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Korean

Fluency 1

Jeon Dahye

Michael Campbell

Expression

Fluency

Intro

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Features: Sound files have A/B/C formats. A Files English - Target language 2x

B Files English - space - Target 1x

C Files Target language only 1x

Useful for students with more time to dedicate.

❷ Set up your schedule. It's your

choice, you can choose 20, 50 or 100 sentences for daily practice. We recommend completing the following four steps.

Training Step 1: Try repeating the sentences with the same speed and intonation in the A sound files.

Training Step 2: Dictation: use the C sound files (and pausing) to write out each sentence (in script or IPA or your choice). Use the book to check your answers. Training Step 3: Recording: record the sentences as best you can. We recommend recording the same sentences over a 3-day period, and staggering them with new ones.

Training Step 4: Use the B sound files to train your interpretation skills. Say your translation in the space provided.

Features: Our sound files include an algorithm that introduces 10 sentences every day, with review of 40 sentences, for a total of 1000 sentences in 104 days. Requires less than 20 minutes daily. Useful for people with busy schedules and limited study time.

❷ Set up your schedule. You can

listen to a single GSR file daily or even double up. One book typically takes 3-4 months to complete.

❸ You can accompany with the GMS

training when you have extra time to practice.

HOW TO USE

❶ To familiarise yourself with IPA and spelling, Glossika recommends using the book

while listening to A or C sound files and going through all 1000 sentences on your first day. Then you can start your training.

Reminder

Don't forget that if you run into problems, just skip over it! Keep working through the sentences all the way to the end and don't worry about the ones you don't get. You'll probably get it right the second time round. Remember, one practice session separated by *one* sleep session yields the best results!

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Glossika Mass Sentences

Korean

Fluency 1

Complete Fluency Course

Michael Campbell

Jeon Dahye

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Glossika Mass Sentence Method Korean Fluency 1

This edition published: MAR 2016 via license by Nolsen Bédon, Ltd. Taipei, Taiwan

Authors: Michael Campbell, Jeon Dahye Chief Editor: Michael Campbell

Translator: Michael Campbell, Jeon Dahye Recording: Michael Campbell, Jeon Dahye Editing Team: Claudia Chen, Sheena Chen Consultant: Percy Wong

Programming: Edward Greve Design: Glossika team © 2016 Michael Campbell

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only as samples of language use without intent to infringe. glossika.com

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Glossika Series

The following languages are available (not all are published in English):

Afroasiatic AM Amharic ARE Egyptian Arabic HA Hausa IV Hebrew AR Modern Standard Arabic ARM Moroccan Arabic Altaic AZ Azerbaijani JA Japanese KK Kazakh KR Korean MN Mongolian UZ Uzbek Austroasiatic KH Khmer VNN Vietnamese (Northern) VNS Vietnamese (Southern) Austronesian AMP Amis TYS Atayal BNN Bunun ILO Ilokano SDQ Seediq TGL Tagalog THW Thao Caucasian Dravidian KAN Kannada MAL Malayalam TAM Tamil TEL Telugu IE: Baltic LAV Latvian LIT Lithuanian IE: Celtic CYM Welsh IE: Germanic EN American English DA Danish NL Dutch DE German IS Icelandic NO Norwegian SV Swedish IE: Indo-Iranian BEN Bengali PRS Dari Persian GUJ Gujarati HI Hindi KUR Kurmanji Kurdish MAR Marathi NEP Nepali FA Persian PAN Punjabi (India) SIN Sinhala KUS Sorani Kurdish TGK Tajik UR Urdu IE: Other SQ Albanian HY Armenian EU Basque EO Esperanto EL Greek IE: Romance PB Brazilian Portuguese CA Catalan PT European Portuguese FR French IT Italian RO Romanian ES Spanish (European) ESM Spanish (Mexican) IE: Slavic BEL Belarusian BOS Bosnian HR Croatian CS Czech MK Macedonian PL Polish RU Russian SRP Serbian SK Slovak SL Slovene UKR Ukrainian Kartuli KA Georgian Niger-Congo SW Swahili YO Yoruba Sino-Tibetan MY Burmese YUE Cantonese ZH Chinese HAK Hakka ZS Mandarin Chinese (Beijing) WUS Shanghainese MNN Taiwanese WUW Wenzhounese Tai-Kadai LO Lao TH Thai Uralic EST Estonian FI Finnish HU Hungarian

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Glossika Levels

Many of our languages are offered at different levels (check for availability):

Intro Level Fluency Level Expression Level

Pronunciation Courses Fluency Business Courses Intro Course Daily Life Intensive Reading

Travel Business Intro

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Getting Started

For Busy People & Casual Learners

20 minutes per day, 3 months per book

Use the Glossika Spaced Repetition (GSR) MP3 files, 1 per day. The files

are numbered for you.

Keep going and don't worry if you miss something on the first day, you will

hear each sentence more than a dozen times over a 5 day period.

For Intensive Study

1-2 hours per day, 1 month per book

Log on to our website and download the Self Study Planner at:glossika.com/howto. Steps:

1. Prepare (GMS-A). Follow the text as you listen to the GMS-A files (in

'GLOSSIKA-XX-GMS-A'). Listen to as many sentences as you can, and keep going even when you miss a sentence or two. Try to focus on the sounds and matching them to the text.

2. Listen (GMS-A). Try to repeat the target sentence with the speaker the

second time you hear it.

3. Write (GMS-C). Write down the sentences as quickly as you can, but hit

pause when you need to. Check your answers against the text.

4. Record (GMS-C). Listen to each sentence and record it yourself. Record

from what you hear, not from reading the text. You can use your mobile phone or computer to do the recording. Play it back, and try to find the differences between the original and your recording.

5. Interpret (GMS-B). Try to recall the target sentence in the gap after you hear

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Glossika Mass Sentence Method

Korean

Fluency 1

This GMS Fluency Series accompanies the GMS recordings and is a supplementary course assisting you on your path to fluency. This course fills in the fluency training that is lacking from other courses. Instead of advancing in the language via grammar, GMS builds up sentences and lets students advance via the full range of expression required to function in the target language.

GMS recordings prepare the student through translation and interpretation to become proficient in speaking and listening.

Glossika Spaced Repetition (GSR) recordings are strongly recommended for those who have trouble remembering the content. Through the hundred days of GSR training, all the text in each of our GMS publications can be mastered with ease.

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What is Glossika?

From the creation of various linguists and polyglots headed by Michael Campbell, Glossika is a comprehensive and effective system that delivers speaking and listening training to fluency.

It’s wise to use Glossika training materials together with your other study materials. Don’t bet everything on Glossika. Always use as many materials as you can get your hands on and do something from all of those materials daily. These are the methods used by some of the world’s greatest polyglots and only ensures your success.

If you follow all the guidelines in our method you can also become proficiently literate as well. But remember it’s easier to become literate in a language that you can already speak than one that you can’t.

Most people will feel that since we only focus on speaking and listening, that the Glossika method is too tough. It’s possible to finish one of our modules in one month, in fact this is the speed at which we’ve been training our students for years: 2 hours weekly for 4 weeks is all you need to complete one module. Our students are expected to do at least a half hour on their own every day through listening, dictation, and recording. If you follow the method, you will have completed 10,000 sentence repetitions by the end of the month. This is sufficient enough to start to feel your fluency come out, but you still have a long way to go.

This training model seems to fit well with students in East Asia learning tough languages like English, because they are driven by the fact that they need a better job or have some pressing issue to use their English. This drive makes them want to succeed.

Non-East Asian users of the Glossika Mass Sentence (GMS) methods are split in two groups: those who reap enormous benefit by completing the course, and others who give up because it’s too tough to stick to the schedule. If you feel like our training is too overwhelming or demands too much of your time, then I suggest you get your hands on our Glossika Spaced Repetition (GSR) audio files which are designed for people like you. So if you’re ambitious, use GMS. If you’re too busy or can’t stick to a schedule, use GSR.

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Glossika Levels

The first goal we have in mind for you is Fluency. Our definition of fluency is simple and easy to attain: speaking full sentences in one breath. Once you achieve fluency, then we work with you on expanding your expression and vocabulary to all areas of language competency. Our three levels correlate to the European standard:

Introduction = A Levels Fluency = B Levels Expression = C Levels

The majority of foreign language learners are satisfied at a B Level and a few continue on. But the level at which you want to speak a foreign language is your choice. There is no requirement to continue to the highest level, and most people never do as a B Level becomes their comfort zone.

