Swine Management- Eg's

Full text

(1)

SWINE MANAGEMENT

SWINE MANAGEMENT

AMY M. GONZALES-EGUIA

AMY M. GONZALES-EGUIA

Mobile No. 0998 544 0305 Mobile No. 0998 544 0305 A

ATI-InternationTI-International Tal Training Ceraining Center on Pig nter on Pig HusbandrHusbandryy

Marawoy, Lipa City, Batangas, Philippines Marawoy, Lipa City, Batangas, Philippines

1

(2)

FARM MANAGEMENT

FARM MANAGEMENT

2 2 Aspects of pig Aspects of pig production production Breeding Breeding Feeding Feeding Economics Economics Record Record Keeping Keeping Housing Housing Health Health

(3)

Farm Management

Farm Management

••

coordination and planning of farm activitiescoordination and planning of farm activities

••

Establishing and maintaining good workingEstablishing and maintaining good working environment

environment

3

(4)

• large litter size atlarge litter size at

weaning

weaning

• fast growersfast growers

• efficient feedefficient feed

converter

converter

• good qualitygood quality

carcass

carcass

4

(5)

Sys

Systems of

tems of Operation

Operation

••

Sow-weaner operationSow-weaner operation

••

Farrow to finishFarrow to finish operation

operation

••

Finisher productionFinisher production

••

Breeder FarmBreeder Farm

••

Boar Operation/AI CenterBoar Operation/AI Center

5

(6)

SELECTION OF

SELECTION OF

BO RS

(7)

• •

Masculinity in

Masculinity in

appearance and

appearance and

action

action

clearly visible

clearly visible

primary sex

primary sex

organs

organs

uniformly hanging

uniformly hanging

equal-sized

equal-sized

testicles

testicles

 S

 S

e

e

x

x

C

C

h

h

a

a

r

r

a

a

c

c

t

t

e

e

SELECTION OF BOARS

SELECTION OF BOARS

(8)
(9)

Don’t

Don’t

Touch!!

(10)

••A boar should A boar should havehave large even testicleslarge even testicles..

•• A boar with large testicles is most likely tA boar with large testicles is most likely too produce earlierproduce earlier

maturing daughters

maturing daughters..

Ideal

(11)

Bad testicle examples Bad testicle examples

S

(12)

• 6 months at the time6 months at the time

of selection of selection

• serious faults inserious faults in

conformation as well conformation as well as desirable traits are as desirable traits are developed enough at developed enough at this age

this age

• select a boar which isselect a boar which is

tested for fertility tested for fertility

 A

(13)

Number, spacing

Number, spacing

and presentation of

and presentation of

live teats

live teats

(at least 12)

(at least 12)

R

R

e

e

p

p

r

r

o

o

d

d

uct

uct

i

i

ve

ve

 s

 s

o

o

u

u

n

n

d

d

n

n

e

e

s

s

s

s

(14)

4 Teats Placed Above the Sheath 4 Teats Placed Above the Sheath

3 Teats Placed Above the Sheath

3 Teats Placed Above the Sheath Pin Nipples / Bad Spacing / NonePin Nipples / Bad Spacing / None Functional Teats

Functional Teats Boars should have a

Boars should have a high quality underline with as many teats placed as farhigh quality underline with as many teats placed as far forward as possible

forward as possible

longer bodied

longer bodied

and more desirable

(15)

Boar should have a

Boar should have a larger and more

larger and more

defined

defined

sheath

sheath

..

Small

Small Sized Sized Sheath Sheath Medium Medium Sized Sized SheathSheath

Large Sized Sheath Large Sized Sheath

(16)

Selection of boars with

Selection of boars with heritable

heritable

defects can be avoided

defects can be avoided

by careful

by careful

analysis of the source herd production

analysis of the source herd production

records.

records.

umbilic

umbilical or

al or inguinal hernias

inguinal hernias

cryptorchidism

cryptorchidism

rectal prolapse

rectal prolapse

(17)

W

W

ell-proportioned

ell-proportioned

body

body

length, depth and height

length, depth and height

B

(18)

Determine

Determine

the

the

weaknesses

weaknesses

of the gilts

of the gilts

and sows in

and sows in

the herd to

the herd to

make

make

necessary

necessary

adjustments

adjustments

(19)

19 19

M

M

N

N

GEMENT

GEMENT

OF

OF

BO RS

BO RS

(20)

Both genetic and

Both genetic and envirenvironment determine theonment determine the performance of swine herd.

performance of swine herd.

