas. Motor control centers get three phase power from power centers which take path via line fuses, isolators, overload protection and main contactor to reach the respective motor.

In order to testify the internal wiring of the panel we use the test push button. Push button energizes the magnetic contactor which in return energizes the auxiliary relay and contactor makes contact and an internal circuitry satisfactory signal is sent to the panel.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

There are two possible modes of motor 1) Auto control mode

2) Manual control mode

In auto control mode motor can be started from instrument logic only. In

manual control mode the motor can be started from control room, field area

of respective motor and from the panel while can be stopped from all same locations.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

Another switch tagged “Remote/Local switch” operates the switching of motor from control room and from the field area respectively, and oppose the switching vice versa.

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

SPECIFICATIONS

Generators:

Steam Generator:

Make: AEG KANIS Serial No. 275/450

Cooling: Water Cooled Rating: 10MVA, 6300V

Excitation: 41V, 735A Power Factor: 0.8

No. of Poles: 4 Sync Speed: 1500 RPM

Insulation Class: F Class Temperature 2 C

Gas Generator

Make: TURBOMACH Installation: 2011

Synchronous Rating: 15 MW (ISO rating)

Insulation Class: F Class Sync Speed: 1500 RPM

Transformers:

Make: ITALTRAFO 3-Φ Transformers

800 KVA 50 Hz Installation: 1977

High Voltage Transformer

Rating: 6300±2*2.5% V 73.3 A

Connection: Delta Group: Dyn11

Imp: 48%

Low Voltage Transformer

Rating: 395.3 V 1163.6 A

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Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited Mirpur Mathelo

RECOMMENDATIONS

After completing this internship, I feel deeply satisfied as I have succeeded in fulfilling my aim of enhancing my practical knowledge about chemical industry as well as getting a better understanding of a professional work environment. Though learning is a continuous process but as far as this particular internship in concerned, it has no doubt, improved my understanding and broadened my horizon in my field of study.

FFC exhibits one of the finest running corporations in Pakistan and I observed that the secret behind it is continuous hard work, commitment and effective teamwork of all the staff and management. Punctuality, mutual respect and sense of unity are also one of the distinct characteristics of the personnel here. Thus, in my internship, I not only received an opportunity to enhance my technical knowledge but also got a chance to observe the basic characteristics that can enable one to lead a successful and sound professional life.

As a concluding remark, I would like to thank FFC again for this opportunity and hope that the future internees will benefit from this internship program just as we did, if not more.

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