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Glossika Publications

Each Glossika publication comes in four formats:

Print-On-Demand paperback text

E-book text (available for various platforms) Glossika Mass Sentence audio files

Glossika Spaced Repetition audio files

Some of our books include International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) as well. Just check for the IPA mark on our covers.

We strive to provide as much phonetic detail as we can in our IPA transcriptions, but this is not always possible with every language.

As there are different ways to write IPA, our books will also let you know whether it’s an underlying pronunciation (phonemic) with these symbols: / /, or if it’s a surface pronunciation (phonetic) with these symbols: [ ].

IPA is the most scientific and precise way to represent the sounds of foreign languages. Including IPA in language training guides is taking a step away from previous decades of language publishing. We embrace the knowledge now available to everybody via online resources like Wikipedia which allow anybody to learn the IPA: something that could not be done before without attending university classes.

To get started, just point your browser to Wikipedia’s IPA page to learn more about pronouncing the languages we publish.

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4 Secrets of the Mass Sentence

Method

When learning a foreign language it’s best to use full sentences for a number of reasons:

1. Pronunciation—In languages like English, our words undergo a lot of

pronunciation and intonation changes when words get strung together in sentences which has been well analyzed in linguistics. Likewise it is true with languages like Chinese where the pronunciations and tones from individual words change once they appear in a sentence. By following the intonation and prosody of a native speaker saying a whole sentence, it’s much easier to learn rather than trying to say string each word together individually.

2. Syntax—the order of words, will be different than your own language.

Human thought usually occurs in complete ideas. Every society has developed a way to express those ideas linearly by first saying what happened (the verb), or by first saying who did it (the agent), etc. Paying attention to this will accustom us to the way others speak.

3. Vocabulary—the meanings of words, never have just one meaning, and their

usage is always different. You always have to learn words in context and which words they’re paired with. These are called collocations. To “commit a crime” and to “commit to a relationship” use two different verbs in most other languages. Never assume that learning “commit” by itself will give you the answer. After a lifetime in lexicography, Patrick Hanks “reached the alarming conclusion that words don’t have meaning,” but rather that “definitions listed in dictionaries can be regarded as presenting meaning potentials rather than meanings as such.” This is why collocations are so important.

4. Grammar—the changes or morphology in words are always in flux.

Memorizing rules will not help you achieve fluency. You have to experience them as a native speaker says them, repeat them as a native speaker would, and through mass amount of practice come to an innate understanding of the inner workings of a language’s morphology. Most native speakers can’t explain their own grammar. It just happens.

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How to Use GMS and GSR

The best way to use GMS is to find a certain time of day that works best for you where you can concentrate. It doesn’t have to be a lot of time, maybe just 30 minutes at most is fine. If you have more time, even better. Then schedule that time to be your study time every day.

Try to tackle anywhere from 20 to 100 sentences per day in the GMS. Do what you’re comfortable with.

Review the first 50 sentences in the book to get an idea of what will be said. Then listen to the A files. If you can, try to write all the sentences down from the files as dictation without looking at the text. This will force you to differentiate all the sounds of the language. If you don’t like using the A files, you can switch to the C files which only have the target language.

After dictation, check your work for any mistakes. These mistakes should tell you a lot that you will improve on the next day.

Go through the files once again, repeating all the sentences. Then record yourself saying all the sentences. Ideally, you should record these sentences four to five days in a row in order to become very familiar with them.

All of the activities above may take more than one day or one setting, so go at the pace that feels comfortable for you.

If this schedule is too difficult to adhere to, or you find that dictation and recording is too much, then take a more relaxed approach with the GSR files. The GSR files in most cases are shorter than twenty minutes, some go over due to the length of the sentences. But this is the perfect attention span that most people have anyway. By the end of the GSR files you should feel pretty tired, especially if you’re trying to repeat everything.

The GSR files are numbered from Day 1 to Day 100. Just do one every day, as all the five days of review sentences are built in. It’s that simple! Good luck.

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Sentence Mining

Sentence mining can be a fun activity where you find sentences that you like or feel useful in the language you’re learning. We suggest keeping your list of sentences in a spreadsheet that you can re-order how you wish.

It’s always a good idea to keep a list of all the sentences you’re learning or mastering. They not only encompass a lot of vocabulary and their actual usage, or “collocations”, but they give you a framework for speaking the language. It’s also fun to keep track of your progress and see the number of sentences increasing.

Based on many tests we’ve conducted, we’ve found that students can reach a good level of fluency with only a small number of sentences. For example, with just 3000 sentences, each trained 10 times over a period of 5 days, for a total of 30,000 sentences (repetitions), can make a difference between a completely mute person who is shy and unsure how to speak and a talkative person who wants to talk about everything. More importantly, the reps empower you to become a stronger speaker.

The sentences we have included in our Glossika courses have been carefully selected to give you a wide range of expression. The sentences in our fluency modules target the kinds of conversations that you have discussing day-to-day activities, the bulk of what makes up our real-life conversations with friends and family. For some people these sentences may feel really boring, but these sentences are carefully selected to represent an array of discussing events that occur in the past, the present and the future, and whether those actions are continuous or not, even in languages where such grammar is not explicitly marked—especially in these languages as you need to know how to convey your thoughts. The sentences are transparent enough that they give you the tools to go and create dozens of more sentences based on the models we give you. As you work your way through our Fluency Series the sentences will cover all aspects of grammar without actually teaching you grammar. You’ll find most of the patterns used in all the tenses and aspects, passive and active (or ergative as is the case in some languages we’re developing), indirect speech, and finally describing events as if to a policeman. The sentences also present some transformational patterns you can look out for. Sometimes we have more than one way to say something in our own language, but maybe only one in a foreign language. And the opposite is true where we may only have one way to say something whereas a foreign language may have many.

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Transformation Drills

A transformation is restating the same sentence with the same meaning, but using different words or phrasing to accomplish this. A transformation is essentially a translation, but inside the same language. A real example from Glossika’s business module is:

Could someone help me with my bags? Could I get a hand with these bags?

You may not necessarily say “hand” in a foreign language and that’s why direct translation word-for-word can be dangerous. As you can see from these two sentences, they’re translations of each other, but they express the same meaning.

To express yourself well in a foreign language, practice the art of restating everything you say in your mother language. Find more ways to say the same thing.

There are in fact two kinds of transformation drills we can do. One is transformation in our mother language and the other is transformation into our target language, known as translation.

By transforming a sentence in your own language, you’ll get better at transforming it into another language and eventually being able to formulate your ideas and thoughts in that language. It’s a process and it won’t happen over night. Cultivate your ability day by day.

Build a bridge to your new language through translation. The better you get, the less you rely on the bridge until one day, you won’t need it at all.

Translation should never be word for word or literal. You should always aim to achieve the exact same feeling in the foreign language. The only way to achieve this is by someone who can create the sentences for you who already knows both languages to such fluency that he knows the feeling created is exactly the same.

In fact, you’ll encounter many instances in our GMS publications where sentences don’t seem to match up. The two languages are expressed completely differently, and it seems it’s wrong. Believe us, we’ve not only gone over and tested each sentence in real life situations, we’ve even refined the translations several times to the point that this is really how we speak in this given situation.

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Supplementary Substitution

Drills

Substitution drills are more or less the opposite of transformation drills. Instead of restating the same thing in a different way, you’re saying a different thing using the exact same way. So using the example from above we can create this substitution drill:

Could someone help me with my bags? Could someone help me with making dinner?

In this case, we have replaced the noun with a gerund phrase. The sentence has a different meaning but it’s using the same structure. This drill also allows the learner to recognize a pattern how to use a verb behind a preposition, especially after being exposed to several instances of this type.

We can also combine transformation and substitution drills:

Could someone help me with my bags?

Could someone give me a hand with making dinner?

So it is encouraged that as you get more and more experience working through the Glossika materials, that you not only write out and record more and more of your own conversations, but also do more transformation and substitution drills on top of the sentences we have included in the book.

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Memory, The Brain, and

Language Acquisition

by Michael Campbell

We encounter a lot of new information every day that may or may not need to be memorized. In fact, we’re doing it all the time when we make new friends, remembering faces and other information related to our friends.