Genetic contribution is determined by Genetic contribution is determined by

boars

boars and and gilts gilts selected selected breedingbreeding progr

program uam usedsed M

(21)

Climate

Climate HousingHousing NutritionNutrition ManagementManagement

Can hinder the genetic

Can hinder the genetic

expression of performance trait

expression of performance trait

M

M

N

N

GEMENT

GEMENT

OF

OF

BO RS

(22)

(23)

TRANSPORT of BOARS

TRANSPORT of BOARS

••

Minimize stress, Minimize stress, diseasesdiseases or injuries or injuries

••

no feeding 1--2no feeding 1 2 hours before hours before loading loading

••

safe, well--builtsafe, well built loading and loading and unloading unloading facilities facilities

(24)

TRANSPORT of BOARS

TRANSPORT of BOARS

•• clean & disinfect truck for loadingclean & disinfect truck for loading

•• suitable bedding and protectionsuitable bedding and protection

•• divider when hauling unfdivider when hauling unfamiliar boarsamiliar boars

•• avoid harsh handlingavoid harsh handling

(25)

Rest

Rest in a in a clean, clean, dry , dry , warm warm andand draft free pen

draft free pen Isolation

Isolation

Acclimatization Acclimatization

ARRIVAL AT THE FARM

(26)

ISOLATION/QUARANTINE

ISOLATION/QUARANTINE

••

30 DAYS

30 DAYS

••

feed & check at the

feed & check at the

end of the day

end of the day

••

no medicated feed

no medicated feed

••

observe signs of

observe signs of

diseases

diseases

(27)

••

3 weeks

3 weeks

••

Blood tests against diseases

Blood tests against diseases

••

exposure to breeding barn manure

exposure to breeding barn manure

••

housed adjacent to culled sows or

housed adjacent to culled sows or

market gilts

market gilts

ACCLIMATIZATION

(28)

C

C

OM

OM

M

M

ON

ON

P

P

RO

RO

BL

BL

E

E

MS

MS

Abnormal

Abnormal

or poor

or poor

semen

semen

production

production

Disease

Disease

high

high

temperature

temperature

over-use

over-use

(29)

C

C

OM

OM

M

M

ON

ON

P

P

RO

RO

BL

BL

E

E

MS

MS

Poor sex

Poor sex

drive

drive

• • BulliedBullied • • injuryinjury •

• laziness (hotlaziness (hot

weather) weather)

(30)

Physical

Physical

disorders

disorders

C

C

OM

OM

M

M

ON

ON

P

P

RO

RO

BL

BL

E

E

MS

MS

•• Feet sores &Feet sores & cracks cracks •• arthritisarthritis •• injuries toinjuries to muscles/ligaments muscles/ligaments

(31)

Frequency of Use

Frequency of Use

B

B

o

o

a

a

r

r

A

A

g

g

e

e

S

S

e

e

r

r

v

v

i

i

c

c

e

e

Interval

Interval

8-12

8-12

months

months

5-10 days

5-10 days

>

>

1

1

y

y

e

e

a

a

r

r

3

3

-

-

4

4

d

d

a

a

y

y

s

s

(32)

OTHER

OTHER

CONSIDERATIONS

CONSIDERATIONS

acclimatizeacclimatize boars before boars before use use 1 1stst “use” at“use” at 8 8 mmoonntthhss old old ideal ratio: ideal ratio: 1 AI boar: 50-100 1 AI boar: 50-100

(33)

4 4--6 6 mmoonntthhss SSeelleeccttiioonn 6 6--7 7 mmoonntthhss AAcccclliimmaattiizzaattiioonn 7 7--8 8 mmoonntthhss TTrraaiinniinngg 8 8--112 2 mmoonntthhss ccoolllleeccttiioonn: : 11xx//wwkk (max 2X) (max 2X) > >112 2 mmoonntthhss ccoolllleeccttiioonn: : 22--33xx//wweeeekk 30-36

30-36 months months Planned Planned cullingculling

Regul

(34)

Summary

Summary

••

Proper Management of herd boars returns bigProper Management of herd boars returns big dividends to pig producer.

dividends to pig producer.

••

Many potential problems starting fromMany potential problems starting from selection up to

selection up to culling largely contribute toculling largely contribute to expenditure if not

expenditure if not detected and preventdetected and preventeded early.

early.

34

(35)

Selection of Gilts

Selection of Gilts

35

(36)

Selection of Gilts

Selection of Gilts

T

Thhee aaiimm ooff sseelleeccttiinngg ggiillttss iiss ttoo kkeeeepp aanniimmaallss tthhaatt yyoouu eexxppeecctt ttoo rraaiissee tthhee mmoosstt ppiigglleett // ssooww// yyeaearr wiwiththououtt gegenenetiticc ababnonormrmalalititieies.s.

