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After the first World War, two-factors- Democracy and Nationalism, dominated and guided the course of affairs in the world. The armistice agreement between the Allies and Germany was based on the cardinal principle of democracy which followed self-determination and freedom to choose political allegiance. Another general concept that governed world affairs was the preponderant nationalism. While science and technology were welding the nations together, nationalism was dividing them.

Germany was no exception to this general principle. But the character of the Germans was such that they were a proud nation, and prepared to sacrifice anything for the sake of their national prosperity and prestige. Therefore, when humiliation and disgrace were inflicted on them they drove nationalism to the logical conclusion to put state above individual in order to restore Germany to her greatness. The result was the rise of National Socialism-OR Nazism.

Causes for the Rise of Nazism

Germany's defeat and surrender in 1918, her loss of prestige, the humiliation of the peace treaty, of the warguilt clause, of the military occupation, of the compulsory disarmament, of the dismemberment of her empire, cession of colonial possessions, territorial losses, the burden of war indeminity, the cancerous problem of reparations sank deep into the national consciousness, producing in a war-stained and underfed people, with no sound constitutional tradition, bitterness, revulsion and moral, political and psychological collapse.

Parliamentary Republican Government

Under such circumstances, it is natural that they search for a ventilation, and the first reaction was against the monarchy. Under this course the Communists tried to emerge in the name of revolt. Before their movement could gain momentum, it was routed, and a parliamentary republican government was set up at Weimar in 1919. The propensity of the problems facing the new government was monstrous in proportion. The people at large were projected and demoralized, and wanted a rapid recovery. The Government was unschooled in parliamentary procedures, and inexperienced in party system. The inflation created by the war and the dislocation of industries created economic confusion.

The middle class was pauperised, and the labour class faced unemployment, especially after the Franco-Belgian occupation of the industrial belt Ruhr.

Germany Marches on



However, starting with 1924, under the leadership of Steersman, Germany revised the policy and hard industry and devotion put her back on the world map. Her rapid recovery brought fom co-operation of the other powers. She was accepted as a partner in world affairs. Germany signed the Locarno Treaty guaranteeing Western frontier of France. The Versialles terms began to be modifies ; in 1926 the first of the three occupied zones was evacuated, and Germany was admitted to the League of Nations with a permanent seat in the council : in 1927 the commission to check armament was withdrawn; and after her acceptance of the much debated Young plan, all the zones in Rhineland were evacuated by 1930.

Failure of the Democratic Government

The peace of treaty revision was, however, too slow for the German people.

Her improvement in international position did not solve the internal suffering and problems. The world depression of 1929-31 added fresh problems and aggravated the situation. The Bruning Government (1930-32) failed it rise to the occasion and they provided no solution to any of the problems. The creaking parliamentary system began to break down.

Bruning's belief in emergency decrease and mismanagement of the whole situation discredited him. His inability to get through the proposed customs union with Austria, and failure to recover freedom of rearmament for Germany at the Geneva conference 1932 brought about his fall. Paper's and Schlecher's governments met the same fate.

The German lost their faith in democratic institutions since the Republic of Germany failed to solve her economic, political and international problems.

While every other nation was rearming. the national sentiment of the Germans was aroused when Germany could not do so. It was during this period that Hitler emerged as leader.


Adolf Hitler was born in 1889. His father was a custom official in the Austrian Civil Service. He joined military service during First World War. Though an Austrian by birth, he joined the German army and felt bitterly the German defeat in the war. After the war he joined a political organization, the National Socialist or Nazi Party and in 1923 he tried to seize power, but failed and was thrown into prison. It was in the prison that he wrote his autobiography called Mein Kampf (my struggle) the Bible of Nazism. The book elaborated in detail the aims and methods of the Nazi Party.

The Nazi Party :

The Nazi Party exploited the miserable situation created in Germany by the World War. It gave a dynamic programme to the people race. Hitler believed and


spread the idea that the Germans belonged to the finest in the world (Nordic race) and were destined to dominate other nations. Hitler considered that the Germans alone were culture builders and the inferior races like the Jews and the Negroes were culture-destroyers. He demanded territorial expansion because the growing population needed Libensrown (living space). In all public meeting Hitler condemned the Treaty of Versailles in violent terms and said that their defeat in the war must be avenged and the Versailles treaty must be torn up. To achieve these objects, Germany's military strength must be increased. The Nazis stood for one party dictatorship. The state was made the super-person and the individual had no rights against it. His duty was simple to follow the commands of the state. Thus Germany become a totalitarian state dominated by a single political party, the Nazi party, and only leader, Fuehrer.