After some experience with language learning you’ll soon discover that languages are just like a social landscape. Except instead of interconnected friends we have

interconnected words. In fact, looking at languages in this way makes it a lot more fun as you get familiar with all the data.

Since languages are natural and all humans are able to use them naturally, it only makes sense to learn languages in a natural way. In fact studies have found, and many students having achieved fluency will attest to, the fact that words are much easier to recognize in their written form if we already know them in the spoken form.

Remember that you already own the words you use to speak with. The written form is just a record and it’s much easier to transfer what you know into written form than trying to memorize something that is only written.

Trying to learn a language from the writing alone can be a real daunting task. Learning to read a language you already speak is not hard at all. So don’t beat yourself up trying to learn how to read a complicated script like Chinese if you have no idea how to speak the language yet. It’s not as simple as one word = one character. And the same holds true with English as sometimes many words make up one idea, like “get over it”. What is the relationship between memory and sleep? Our brain acquires experiences throughout the day and records them as memories. If these memories are too common, such as eating lunch, they get lost among all the others and we find it difficult to remember one specific memory from the others. More importantly such memories leave no impact or impression on us. However, a major event like a birth or an accident obviously leaves a bigger impact. We attach importance to those events. Since our brain is constantly recording our daily life, it collects a lot of useless information. Since this information is both mundane and unimportant to us, our brain has a built-in mechanism to deal with it. In other words, our brains dump the garbage

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every day. Technically speaking our memories are connections between our nerve cells and these connections lose strength if they are not recalled or used again.

During our sleep cycles our brain is reviewing all the events of the day. If you do not recall those events the following day, the memory weakens. After three sleep cycles, consider a memory gone if you haven’t recalled it. Some memories can be retained longer because you may have anchored it better the first time you encountered it. An anchor is connecting your memory with one of your senses or another pre-existing memory. During your language learning process, this won’t happen until later in your progress. So what can you do in the beginning?

A lot of memory experts claim that making outrageous stories about certain things they’re learning help create that anchor where otherwise none would exist. Some memory experts picture a house in their mind that they’re very familiar with and walk around that house in a specific pre-arranged order. Then all the objects they’re memorizing are placed in that house in specific locations. In order to recall them, they just walk around the house.

I personally have had no luck making outrageous stories to memorize things. I’ve found the house method very effective but it’s different than the particular way I use it. This method is a form of “memory map”, or spatial memory, and for me personally I prefer using real world maps. This probably originates from my better than average ability to remember maps, so if you can, then use it! It’s not for everybody though. It really works great for learning multiple languages.

What do languages and maps have in common? Everything can be put on a map, and languages naturally are spoken in locations and spread around and change over time. These changes in pronunciations of words creates a word history, or etymology. And by understanding how pronunciations change over time and where populations migrated, it’s quite easy to remember a large number of data with just a memory map. This is how I anchor new languages I’m learning. I have a much bigger challenge when I try a new language family. So I look for even deeper and longer etymologies that are shared between language families, anything to help me establish a link to some core vocabulary. Some words like “I” (think Old English “ic”) and “me/mine” are essentially the same roots all over the world from Icelandic (Indo-European) to Finnish (Uralic) to Japanese (Altaic?) to Samoan (Austronesian).

I don’t confuse languages because in my mind every language sounds unique and has its own accent and mannerisms. I can also use my memory map to position myself in the location where the language is spoken and imagine myself surrounded by the people of that country. This helps me adapt to their expressions and mannerisms, but more importantly, eliminates interference from other languages. And when I mentally set myself up in this way, the chance of confusing a word from another language simply doesn’t happen.

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When I’ve actually used a specific way of speaking and I’ve done it several days in a row, I know that the connections in my head are now strengthening and taking root. Not using them three days in a row creates a complete loss, however actively using them (not passively listening) three days in a row creates a memory that stays for a lifetime. Then you no longer need the anchors and the memory is just a part of you. You’ll have noticed that the Glossika training method gives a translation for every sentence, and in fact we use translation as one of the major anchors for you. In this way 1) the translation acts as an anchor, 2) you have intelligible input, 3) you easily start to recognize patterns. Pattern recognition is the single most important skill you need for learning a foreign language.

A lot of people think that translation should be avoided at all costs when learning a foreign language. However, based on thousands of tests I’ve given my students over a ten-year period, I’ve found that just operating in the foreign language itself creates a false sense of understanding and you have a much higher chance of hurting yourself in the long run by creating false realities.

I set up a specific test. I asked my students to translate back into their mother tongue (Chinese) what they heard me saying. These were students who could already hold conversations in English. I found the results rather shocking. Sentences with certain word combinations or phrases really caused a lot of misunderstanding, like “might as well” or “can’t do it until”, resulted in a lot of guesswork and rather incorrect answers. If you assume you can think and operate in a foreign language without being able to translate what’s being said, you’re fooling yourself into false comprehension. Train yourself to translate everything into your foreign language. This again is an anchor that you can eventually abandon when you become very comfortable with the new language.

Finally, our brain really is a sponge. But you have to create the structure of the sponge. Memorizing vocabulary in a language that you don’t know is like adding water to a sponge that has no structure: it all flows out.

In order to create a foreign language structure, or “sponge”, you need to create sentences that are natural and innate. You start with sentence structures with basic, common vocabulary that’s easy enough to master and start building from there. With less than 100 words, you can build thousands of sentences to fluency, slowly one by one adding more and more vocabulary. Soon, you’re speaking with natural fluency and you have a working vocabulary of several thousand words.

If you ever learn new vocabulary in isolation, you have to start using it immediately in meaningful sentences. Hopefully sentences you want to use. If you can’t make a sentence with it, then the vocabulary is useless.

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Vocabulary shouldn’t be memorized haphazardly because vocabulary itself is variable. The words we use in our language are only a tool for conveying a larger message, and every language uses different words to convey the same message. Look for the message, pay attention to the specific words used, then learn those words. Memorizing words from a wordlist will not help you with this task.

Recently a friend showed me his wordlist for learning Chinese, using a kind of spaced repetition flashcard program where he could download a “deck”. I thought it was a great idea until I saw the words he was trying to learn. I tried explaining that learning these characters out of context do not have the meanings on his cards and they will mislead him into a false understanding, especially individual characters. This would only work if they were a review from a text he had read, where all the vocabulary appeared in real sentences and a story to tell, but they weren’t. From a long-term point of view, I could see that it would hurt him and require twice as much time to re-learn everything. From the short-term point of view, there was definitely a feeling of progress and mastery and he was happy with that and I dropped the issue.

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Korean Background and

Pronunciation

Classification: Koreanic, possibly Altaic Writing: Hangŭl (Korean alphabet) Consonants: Hangŭl <ㅂ ㅃ ㅍ ㄷ ㄸ ㅌ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ ㄱ ㄲ ㅋ ㅆ ㅅ ㅎ ㄹ ㅁ ㄴ ㅇ> Phonemically /p p͈ pʰ t t͈ tʰ ʨ ʨ͈ ʨʰ k k͈ kʰ s͈ sʰ h l m n ŋ/ Phonetically also [b d ʥ ɡ ɕ͈ ɕʰ ɦ ç ɾ mᵇ nᵈ] Vowels: Hangŭl <ㅣ ㅡ ㅜ ㅔ ㅗ ㅐ ㅓ ㅏ>

Phonemically /(j ɥ ɰ u̯) i ɯ u e o ɛ ʌ a / (the first 4 letters are made by hangŭl combinations)

Romanization: phonemic transcription IPA: phonetic transcription

Tones/Pitch: Pitch Accent

Word Order: Subject - Object - Verb Adjective Order: Adjective - Noun Possessive Order: Noun - Genitive Adposition Order: Noun - Postposition

Dependent Clause: Dependent - Noun, Relative Clause - Noun Verbs: Tense (present, past, future), Register (formal, polite, informal,

casual, intimate)

Nouns: no genders, no declensions Pronouns: pro-drop, 1st/2nd/3rd, sing/pl

Pronunciation

Just like all teachers of Korean, we recommend learning hangŭl as early as possible since you will most likely only see this alphabet in your other learning materials. The romanization provided in this book should be a temporary tool which you can continue to use if you are unable to learn the alphabet.