36

(37)

Don’t choose gilts w

Don’t choose gilts w

ith small

ith small

infantile vulva or abnormal

infantile vulva or abnormal

vulva!

vulva!

Selection of Gilts

Selection of Gilts

37 37

(38)

Upturned vulvas

Upturned vulvas

•• difficult for a boar difficult for a boar  to naturally breed to naturally breed

Infantile Vulva Infantile Vulva •

• hard to breed naturally or by AIhard to breed naturally or by AI

•• abnormally smaller Reproductiveabnormally smaller Reproductive tract on the inside than normal tract on the inside than normal

may have difficulty in farrowing

may have difficulty in farrowing

Ideal Vulva Ideal Vulva •

• proportional inproportional in

size with the tip

size with the tip

pointing pointing downward downward 38 38

(39)

Well-developed

developed

underlines

underlines

or

or

mammary

mammary

glands!

glands!

39 39

(40)

NO NO INVERTED INVERTED TEATS!!! TEATS!!! 40 40

(41)

Good

Good

mothering

mothering

ability!!!

ability!!!

L

L

a

a

r

r

g

g

e

e

li

li

t

t

t

t

e

e

r

r

si

si

z

z

e

e

41 41

(42)

Strong back

Strong back

for longevity

for longevity

Strong legs

Strong legs

42

(43)

43

43

GILT

(44)

•• buy 6 months--old giltsbuy 6 months old gilts

•• house gilts near the boarhouse gilts near the boar

•• Breed Breed on on the the 2nd2nd -- 3rd3rd estrus

estrus

•• 8 months old 130--150 kg8 months old 130 150 kg

•• Flush 2 Flush 2 weeks beforweeks beforee breeding

breeding

•• Move to the pens for D/PMove to the pens for D/P sows before breeding sows before breeding

44

(45)

FEEDING

FEEDING

need adequate feed for

need adequate feed for

longer productive life

longer productive life

130kgs at 7 months

130kgs at 7 months

18

18--20 mm back fat

20 mm back fat

3

3--4kgs of feed for 2

4kgs of feed for 2

weeks before breeding

weeks before breeding

3000

3000--3200 kcal DE

3200 kcal DE

45

(46)

What you need to know about

What you need to know about

gilt’s exposure to light?

gilt’s exposure to light?

Gilts exposed to 14-18 hours

Gilts exposed to 14-18 hours

light:

light:

• Reach puberty earlier Reach puberty earlier 

•There is no There is no differencdifference ine in

ovulation rate.

ovulation rate.

• Both gilts and the boar areBoth gilts and the boar are

sexually more active.

sexually more active.

46

(47)

•• essential to stimulate heatessential to stimulate heat

•• very very young gilts young gilts not not less less than 160 than 160 days olddays old •• use mature boars >10 months olduse mature boars >10 months old

•• allow 10-15 minutes per exposureallow 10-15 minutes per exposure •• direct or fence-linedirect or fence-line

•• rotation of boarsrotation of boars

Boar Exposure

Boar Exposure

47

(48)

Breeding

Breeding

 On or before 8 monthsOn or before 8 months

 Cycled 2 or 3 timesCycled 2 or 3 times

  130130--150150 kgskgs LWLW  

BREED ON

BREED ON

GOOD

GOOD

STANDING

STANDING

HEAT

HEAT

48 48

(49)

Management of Dry Sows

Management of Dry Sows

49

49

Aim for short dry period

(50)

Management of Dry Sows

Management of Dry Sows

•• Keep sow in good health andKeep sow in good health and body condition

body condition

•• Lactation period not longer thanLactation period not longer than 6 weeks

6 weeks

•• No feed on weaning dayNo feed on weaning day

•• Newly weaned sow to paddocksNewly weaned sow to paddocks •

• Expose weaned sows to theExpose weaned sows to the boar 

boar 

•• Check for heat 2x a dayCheck for heat 2x a day

50

(51)

• Observe right timing ofObserve right timing of insemination

insemination

•• Breed only good sows;Breed only good sows; cull bad ones

cull bad ones •• Provide exerciseProvide exercise

•• 8 parity sows and older have8 parity sows and older have longer dry periods

longer dry periods

•• Negative effect of heat stressNegative effect of heat stress on onset of estrus

on onset of estrus

51

(52)

DRY SOW PROGRAM

DRY SOW PROGRAM

flushing

flushing

4.0 KG/DAY 

4.0 KG/DAY 

1

1 -- 1

10

0 d

da

ay

ys

s

maximum

maximum

of

of

10

10

days

days

or

or

until

until

the

the

day

day

before service/insemination

before service/insemination

52

(53)

WHY FLUSHING???