Hitler moves up

Hitler, was highly egoistic eccentric. He advocated the Nazi programme with a frenzy. His fiery speeches kept the audiences spell bound. His dynamic personality was responsible for the growth of the party. He was assisted by Goebels, Hess and Himmomler in his propaganda. The party also gained the support of the students, the middle classes, landed aristocrats and industrialists.

Hitler exploited the popular hatred against the Treaty of Versailles and the economic depression of 1933. He raised a private army "Storm Troops" who wore brown shirts with arm bands bearings the Nazi emblem, the Swastik, He gave to it the Nazi, anti-Democratic and militarist programme in 1924, the Nazi's had only 14 seats in the Reichstag but in 1923 their representation increased to 230. In January, 1933 the President Hinderburg as a result of the Reichstag fire incident was compelled to confer the leadership of the Government on Hitler.

The new Reichstag endowed Hitler with dictatorial powers. After the death of Hinderburg in August, 1934 Hitler became the Feuhrer.

Hitler's Programme and Nazification Political

All opposition parties were dissolved. The Nazi party alone was declared legal. Party and State organisation became interlocked. Public services were filled by party security forces. Trade unions were abolished. Communists were jailed and tortured. Social Democrats were sent to concentration camps; the press, the theater, lecture hall and radio converted into Nazi-mouth pieces : the Brown Shirts given a blood bath : the jews persecuted and expelled : all parties other than the Nazi dissolved ; "Hitler Youth" organisation set up and the component parts of Germany brought under Nazi domination.

His programme can be summed up under following headings :-

(a) Anti-Jew (b) anti-profiteer, (c) anti-foreign, (d) anti-weimar, (e) anti-


Versailles coupled with (f) Aryansation, (g) employment (h) self-sufficiency (i) rearmament and militarism became the gospel of Nazi Germany.

Economic Developments :

1. Trade : Dr. Sahacht, known as an economic wizard, juggled with exchange control moratorium, government 1.6 barter economy and the unscrupulus trick of making the creditors foot the bill to promote Germany's trade in spite of the tariff walls raised against her.

2. Agriculture : Every effort was made to secure self-sufficiency in agriculture. Hitler introduced 'Back to the Land' schemes, settled families here and there on small farms, sent young men to labour camps where they did useful work in the open air, increased the area of cultivation by draining the marshes and dything the low lands and the productivity of the land by the use of machines and fertilizers and the output of the dairy farms by importing cows of superior milk capacity and raised the tarifts on farm products to assure better profits of agriculturists.

3. Industry : To meet German demand for raw-materials and ensure self-sufficiency in case of blockade and unceasing search for Ersatz (substitue) material was stimulated, synthetic sugar was made from saw dust and potatoes ; gasoline from wood and coal, clothes from chemical fibre, buna (rubber) from coal and lime ; etc.

4. Employment : Hitler's antifeminist policy of Kinder, Kinder, Kirche and Kurche withdrew women from the labour market. German professionals were substituted for the jews ; her agricultural industrial schemes increased the demand for labour and above all, his prodigious programme of armaments produced such a scarcity of hands that the there Ks had to be abandoned and women drafted into factories.


Hitler ruled Germany in the most authoritarian and totalitarian way. He had no human consideration for any one. The youth of the country were put through a vigorous Nazi training programme. The Nazi party was supreme in Germany. The press, radio, the films, the educational institutions were brought under government control. The Jews were systematically killed. The communists were hunted and punished by the Gestapo. The whole life of Germany was organised according to the Nazi programme. The government controlled production trade and banking. The German scientists worked hard to produce substitutes for unavailable raw-material. Strikes were prohibited, illiteracy was nearly wiped out but education was militarised.

Foreign Policy of Hitler


Hitler came to power capitalising on the Pan-German aspirations. Both in internal affairs (see above) and external affairs, the Nazi party adopted the professed policies found in Hitler's Mein Kampf. The express aims of Hitler's internal policy as found in his work were :-

(1) The union of all people of German race by the right of self determination in one Great Germany.

(2) The scrapping of the peace Treaties of Versailles and St. Germain.

(3) The acquisition of further territory for the support of the people and the settlement of the surplus population.

These are also the broad outline of Hitler's foreign policy as the ruler of Germany. Hitler summed up his foreign in what he called a Political Testament.

"Never allow the rise of two continental powers in Europe. See in every attempt to organize a second military power on the German frontier. Even if it is only in the form of creation a state capable of military power, an attack upon Germany and see in it not only the right but the duty, by all mean up to recourse to arms, to check the rise of such a state, or to smash it up against if it already exists."

It is clear that such a policy cannot be pursued by peaceful means.