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BEWARE: Please note that changes in pronunciation are complex in Korean (like how French is) and reading the letters exactly as written will result in you not being understood by Koreans. Follow the audio closely and carefully! The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) transcription shows all the complex pronunciation changes. Compare the Romanization with IPA carefully to familiarize how, when, and where the changes happen. Even if you can read hangŭl, it is still strongly recommended to double check with the IPA to ensure your pronunciation is following the changes accurately. If you're ever in doubt, just check the IPA.

The general rules are as follows:

1. <p, t, c, k, l, h> are pronounced weak between vowels and are more voiced like [b, d, j, g, r]

2. At the end of a syllable, most letters (including <s>) will change into a stop sound <p, t, k> which is not released, just like the <p> in the word "stop". These letters usually combine with the following letter, so if <s> is followed by <t>, the <s> becomes <t>, if followed by <k>, it will sound more like <k>.

3. <h> at the end of a syllable usually makes the following letter aspirated (strong). The three-way distinction of stops, for example /p p͈ pʰ/ is similar to what we have in English.

1. The first letter /p/ usually appears voiced, which is just like our English /b/. However at the beginning of a word it usually sounds like our English <p>. 2. The second letter /p͈/ is tense and always written double in Korean <ㅃ>. This is similar to American English unaspirated <p> as in the word "apple".

3. The third letter /pʰ/ is aspirated with a strong puff of air. This is similar to English aspirated <p> at the beginning of a word like "pay".

Try saying the sentence "I'd like to pay for this apple" quickly in American English. Put your hand in front of your mouth and feel the puff of air on "pay" and then there shouldn't be any puff of air in "apple". The Korean version of <ㅃ> is pronounced more tense than the English <pp> but it should be close enough for a beginner to make yourself understood in Korean.

Pronouns

As a student of Korean, we assume you know that Korean has many speech registers and that this will play a large part in "who" you want to be when you speak Korean. Our approach is to introduce you as a polite foreigner, without sounding overly formal, although the formal verb forms are easily acquired from the verb forms we use in this text.

Note that in this course all pronouns are included in sentences for clarification, and we tend to err on the side of speaking to someone as if they are a superior to avoid any misunderstandings or conflicts. Although verbs do not conjugate, pronouns are

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omitted in spoken Korean and understood from context. For example, if you ask someone a question directly, one assumes the pronoun intended is "you" without saying it. It is polite to use the person's name in place of the "you" pronoun, followed by 씨 or 님 (honorific).

Common Particles:

은/는 = topic (easy to drop, or almost unnecessary information in the sentence) 이/가 = subject

을/를 = object

으로 = by means of (instrumental) (see also 으로 타고) 에 = to

에서 = from

쯤 = about, approximately (Sent. 476, 571, 1931, 2461, 2705, 2740, 2781) 이나 = either...or..., approximately (Sent. 2024, 2582, 2762)

까지 = to, up to, until, as far as 께 = to, for someone (honorific)

께서 = from someone (honorific) (Sent 241, 617) 만 = only, just

지만 = but

마다 = every (Sent. 601, 769, 1675, 1690, 2466, 2472, 2483, 2514)

밖에 = outside of, except, only (Sent. 464, 670, 930, 1123, 1592, 1686, 1725, 1726, 2455, 2551, 2568, 2767)

부터 = from (Sent. 430, 570, 707, 818, 827, 831, 837, 846, 856, 858, 860, 862, 863, 872-873, 876, 889, 891, 894, etc)

어서 = so, in order (Sent. 280, 475, 479, 849, 945, 1195, 1289, 1406, 1507, etc) 으면서 = while doing (Sent. 2022, 2674, 2955)

씩 = each, apiece (Sent. 602, 604, 2265, 2460, 2471-2472, 2792, 2988) 도 = and, both, neither...nor...

Verb Particles by English meaning:

according to: -기에(는), +대로 action of doing: -기, -는 것, -를 것, -음 after doing: -은 후에, -은 뒤에, -은 다음에 almost did: -을 번 했다

along with doing: -을 겸 and also: -고

and, in order to: infinitive+서 and, in addition to: -거니

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and then: -어서, -고, -다(가) any... at all: -든지 as soon as: -자 마자, -는 대로 ask whether: -는 야 고 묻는다 ask sb to do: -에 달라 고 한다, -에 달란다 because of: -는 까닭에, -기 때문에 become adj: -어 진다 before doing: -기 전에 begin to be: -에 진다 begin to do: -기 (를) 시작한다 both... and...: -기 도 하고, -기 도 한다 but, although: -지만, 에 도, +데, -드니, -거니 but anyway: -으나마

can, able to: -을 줄 안다

cannot: -지 못 한다, -을 줄 (가) 없다 cannot, not know how: -을 줄 모른다 certainly does: -기 도 하

decides/agrees to: -기 로 하

doesn't have to: -지 않 도 좋다/괜찮다 doing: -고 있다 don't: -지 말라/말어/마시오/마십시오 even though: -어 도, -으면 서 도 ever does/did: +일이 있다 gets so that: -게 된다 get sb to do: -게 한다, 시킨다 glad that: -어 서 좋다 goes to do: 가 서..., -으러 간다

has to, ought, must, should: -어 야, -으면 좋겠다, -지 않으면 안 된다, -고 야 만다 hates to do: -기 (가) 싫다, -기 (를) 싫어 한다

hears that: -는다 고 요, 드라 고 요 hopes that: -으면 좋겠다, 기(를) 바란다 how about doing?: -으면 좋다, -을 가요? if: -으면 if it had been/done: -었드라면 in doing: -기 에 instead of doing: -지 않고, 은 대신에 intend to: -겠-, -기 로 한다, -을여 고 한다, -으러, -을 예정 이다, -을 테다, -을 작정 이다

just do it, up and do it: 그 만 +verb

keep doing and doing: -다 가... -다 가 한다, -을 악 ... -을 악 한다 know how to: -으면 줄 (을) 안다

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let/make sb do: -게 한다, +시킨다 let's: -을 가요 let's not: -지 말자 like to: -기 가 좋다, -기 를 좋아 한다 -ly, in a manner: -게, -이 may do: -어 도 좋다 means: -말 이다 might as well: -을 가 보다 must (probably): -겠-must have been/done:

-었겠-must not, not allowed: -으면 안 된다 never does/did: -는 일이 없다 not: -안, -지

않-not at all: 못..., -지 못 하-of course: -고 말고

only, nothing but: ...밖에, -기 만 하-maybe, perhaps: +지 도 모른다 probably does/is:

-겠-probably did/was: -었겠-probably will do: -은 것 이다 seems: +모양 이다, +것 같다, -says "...": -이/가 말 하기를 "..." 한다 since: -은 지 +time so, because: 어 서, 기 에, 기 때문 에, 으니, 으니깐, +까닭 에/으로/이다, +데, -음 어로, --음 에 so that: -게, -도록 so (adj) that: 너무...-기 (대문) 에, 어떻개 (도)...-은 지, 너무...-어 서, 너무...-음 으 로 sometimes: -는 일이 있다 stop doing: 그 만 +verb suggest that we...: -자 고 한다

tell sb to do: -으라 고 한다, -어 달라 (고 한다) (verb), that (sth does): +줄 로 안다

who/which is/does: -는

who/which has been seen to do: -든 who/which is to be done: -을 who/which will do: -을

the more... the more: -으면...-을 수록 think of doing: -을 가 한다, -을 생각 이다 try doing: -어 본다

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until: -도록 usually: -고 는 하-used to: -고 는 했다

want to: -고 싶다, -갰다, -기 를 원 한다 what a ...! -는데요!

what with doing: -느라고

what with doing and doing: -거니...-거니 하-when: -을 때, -다가, -으니

whenever: -으면

whether/which: +지+verb

whether/which was: 었든 지+verb while doing: -으면서

why...! -군요! will:

-겠-will just, let me just: -드군요! worth doing: -을 만 하다 would -겠-, -을 것 이다

would have done/been: -었겠-, 었을 것 이다

Common Sentences to Get Started With

How are you? 안녕하십니까? annjʌŋhaɕʰimnik͈a?