WHY FLUSHING???

BODY RECONDITIONING

BODY RECONDITIONING

PROMOTES OVULATION

PROMOTES OVULATION

53

(54)

Breeding Management

Breeding Management

54

(55)

BREEDING METHODS

BREEDING METHODS

 Natural Mating

 Natural Mating Artificial InsemArtificial Inseminationination

55

(56)

A successful insemin

A successful insemination is the ation is the rewreward forard for

good heat detection.

good heat detection.

56

(57)

Manageme

Management of

nt of Pregnant Sows

Pregnant Sows

57

(58)

Sow Production Cycle

Sow Production Cycle

Day Activities Day Activities 0 0 bbrreeeeddiinngg 2 211 ffiirrsst t hheeaat t ccoonnttrrooll 4 422 sseeccoonnd d hheeaat t ccoonnttrrooll 8 844 iinnccrreeaasse e ffeeeed d ggiifftt 1 10000 ffiirrsst t mmaanngge e ttrreeaattmmeenntt 1 10044 ddeewwoorrmmiinngg 1 10077 sseeccoonnd d mmaanngge e ttrreeaattmmeenntt 1 11111 ddeeccrreeaasse e ffeeeed d ggiifftt 1 11144 eexxppeecctteed d ffaarrrroowwiinng g ddaattee 58 58

(59)

PREGNANT SOW PROGRAM

PREGNANT SOW PROGRAM

heat control

heat control

21 & 42 days

21 & 42 days

CHECK RECORDS!!!

CHECK RECORDS!!!

When and how to check

When and how to check

pregnancy?

pregnancy?

59

(60)

Enlargement of the udder and Enlargement of the udder and

abdomen (3 months after service) abdomen (3 months after service)

Check External Signs !!!

Check External Signs !!!

60

(61)

Ultrasound

Ultrasound-- Doppler test

Doppler test

61

(62)

SCANNER

SCANNER

62

(63)

100 days

100 days

1st mange

1st mange

treatment

treatment

104 days

104 days

deworming

deworming

63 63

(64)

107 days

107 days

2

2

ndnd

mange

mange

treatment

treatment

transfer to farrowing pen

transfer to farrowing pen

change

change tto

o lactating

lactating feed

feed

64

(65)

decrease feed

decrease feed

2.0 kg/day

2.0 kg/day

inject vit. ADE

inject vit. ADE

111 days

111 days

65

(66)

11

114 d

4 da

ays

ys +/

+/-- 3D

3Da

ays

ys

Day of farrowing

Day of farrowing

farrowing day :

farrowing day : NO FEED

NO FEED

but

but

with water

with water

66

(67)

farrowing time: farrowing time:

-- disidisinfecnfection tion of of umbiumbilicalicall cord  cord  Day Day 0 0

PIGLET ACTIVITIES

PIGLET ACTIVITIES

-- cuttcutting oing of nef needle edle teethteeth/ ta/ tailil docking  docking   _   _ identificationidentification (EARTAGGING) (EARTAGGING) 67 67

(68)

PIGLET ACTIVITIES

PIGLET ACTIVITIES

Day

Day

iron injection iron injection 

Deworm piglets one Deworm piglets one week after Hog Cholera week after Hog Cholera VVaccinationaccination

5 5 -- 1100 2 28 8 -- 3300 30-60 30-60 vaccinationvaccination  _ 

 _ hog cholerahog cholera

castration castration weaning weaning – – 6 to 8 kg BW6 to 8 kg BW 0-3 0-3 68 68

(69)

On first few

On first few

days after

days after

farrowing,

farrowing,

carefully

carefully

observe for any

observe for any

disease

disease

condition and

condition and

inadequate milk

inadequate milk

production

production

69 69

(70)

Provide clean, dry, draft free environmentProvide clean, dry, draft free environment

with

with temp temp of of 30-3230-32ooCC

Extra care during 1Extra care during 1stst 3-5 days3-5 days

Minimize crushingMinimize crushing

 Assist piglets to suckle Assist piglets to suckle

70

(71)

Supplement feedSupplement feed

or do fostering or do fostering

Solid feed asSolid feed as

ea

earlrlyy as as popossssibiblele 

Prevent AnemiaPrevent Anemia

WWean ean not enot earlierarlier than 21 days

than 21 days

71

(72)