Therefore, obviously Hitler followed a policy of aggression, although at his height of power he was finding rational for his actions. But the fact remains that such a policy was directly opposed, not only to the post-war system of the League of Nations, but to the pre war system of a multiple balance of power. Therefore, if Hitler followed his proclaimed policy, he would naturally clash with the other powers. All the nations started watching Germany.

The Depression and its effects

The world economic depression caused revision of internal and foreign policies in almost every country. But the time Germany recovered, other countries had also recovered and the competition for raw materials and market for finished products was very keen and tense. International co-operation were based not merely on economic condition, but involved political consideration too. The United States, Japan, Great Britain and the Soviet Union to, certain extent were concerned in the economy of the world and control of world markets. The League of Nations provided a common platform for co-operation. All the countries were aware, of their need for exports and would strive hard to preserve their preponderance in their respective spheres of influence.

Right from the early years of the twentieth century. Germany was a late come in international competition. What little they had, had been stripped off in 1918. and needless to say no room will be made for the National Socialist Germany's trade by peaceful means. The industrial complex and development


activities needed markets for trade abroad. Therefore, the only way out was war.

The Great Power and Germanisation

The war which Germany to fight was against the Soviet Russia as expressed in the memorandum presented by the then Minister, Hindenburg, at the World economic conference in June 1933. But allies needed England above all was to be won over to the German cause. Through her foreign policy Germany had however, fallen into the most absolute isoltion.

Hitler's calculation was that he would win the good will of the capitalist world through his ruthless extermination of communism, and that their goodwill could be organised to approve a common onslaught on Soviet Russia. Through the terroristic methods and especially the persecution of the Jews, he alienated sympathy for the time being, when once it was seen that Hitler was not going to tamper with capitalism, not to throw overboard the old ruling class, there seemed to be a real approachment between England and Germany.

But Hitler was not able to steer a clear course. His Austrain policy and the revolt of the storm troops led to his isolation. The big industry had a vital interest in Austria. With a united Austro Germany, an advanced post would be cast out towards the Balkans. The proximity of a Great power to Yugoslavia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria would have good effects on trade. Further, Czechoslovakia would be encircled by Germany on three sides, a fact of decided military importance. Hitler had been openly saying that the interest of the superior German minorities in these countries were not safe and because of their inferior calibre they were not capable of Self Government, These, economic and military reasons coupled with the supremacy theory of Hitler, made him follow in aggressive policy towards Austria and other countries mentioned above.

The Great European powers were, however, resolutely opposed to Germany's dreams of expansion. Italy, so friendly otherwise, was obdurate regarding the "independence" of Austria, dreading Germany as a neighbour and rival in Eastern Europe. France would put every possible obstacle in a way of Germany's development. England, too showed that, whatever other aims she had, she was resolutely against a powerful Germany, who may one day again challenge England's position in the world. All the three powers hastened to guarantee Austria's independence and to protest in Berlin against the Nazi action.

Germany was left in isolation and weakness.

The League of Nations and Hitler's Germany

It was one of the policies of Hitler that the treaty of Versailless must be repudiated, as it was the root cause for Germany's misfortunes. Hitler had been continuously denouncing this Treaty and when he became the policy maker for Germany, he indulged in matters prohibited by the Treaty of Versailles. As far the


German foreign policy was concerned, the League was only a handicap. Hitler thought that the league was an organisation created to safeguard the interests of the victors of the World War I.

Disarmament Conference

In the meantime the Disarmament conference of 1933-34 was in session.

Hitler wanted parity but other powers realised that love of War still remained in Germany and objected to Hitler's demands. Major powers like Britain and the U.S.A. (though not a member of the league) had always taken a stand to maintain superiority in armed strength. While the conference was in session Japan withdrew from the League on the Manchurian Question and Germany followed suit. Many proposals were made but none was acceptable. In 1934, Germany withdrew, followed by Italy. It set up a phase for rearmament. Soviet Russia, became a member in September 1934. This brought in a realignmnent of Soviet Union with France. Great Britain and Italy. France which was always wanting some other Nation to guard her against Germany signed a treaty with Soviet Union which guaranteed mutual assistance between the two countries and as supplementary treaty between U.S.S.R. and Czechoslovakia, contingent for its operation on the active intervention of France in case of aggression.

Notwithstanding the internal motives of each of these countries, (because it was believe after the conclusion of the Second world war, that the Russian attitude was more apparent then real), it is evident that the countries that expected Hitler's attack, and those who feared Hitler's policy might affect their commerce, started aligning themselves.