Nice to meet you. 만나서 반갑습니다. mᵇannasʰʌ paŋɡabs͈ɯmnida. Goodbye, stay in peace. 안녕히 계십시오. annjʌŋɦi kjeɕʰibɕ͈io. Goodbye, go in peace. 안녕히 가십시오. annjʌŋɦi kaɕʰibɕ͈io. Sorry. 미안합니다. mᵇianhamnida.

Excuse me. 실례합니다. ɕilljeɦamnida.

Excuse me, but... 죄송하지만, ... ʨu̯esʰoŋhaʥiman, ... That's okay. 괜찮습니다. ku̯ɛnʨʰans͈ɯmnida.

Please help out. 도와 주세요. tou̯a ʨusʰɛjo.

Thanks for your help. 도와 주셔서 감사합니다. tou̯a ʨuɕʰʌsʰʌ

kamsaɦamnida.

[I] know. 알겠습니다. alk͈ess͈ɯmnida.

[I] don't know. 모르겠습니다. mᵇoɾɯɡess͈ɯmnida.

Please say it again slowly. 다시 한번 천천히 말씀해 주세요. taɕʰi hambʌn

ʨʰʌnʨʰʌnhi mᵇals͈ɯmhe ʨusʰɛjo.

Please wait a moment. 잠깐만 기다려 주십시오. ʨamk͈amman kidaɾjʌ

ʨuɕʰibɕ͈io.

Can you speak Korean? 한국말 하실 수 있습니까? haŋɡuŋmal haɕʰil sʰu

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I don't speak Korean well. 한국말 잘 못합니다. haɡuŋmal ʨal

mᵇot̚hamnida.

I don't understand. 못 알아듣겠는데요. mᵇot̚ aɾadɯk̚k͈ennɯndejo. I don't know how to say it. 어떻게 말해야 좋을지 모르겠어요. ʌt͈ʌk̚kʰe

mᵇaɾɦɛja ʨoɦɯlʨ͈i mᵇoɾɯɡes͈ʌjo.

Do you understand my Korean? 제 한국어를 알아들으시겠어요? ʨe

haŋɡuɡʌɾɯl aɾadɯɾɯɕʰiɡes͈ʌjo?

That's not what I meant. 제 뜻은 그게 아니고요. ʨe t͈ɯsʰɯn kɯɡe aniɡojo. Where at? 어디예요? ʌdijejo?

Where is this (here)? 여기가 어디에요? jʌɡiɡa ʌdiejo? When? 언제예요? ʌnʥejejo?

How? 어떻게요? ʌt͈ʌk̚kʰejo? How much? 얼마예요? ʌlmajejo? What's wrong? 왜 그래요? u̯ɛ kɯɾɛjo?

What time is it now? 지금 몇 시예요? ʨiɡɯm mᵇjʌs ɕʰijejo? This is my first time here. 저는 이곳이 처음입니다. ʨʌnɯn iɡoɕʰi

ʨʰʌɯmimnida.

I've come here before. 전에 와 본 적이 있습니다. ʨʌne u̯a pon ʨʌɡi

iss͈ɯmnida.

What is this? 이것이 뭡니까? iɡʌɕʰi u̯ʌmnik͈a?

Sorry to trouble you. 정말 번거롭게 해드렸군요. ʨʌŋmal pʌŋɡʌɾop̚k͈e

hɛdɯɾjʌt̚k͈unjo.

Thank you for your hospitality. 초대해 주셔서 감사합니다. ʨʰodɛɦɛ

ʨuɕʰʌsʰʌ kamsaɦamnida.

Sorry to keep you waiting. 오래 기다리게 해서 정말 죄송합니다. oɾɛ

kidaɾiɡe hɛsʰʌ ʨʌŋmal ʨu̯esʰoŋhamnida.

Sorry I can't help. 유감스럽게도 당신을 도와 드릴 수가 없군요.

juɡamsɯɾʌp̚k͈edo taŋsinɯl tou̯a tɯɾil sʰuɡa ʌp̚k͈unjo.

Don't give up. 포기하지 마세요. pʰoɡiɦaʥi mᵇasʰejo.

Of course, it's all right. 당연히 괜찮지요. taŋjʌnɦi ku̯ɛnʨʰanʨʰijo. No problem. 문제 없어요. mᵇunʥe ʌpsʌjo.

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Vocabulary: Korean

Prepositions English 한국말한국말 about ~에 대한, ~에 관한 above ~보다 위에, ~보다 많은 according to ~에 따라 across 건너서, 가로질러 after 뒤에, 후에 against ~반대하여, 대조적으로 among ~가운데, 사이에 around 주위에 as ~처럼, ~로써 as far as ~까지 as well as 마찬가지로, 게다가 at ~으로, ~에 because of ~때문에 before 전에, 앞에 behind 뒤에, 뒤떨어져 below ~보다 아래에 beneath 아래에, 밑에 beside 옆에 between 사이에 beyond 저편에, 너머 but 그러나, 하지만 by ~로써, 에 의해

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close to 아주 가까이에서 despite 에도 불구하고 down 아래로 due to ~때문에 during 동안 except 제외하고 except for ~을 제외하고, ~이 없으면 far from ~멀리, ~와 거리가 먼 for 를 위해, ~의 from 부터 in ~에, ~에서 in addition to ~일 뿐 아니라 in front of ~의 앞쪽에(앞에) in spite of ...에도 불구하고 inside 안, 내부에 inside of ~안에, ~내부에 instead of ~대신 into ~으로 near 에서 가까이, 약 near to ~에 가까운, 거의~한 next 다음 next to 바로옆에, 다음에 of ~의 on (위)에 on behalf of ~대신(대표)하여 on top of ~위에 opposite 맞은편에 out 바깥쪽에, ~에서 멀리

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outside 겉에, 외부에 outside of ~바깥쪽에, ~의 밖에 over 위에 per 각, ~에 대하여, ~당 plus 더하기, 또한 prior to ~에 앞서, 먼저 round ~을 돌아, ~을 빙 돌아 since 이후, 이래 than 보다 through 를 통해 till ~까지 to 에 toward 향하여 under 아래에 unlike ~와 다른, ~와 달리 until 까지 up 위로, 위쪽으로 via 경우하여, 통해 with ~와 함께, ~로 within 이내에, 안에 without 없이 Pronouns English 한국말한국말 I 나는/내가 you (sg) 너는/당신이 he 그는/그가

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she 그녀는/그녀가 we 우리는/우리가 they 그들은/그들이 me (acc) 나를 you (acc) 너를/당신을 him (acc) 그를 her (acc) 그녀를 us (acc) 우리를 them (acc) 그들을 my (gen) 나의 your (gen) 너의/당신의 his (gen) 그의 her (gen) 그녀의 our (gen) 우리의 their (gen) 그들의 mine (gen) 나의 것/내것 yours (gen) 너의 것/당신의 것 his (gen) 그의 것 hers (gen) 그녀의 것 ours (gen) 우리의 것 theirs (gen) 그들의 것 Interrogatives English 한국말한국말 how 어떻게 what 무엇을 who 누가

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why 왜 how many/much 얼마나 how long 얼마나 시간-how often 얼마나 자주 which 어느 (것) when 언제 where 어디로 Days English 한국말한국말 Monday 월요일 Tuesday 화요일 Wednesday 수요일 Thursday 목요일 Friday 금요일 Saturday 토요일 Sunday 일요일 Adjectives English 한국말한국말 a few 몇 가지 bad 나쁜 big 큰 bitter 쓴 clean 깨끗한 correct 올바른 dark 어두운

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deep 깊은 difficult 어려운 dirty 더러운 dry 건조한 easy 쉬운 empty 비어있는 expensive 비싼 fast 빨리 few 몇 가지 foreign 외국의 fresh 신선한 full 가득한, 완전한 good 좋은 hard 딱딱한, 어려운 heavy 무거운 inexpensive 값싼, 바싸지 않은 light 가벼운, 밝은 little 조금 local 지역의, 현지의 long 긴 many 많은 much 많은 narrow 폭이 좁은 new 새로운 noisy 시끄러운 old 오래된, 늙은 part 부분 powerful 강한

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quiet 조용한 salty 짠 short person 짧은 slow 느린, 천천히 small 작은 soft 부드러운 some 약간 sour 신 (시큼한) spicy 매운 sweet 달콤한 tall 키가 큰 thick 두꺼운 thin 얇은 very 매우, 아주 weak 약한 wet 젖은 whole 전체 wide 넓은 wrong 잘못된 young 어린, 젊은 the same 똑같다 Adverbs English 한국말한국말 absolutely 전적으로, 틀림없이 ago 전에 almost 거의