LACTATING SOW PROGRAM

LACTATING SOW PROGRAM

weaning

weaning

28

28

30 days

30 days

remove the sow not the piglets

remove the sow not the piglets

72

(73)

Management of

Management of

Weaners

Weaners

73 73

(74)

HELPFUL TIPS ON WEANERS

HELPFUL TIPS ON WEANERS

Remove the sow and not Remove the sow and not the piglets

the piglets T

Transfer 3-5 dransfer 3-5 days after ays after  Avoid mixing litters on 1 Avoid mixing litters on 1stst week 

week 

Provide enough space Provide enough space Fresh drinking water  Fresh drinking water  Re-group weaners

Re-group weaners

74

(75)

Feeding Considerations

Feeding Considerations

Ensure piglets are used to Ensure piglets are used to solid feed at weaning

solid feed at weaning Reduce feed at weaning Reduce feed at weaning Small amount per feeding Small amount per feeding

Better use mash or wet feeds Better use mash or wet feeds Ad libitum feeding when

Ad libitum feeding when they are 20-25 kg

they are 20-25 kg

75

(76)

MINIMIZE STRESS

MINIMIZE STRESS

Give anti-stress Give anti-stress T

Transfer during coldest ransfer during coldest part of the dpart of the dayay Provide warm welcome (

Provide warm welcome (3030ooC)C) Avoid overcrowding

Avoid overcrowding

Make feed & water accessible Make feed & water accessible

Provide good environment & good feed Provide good environment & good feed Minimize incidence of fighting

Minimize incidence of fighting

76

(77)

Finisher

Finisher

Management

Management

77 77

(78)

FATTENER MANAGEMENT

FATTENER MANAGEMENT

On

On the

the day

day of

of transfer

transfer to

to new

new pen

pen

n

n

group pigs according to size

group pigs according to size

n

n

give plenty of water 

give plenty of water 

n

n

give little amount of feeds

give little amount of feeds

n

n

separate weak & sick pigs

separate weak & sick pigs

n

n

prevent fighting

prevent fighting

78

(79)

FATTENER MANAGEMENT

FATTENER MANAGEMENT

1

-1 -

4 d

4 d

ays

ays

aft

aft

er

er

tra

tra

nsf

nsf

er 

er 

gradual increase in amount of

gradual increase in amount of

feeds given

feeds given

give proper amount & quality of

give proper amount & quality of

feeds

feeds

7 days after transfer 

7 days after transfer 

5 days after transfer 

5 days after transfer 

deworming / mange treatment

deworming / mange treatment

79

(80)

FEEDING METHODS

FEEDING METHODS

• •

AD LIBITUM

AD LIBITUM

• •

RESTRICTED

RESTRICTED

AD LIBITUM UNTIL 50 KG.

AD LIBITUM UNTIL 50 KG.

THEN RESTRICTED

THEN RESTRICTED

80

(81)

81

(82)

WHAT IS CULLING?

WHAT IS CULLING?

Removal of

Removal of

unwanted / unproductive

unwanted / unproductive

animals in the

animals in the

herd...

herd...

82 82

(83)

PLANNED VS UNPLANNED

PLANNED VS UNPLANNED

CULLING

CULLING

Planned culling is based on :

Planned culling is based on :

age

age

poor performance

poor performance

83

(84)

PLANNED VS UNPLANNED

PLANNED VS UNPLANNED

CULLING

CULLING

Unplanned culling Unplanned culling includes: includes:   lamenesslameness   diseasesdiseases 84 84

(85)

Pointers on Culling of sows

Pointers on Culling of sows

ageage

litter sizelitter size

fertility & prolificacyfertility & prolificacy

milk productionmilk production

quality of pigletsquality of piglets

feet and legfeet and leg

problem

problem

damaged udderdamaged udder

85

(86)

F

F

or

or

fa

fa

s

s

t

t

e

e

r

r

i

i

m

m

pr

pr

ove

ove

m

m

e

e

nt

nt

of

of

 pr

 pr

odu

odu

c

c

t

t

i

i

on effi

on effi

c

c

i

i

enc

enc

y of t

y of t

h

h

e

e

h

h

e

e

rd

rd

, M

, M

A

A

K

K

E

E

C

C

U

U

LL

LL

ING

ING

A

A

 A

 A

PA

PA

R

R

T O

T O

F Y

F Y

O

O

UR

UR

MANAGEMENT…...

MANAGEMENT…...

86 86

(87)

End of Management

End of Management

Thanks for Listening!!!

Thanks for Listening!!!

87

(88)

88

Figure

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References

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