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alone 혼자 already 이미 always 항상, 늘 anywhere 어디든, 아무데나 away 떨어져 barely 간신히, 가까스로 carefully 신중하게 everywhere 모든곳, 어디나 fast 빨리 frequently 자주, 흔히 hard 열심히 hardly 거의 here 여기 home 집에 immediately 바로, 즉시 last night 지난 밤 lately 최근에, 얼마 전에 later 나중에, 후에 mostly 주로, 일반적으로 never 결코, 절대 next week 다음 주 now 지금 nowhere 아무데도, 어디에도 occasionally 가끔 out 바깥에 over there 저기, 저쪽에 pretty 어느 정도, 꽤 quickly 빨리

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quite 꽤, 상당히 rarely 드물게 really 실제로, 진짜로 recently 최근에 right now 바로 지금 seldom 좀처럼 slowly 천천히 sometimes 가끔, 때로는 soon 곧 still 아직도 then 그때 there 저기, 거기 this morning 오늘 아침 today 오늘 together 함께 tomorrow 내일 tonight 오늘밤 usually 보통, 대개 very 매우, 아주 well 잘, 제대로 yesterday 어제 yet 아직 afterwards 나중에 afternoon 오후에 enough 충분히 often 자주 certainly 확실히 probably 아마도

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evening 저녁에 Conjunctions English 한국말한국말 also 또한 and 또 because 때문에 but 그러나 furthermore 더욱이 or (in questions) 또는 or else, otherwise 그렇지 않으면 so 그래서 so that 그래서

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GMS #1 - 100

EN The weather's nice today.

字 오늘 날씨가 좋아요.

KR 오늘 날씨가 좋아요. ROM onŭl nalssiga johayo.

IPA onɯl nᵈalɕ͈iɡa ʨoɦajo. EN I'm not rich.

字 저는 富者가 아니예요.

KR 저는 부자가 아니예요. ROM jŏnŭn bujaga aniyeyo.

IPA ʨʌnɯm puʥaɡa anijejo. EN This bag's heavy.

字 이 가방은 무거워요.

KR 이 가방은 무거워요. ROM i gabaŋŭn mugŏuŏyo.

IPA i kabaŋɯm mᵇuɡʌu̯ʌjo.

1

2

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EN These bags are heavy.

字 이 가방들은 무거워요.

KR 이 가방들은 무거워요. ROM i gabaŋdŭlŭn mugŏuŏyo.

IPA i kabaŋdɯɾɯm mᵇuɡʌu̯ʌjo. EN Look, there's my friend.

字 저 사람은 제 親舊예요.

KR 저 사람은 제 친구예요. ROM jŏ salamŭn je cinguyeyo.

IPA ʨʌ sʰaɾamɯn ʨe ʨʰiŋɡujejo.

EN My brother and I are good tennis players.

字 ♂兄과 (♀오빠와) 저는 tennis를 잘 쳐요.

KR ♂형과 (♀오빠와) 저는 테니스를 잘 쳐요. ROM ♂hyŏŋgoa (♀obbaoa) jŏnŭn tenisŭlŭl jal cyŏyo.

IPA ♂hjʌŋɡu̯a (♀op͈au̯a) ʨʌnɯn tʰenisʰɯɾɯl ʨal ʨʰʌjo.

5

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EN His mother's at home. He's at school. 字 字 그의 어머니는 집에 계시고, 그는 學校에 있어 요. KR 그의 어머니는 집에 계시고, 그는 학교에 있어 요.

ROM gŭŭi ŏmŏninŭn jibe gyesigo, gŭnŭn haggyoe issŏyo. IPA kɯe ʌmʌninɯn ʨibe kjeɕʰiɡo, kɯnɯn hak̚k͈joe

is͈ʌjo.

EN Her children are at school.

字 그女의 아이들은 學校에 있어요.

KR 그녀의 아이들은 학교에 있어요. ROM gŭnyŏŭi aidŭlŭn haggyoe issŏyo.

IPA kɯnjʌe aidɯɾɯn hak̚k͈joe is͈ʌjo. EN I'm a taxi driver.

字 저는 taxi 運轉士예요.

KR 저는 택시 운전사예요. ROM jŏnŭn tɛgsi unjŏnsayeyo.

IPA ʨʌnɯn tʰɛk̚ɕ͈i unʥʌnsajejo.

8

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EN My sister's a nurse.

字 제 女同生은 看護師예요.

KR 제 여동생은 간호사예요. ROM je yŏdoŋsɛŋŭn ganhosayeyo. IPA ʨe jʌdoŋsɛŋɯŋ kanhosʰajejo.

EN He's sick. He's in bed.

字 그는 아파서 寢臺에 누워있어요.

KR 그는 아파서 침대에 누워있어요. ROM gŭnŭn apasŏ cimdɛe nuuŏissŏyo.

IPA kɯnɯn apʰasʰʌ ʨʰimdɛe nᵈuu̯ʌis͈ʌjo. EN I'm not hungry, but I'm thirsty.

字 저는 배고프지는 않은데 목이 말라요.

KR 저는 배고프지는 않은데 목이 말라요. ROM jŏnŭn bɛgopŭjinŭn anhŭnde mogi mallayo.

IPA ʨʌnɯm pɛɡopʰɯʥinɯn anɦɯnde mᵇoɡi mᵇallajo.

11

(43)

EN He's a very old man. He's ninety-eight (98) years old.

字 그분은 年歲가 많으세요. 아흔여덟이세요.

KR 그분은 연세가 많으세요. 아흔여덟이세요. ROM gŭbunŭn yŏnsega manhŭseyo. ahŭnyŏdŏlbiseyo.

IPA kɯbunɯn jʌnseɡa mᵇanɦɯsʰejo. aɦɯnjʌdʌlbisʰejo. EN These chairs aren't beautiful, but they're comfortable.

字 이 椅子들은 예쁘지는 않지만 便해요.

KR 이 의자들은 예쁘지는 않지만 편해요. ROM i ŭijadŭlŭn yebbŭjinŭn anhjiman pyŏnhɛyo.

IPA i ɰiʥadɯɾɯn jep͈ɯʥinɯn anʨʰimam pʰjʌnhɛjo. EN The weather's warm and sunny today.

字 오늘 날씨가 따뜻하고 和暢해요.

KR 오늘 날씨가 따뜻하고 화창해요. ROM onŭl nalssiga ddaddŭshago hoacaŋhɛyo.

IPA onɯl nᵈalɕ͈iɡa t͈at͈ɯt̚haɡo hu̯aʨʰaŋhɛjo.

14

(44)

EN You're late. — No, I'm not! I'm early. 字 字 늦었네요. — 아니에요. 저 안 늦었어요. 일찍 到着했어요. KR 늦었네요. — 아니에요. 저 안 늦었어요. 일찍 도착했어요.

ROM nŭjŏssneyo. — anieyo. jŏ an nŭjŏssŏyo. iljjig

docaghɛssŏyo.

IPA nᵈɯʥʌnnejo. — aniejo. ʨʌ an nᵈɯʥʌs͈ʌjo. ilʨ͈jik̚

toʨʰakʰɛs͈ʌjo.

EN She isn't home. She's at work.

字 그女는 집에 없어요. 일하는 중이예요.

KR 그녀는 집에 없어요. 일하는 중이예요. ROM gŭnyŏnŭn jibe ŏbsŏyo. ilhanŭn juŋiyeyo.

IPA kɯnjʌnɯn ʨibe ʌp̚s͈ʌjo. iɾɦanɯn ʨuŋijejo. EN Here's your coat.

字 coat 여기에 있어요.

KR 코트 여기에 있어요. ROM kotŭ yŏgie issŏyo.

IPA kʰotʰɯ jʌɡie is͈ʌjo.

17

(45)

EN What's your name?

字 이름이 뭐예요?

KR 이름이 뭐예요? ROM ilŭmi muŏyeyo?

IPA iɾɯmi mᵇu̯ʌjejo? EN My name's Alan. 字 字 저는 Alan이에요. KR 저는 앨런이에요. ROM jŏnŭn ɛllŏnieyo. IPA ʨʌnɯn ɛllʌniejo. EN Where are you from?

字 어디에서 왔어요?

KR 어디에서 왔어요? ROM ŏdiesŏ oassŏyo?

IPA ʌdiesʰʌ u̯as͈ʌjo?

20

(46)

EN I'm from New York.

字 저는 New York에서 왔어요.

KR 저는 뉴욕에서 왔어요. ROM jŏnŭn nyuyogesŏ oassŏyo.

IPA ʨʌnɯn nᵈjujoɡesʰʌ u̯as͈ʌjo. EN How old are you?

字 몇 살이에요?

KR 몇 살이에요? ROM myŏc salieyo?

IPA mᵇjʌs sʰaɾiejo?

EN I'm twenty (20) years old.

字 저는 스무 살이에요.

KR 저는 스무 살이에요. ROM jŏnŭn sŭmu salieyo.

IPA ʨʌnɯn sʰɯmu sʰaɾiejo.

23

(47)

EN What's your job?

字 職業이 뭐예요?

KR 직업이 뭐예요? ROM jigŏbi muŏyeyo?

IPA ʨiɡʌbi mᵇu̯ʌjejo? EN I'm a teacher. 字 字 저는 先生님이에요. KR 저는 선생님이에요. ROM jŏnŭn sŏnsɛŋnimieyo. IPA ʨʌnɯn sʰʌnsɛŋnimiejo. EN What's your favorite color?

字 가장 좋아하는 色깔이 뭐예요?

KR 가장 좋아하는 색깔이 뭐예요? ROM gajaŋ johahanŭn sɛgggali muŏyeyo?

IPA kaʥaŋ ʨoɦaɦanɯn sʰɛk̚k͈aɾi mᵇu̯ʌjejo?

26

(48)

EN My favorite color is blue.

字 저는 파란色을 第一 좋아해요.

KR 저는 파란색을 제일 좋아해요. ROM jŏnŭn palansɛgŭl jeil johahɛyo.

IPA ʨʌnɯm pʰaɾansɛɡɯl ʨeil ʨoɦaɦɛjo. EN What are you interested in?

字 趣味가 뭐예요?

KR 취미가 뭐예요? ROM cuimiga muŏyeyo?

IPA ʨʰɥimiɡa mᵇu̯ʌjejo? EN I'm interested in music.

字 音樂 듣는 걸 좋아해요.

KR 음악 듣는 걸 좋아해요. ROM ŭmag dŭdnŭn gŏl johahɛyo.

IPA ɯmak̚ tɯnnɯŋ kʌl ʨoɦaɦɛjo.

29

(49)

EN It's hot today.

字 오늘 무척 더워요.

KR 오늘 무척 더워요. ROM onŭl mucŏg dŏuŏyo.

IPA onɯl mᵇuʨʰʌk̚ tʌu̯ʌjo. EN It isn't hot today.

字 오늘은 덥지 않아요.

KR 오늘은 덥지 않아요. ROM onŭlŭn dŏbji anhayo.

IPA onɯɾɯn tʌp̚ʨ͈i anɦajo. EN It's windy today.

字 오늘 바람이 세요.

KR 오늘 바람이 세요. ROM onŭl balami seyo.

IPA onɯl paɾami sʰejo.

32

(50)

EN It isn't windy today.

字 오늘 바람이 세지 않아요.

KR 오늘 바람이 세지 않아요. ROM onŭl balami seji anhayo.

IPA onɯl paɾami sʰeʥi anɦajo. EN My hands are cold.

字 제 손이 차가워요.

KR 제 손이 차가워요. ROM je soni cagauŏyo.

IPA ʨe sʰoni ʨʰaɡau̯ʌjo.

EN Brazil is a very big country.

字 Brazil은 아주 큰 나라예요.

KR 브라질은 아주 큰 나라예요. ROM bŭlajilŭn aju kŭn nalayeyo.

IPA pɯɾaʥiɾɯn aʥu kʰɯn nᵈaɾajejo.

35

(51)

EN Diamonds are not cheap.

字 Diamond는 싸지 않아요.

KR 다이아몬드는 싸지 않아요. ROM daiamondŭnŭn ssaji anhayo.

IPA taiamondɯnɯn s͈aʥi anɦajo. EN Toronto isn't in the United States.

字 Toronto는 美國에 있지 않아요.

KR 토론토는 미국에 있지 않아요. ROM tolontonŭn miguge issji anhayo.

IPA tʰoɾontʰonɯm mᵇiɡuɡe it̚ʨ͈i anɦajo. EN I'm tired.

字 저는 좀 疲困해요.

KR 저는 좀 피곤해요. ROM jŏnŭn jom pigonhɛyo.

IPA ʨʌnɯn ʨom pʰiɡonhɛjo.

38

(52)

EN I'm not tired.

字 저는 疲困하지 않아요.

KR 저는 피곤하지 않아요. ROM jŏnŭn pigonhaji anhayo.

IPA ʨʌnɯm pʰiɡonhaʥi anɦajo. EN I'm hungry.

字 저는 좀 배고파요.

KR 저는 좀 배고파요. ROM jŏnŭn jom bɛgopayo.

IPA ʨʌnɯn ʨom pɛɡopʰajo. EN I'm not hungry.

字 저는 배고프지 않아요.

KR 저는 배고프지 않아요. ROM jŏnŭn bɛgopŭji anhayo.

IPA ʨʌnɯm pɛɡopʰɯʥi anɦajo.

41

(53)

EN He's a good swimmer.

字 그는 水泳을 잘해요.

KR 그는 수영을 잘해요. ROM gŭnŭn suyŏŋŭl jalhɛyo.

IPA kɯnɯn sʰujʌŋɯl ʨaɾɦɛjo. EN I'm not interested in politics.

字 저는 政治에 別로 關心이 없어요.

KR 저는 정치에 별로 관심이 없어요. ROM jŏnŭn jŏŋcie byŏllo goansimi ŏbsŏyo.

IPA ʨʌnɯn ʨʌŋʨʰie pjʌllo ku̯ansimi ʌp̚s͈ʌjo. EN What's your name?

字 이름이 뭐예요?

KR 이름이 뭐예요? ROM ilŭmi muŏyeyo?

IPA iɾɯmi mᵇu̯ʌjejo?

44

(54)

EN My name's Amanda. 字 字 저는 Amanda예요. KR 저는 아만다예요. ROM jŏnŭn amandayeyo. IPA ʨʌnɯn amandajejo.

EN Are you married?

字 結婚하셨어요?

KR 결혼하셨어요? ROM gyŏlhonhasyŏssŏyo?

IPA kjʌɾɦonhaɕʰʌs͈ʌjo? EN No, I'm single.

字 아니요, 아직 안 했어요.

KR 아니요, 아직 안 했어요. ROM aniyo, ajig an hɛssŏyo.

IPA anijo, aʥik̚ an hɛs͈ʌjo.

47

(55)

EN How old are you?

字 나이가 어떻게 되세요?

KR 나이가 어떻게 되세요? ROM naiga ŏddŏhge doiseyo?

IPA nᵈaiɡa ʌt͈ʌk̚kʰe tu̯esʰejo? EN I'm twenty-five (25).

字 저는 스물다섯 살이에요.

KR 저는 스물다섯 살이에요. ROM jŏnŭn sŭmuldasŏs salieyo.

IPA ʨʌnɯn sʰɯmult͈asʰʌs sʰaɾiejo. EN Are you a student?

字 字 學生이세요? KR 학생이세요? ROM hagsɛŋiseyo? IPA hak̚s͈ɛŋisʰejo? 50 51

(56)

EN Yes, I am [a student].

字 네, 맞아요.

KR 네, 맞아요. ROM ne, majayo.

IPA nᵈe, mᵇaʥajo. EN Am I late?

字 제가 좀 늦었나요?

KR 제가 좀 늦었나요? ROM jega jom nŭjŏssnayo?

IPA ʨeɡa ʨom nᵈɯʥʌnnajo? EN No, you're on time.

字 아니에요, 딱 맞게 왔어요.

KR 아니에요, 딱 맞게 왔어요. ROM anieyo, ddag majge oassŏyo.

IPA aniejo, t͈ak̚ mᵇak̚k͈e u̯as͈ʌjo.

53

(57)

EN Is your mother at home?

字 어머님은 집에 계세요?

KR 어머님은 집에 계세요? ROM ŏmŏnimŭn jibe gyeseyo?

IPA ʌmʌnimɯn ʨibe kjesʰejo? EN No, she's out.

字 아니요, 나가셨어요.

KR 아니요, 나가셨어요. ROM aniyo, nagasyŏssŏyo.

IPA anijo, nᵈaɡaɕʰʌs͈ʌjo. EN Are your parents at home?

字 父母님은 집에 계세요?

KR 부모님은 집에 계세요? ROM bumonimŭn jibe gyeseyo?

IPA pumonimɯn ʨibe kjesʰejo?

56

(58)

EN No, they're out.

字 아니요, 나가셨어요.

KR 아니요, 나가셨어요. ROM aniyo, nagasyŏssŏyo.

IPA anijo, nᵈaɡaɕʰʌs͈ʌjo. EN Is it cold in your room?

字 房이 좀 춥나요?

KR 방이 좀 춥나요? ROM baŋi jom cubnayo?

IPA paŋi ʨom ʨʰumnajo? EN Yes, a little.

字 네, 좀 추워요.

KR 네, 좀 추워요. ROM ne, jom cuuŏyo.

IPA nᵈe, ʨom ʨʰuu̯ʌjo.

59

(59)

EN Your shoes are nice. Are they new?

字 신발이 멋지네요. 새로 산 거예요?

KR 신발이 멋지네요. 새로 산 거예요? ROM sinbali mŏsjineyo. sɛlo san gŏyeyo?

IPA ɕʰimbaɾi mᵇʌt̚ʨ͈inejo. sʰɛɾo sʰaŋ kʌjejo? EN Yes, they are.

字 네, 새로 샀어요.

KR 네, 새로 샀어요. ROM ne, sɛlo sassŏyo.

IPA nᵈe, sʰɛɾo sʰas͈ʌjo.

EN Where's your mother? Is she at home?

字 어머님 어디 계세요? 집에 계세요?

KR 어머님 어디 계세요? 집에 계세요? ROM ŏmŏnim ŏdi gyeseyo? jibe gyeseyo?

IPA ʌmʌnim ʌdi kjesʰejo? ʨibe kjesʰejo?

62

(60)

EN Where are you from?

字 어디서 오셨어요?

KR 어디서 오셨어요? ROM ŏdisŏ osyŏssŏyo?

IPA ʌdisʰʌ oɕʰʌs͈ʌjo? EN I'm from Canada.

字 저는 Canada에서 왔어요.

KR 저는 캐나다에서 왔어요. ROM jŏnŭn kɛnadaesŏ oassŏyo.

IPA ʨʌnɯŋ kʰɛnadaesʰʌ u̯as͈ʌjo. EN What color is your car?

字 車가 무슨 色이에요?

KR 차가 무슨 색이에요? ROM caga musŭn sɛgieyo?

IPA ʨʰaɡa mᵇusʰɯn sʰɛɡiejo?

65

(61)

EN It's red. 字 字 빨간色이에요. KR 빨간색이에요. ROM bbalgansɛgieyo. IPA p͈alk͈ansɛɡiejo. EN How old is Hassan?

字 نسح은 몇 살이에요?

KR 하산은 몇 살이에요? ROM hasanŭn myŏc salieyo?

IPA hasʰanɯm mᵇjʌs sʰaɾiejo? EN He's twenty-four (24).

字 그는 스물네 살이에요.

KR 그는 스물네 살이에요. ROM gŭnŭn sŭmulne salieyo.

IPA kɯnɯn sʰɯmulle sʰaɾiejo.

68

(62)

EN How are your parents?

字 父母님은 잘 계세요?

KR 부모님은 잘 계세요? ROM bumonimŭn jal gyeseyo?

IPA pumonimɯn ʨal kjesʰejo? EN They're doing fine.

字 잘 지내고 계세요.

KR 잘 지내고 계세요. ROM jal jinɛgo gyeseyo.

IPA ʨal ʨinɛɡo kjesʰejo.

EN These postcards are nice. How much are they?

字 葉書가 예쁘네요. 얼마예요?

KR 엽서가 예쁘네요. 얼마예요? ROM yŏbsŏga yebbŭneyo. ŏlmayeyo?

IPA jʌps͈ʌɡa jep͈ɯnejo. ʌlmajejo?

71

(63)

EN They're a dollar (USD). They're a pound (GBP).

They're a euro (EUR).

字 이 것은 dollar예요. 이 것은 pound예요. 이

것은 euro예요.

KR 이 것은 달러예요. 이 것은 파운드예요. 이 것

은 유로예요.

ROM i gŏsŭn dallŏyeyo. i gŏsŭn paundŭyeyo. i gŏsŭn

yuloyeyo.

IPA i kʌsʰɯn tallʌjejo. i kʌsʰɯm pʰaundɯjejo. i kʌsʰɯn

juɾojejo.

EN This hotel isn't very good. Why is it so expensive?

字 이 hotel은 別로 좋지도 않은데 왜 이렇게 비

싼 건가요?

KR 이 호텔은 별로 좋지도 않은데 왜 이렇게 비싼

건가요?

ROM i hotelŭn byŏllo johjido anhŭnde oɛ ilŏhge bissan

gŏngayo?

IPA i hotʰeɾɯm pjʌllo ʨot̚ʨʰido anɦɯnde u̯ɛ iɾʌk̚kʰe

pis͈aŋ kʌŋɡajo?

EN What's your phone number?

字 電話番號가 어떻게 되세요?

KR 전화번호가 어떻게 되세요? ROM jŏnhoabŏnhoga ŏddŏhge doiseyo?

IPA ʨʌnhu̯abʌnhoɡa ʌt͈ʌk̚kʰe tu̯esʰejo?

74

(64)

EN Who's that man?

字 그 男子는 누구예요?

KR 그 남자는 누구예요? ROM gŭ namjanŭn nuguyeyo?

IPA kɯ nᵈamʥanɯn nᵈuɡujejo? EN He's the boss.

字 그 분은 社長님이에요.

KR 그 분은 사장님이에요. ROM gŭ bunŭn sajaŋnimieyo.

IPA kɯ punɯn sʰaʥaŋnimiejo. EN Where's your friend?

字 親舊는 어디갔어요?

KR 친구는 어디갔어요? ROM cingunŭn ŏdigassŏyo? IPA ʨʰiŋɡunɯn ʌdiɡas͈ʌjo?

77

(65)

EN She's in the bathroom.

字 化妝室에 있어요.

KR 화장실에 있어요. ROM hoajaŋsile issŏyo.

IPA hu̯aʥaŋsiɾe is͈ʌjo. EN How's your father?

字 아버님은 잘 계세요?

KR 아버님은 잘 계세요? ROM abŏnimŭn jal gyeseyo?

IPA abʌnimɯn ʨal kjesʰejo? EN He's doing great.

字 네, 잘 계세요.

KR 네, 잘 계세요. ROM ne, jal gyeseyo.

IPA nᵈe, ʨal kjesʰejo.

80

(66)

EN Are you tired? 字 字 疲困해요? KR 피곤해요? ROM pigonhɛyo? IPA pʰiɡonhɛjo? EN Yes, I am [tired]. 字 字 네, 疲困해요. KR 네, 피곤해요. ROM ne, pigonhɛyo.

IPA nᵈe, pʰiɡonhɛjo. EN Are you hungry?

字 字 배고파요? KR 배고파요? ROM bɛgopayo? IPA pɛɡopʰajo? 83 84

(67)

EN No, but I'm thirsty.

字 아니요, 근데 목이 말라요.

KR 아니요, 근데 목이 말라요. ROM aniyo, gŭnde mogi mallayo.

IPA anijo, kɯnde mᵇoɡi mᵇallajo. EN Is your friend Chinese?

字 親舊는 中國人이에요?

KR 친구는 중국인이에요? ROM cingunŭn juŋguginieyo?

IPA ʨʰiŋɡunɯn ʨuŋɡuɡiniejo? EN Yes, he is [Chinese].

字 네, 中國人이에요.

KR 네, 중국인이에요. ROM ne, juŋguginieyo.

IPA nᵈe, ʨuŋɡuɡiniejo.

86

References

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