Conscription and Rearmament and Repudiation of the Treaty of Verailles

"Disarmament guarantee and the enforcement of the Treaty of Versailless

"was the slogan of the powers opposed to Germany, while Germany held "Revision and repudiation" as the only solution. The powers gave pallatives. Germany demanded cure. The desire for peace was strong and articulate but nationalism (in Germany) was far more stridently vocal. Recent development, the deliberations of the Disarmament Conference and the attitude of the powers, their consequent realignment the express unhappiness of France and Britain where the Saar voted by 90% in favour of Germany. Britain and France blocking Germany in Austria and Dancing : widened the gap between Germany and other powers Hitler decided to rearm Germany with vengeance.

A new armament race began. British Prime Minister Baldwin, alarmed at the attitude of Hitler, laid down in Parliament a white paper under the title

"Statement relating to defence in which it was pointed out that every power was rearming particularly Germany, and therefore, Britain was rearming with a view to make peace more secured for Britain built its Air Force, and strengthened the


Navy. The Washigton Conference, and the Kellog- Briand Pact powers were not consulted, and their deliberations were consigned in oblivion.

Hitler's Reaction

Hitler issued a statement that the big powers had refused to disarm following Germany, therefore, Germany could not be accused of violating the obligations of the peace treaty. He clearly stated that his Government had no intentions of aggression, therefore, rearmament was for peace, co-guarantor for general peace and contribution to pacification.

On March 9, foreign governments were notified of the existence of a German Air Force, first, repudiation of the Treaty. On 16th, March 1935 the German Army Law was decreed, Hitler declared the objective of the army law as 'peace'.

The strength of the army would be 36 divisions of 550,000 men. German army was to be raised by conscription which was also against the provision of the peace treaty (By another law in 1936 military service was extended to two years German army law was the open official irrevocable culmination of a process which had been carried on for many months with increasing speed.

The letter and spirit of the disarmament clause of the Versailles treaty was dead. The allied powers were in a dilemma. Great Britain hastened to point out in an official protest, "it gravely impaired, if it did not finally destroy the prospects of a general settlement freely negotiated." Britain still believed in her diplomatic skill. The French and Italian governments also protested, and the former lodged an immediate appeal with the Secretary General of the League of Nations. At the suggestion of Mussolini a Conference at Stres took place on April 11, to consider the attitude of France, Great Britain and Italy towards the new situation.

This was mainly an attempt to demonstrate a common front. They condemned the German attitude and actions and reaffirmed their loyalty to the Locarno 'Treaty and recognised the necessity of maintaining the independence of Austria. The consequent proceedings of the council of the League, which deliberated at Geneva from 15-17 April, endorsed this view. On May 21, 1935, Hitler finally declared that the repudiation of the treaty was final and irrevocable.

It is significant that the foreign policy statement of Hitler (rearmament) was issued after the signing of the French and Czechoslovak pacts with the Soviet Union. This introduced an element of legal insecurity into the Locarno Pact. As Germany was one of the signatories to Locarno Treaty. Hitler pointed out insincerity of France and Soviet Union, and inspite of it he would stand by internationally obligations including the demilitarization of Rhine land. (This was only a kite flying diplomacy as Hitler never intended to carry out.)

The Anglo-German Naval Agreement


The sincerity of Hitler's offer in regard to naval armament seemed less open to question than that of any other part of his proposals. Britain, more than any other power was concerned with the naval situation of the world and watched Germany with equanimity. Hitler made a distinction between armament by sea and land.

There was a hint the objective was expansion in the east and the destruction of the French hegemony and Hitler would be ready to reassure the misgivings of the predominant naval power. The British Government seized the opportunity and concluded a naval agreement with Germany in 1935, by which Germany agreed to have 35% of the naval strength of Great Britain. It is considered as a master stroke of Hitler's diplomacy.

De-Militarisation of the Rhine Land

The France-Soviet military pact of 1935 served as the scape goat for Germany to march her troops into Rhineland which was a breach of the stipulated condition of the peace treaty. Hitler pointed out, that since France was following an aggressive policy by the said agreement with Soviet Union, to placate France, Gemany was scraping the Locarno Pact. Now France and Belgium were exposed to German attack as a result Belgium was forced to give up her policy of neutrality.

So far Hitler had violated both the peace treaty and Locarno Pact with impunity.


The civil war in Spain (1936) provided one more opportunity for testing Hitler's strength at the international level. The Republican Government was helped by the Soviet Union and General France and his companions were helped by Hitler and Mussolini and were able to overthrow the Republican Government.

Great Britain and France followed a policy of neutrality and that helped both Hitler and Mussolini. Hitler was convinced of his policy of aggression.

Berlin-Tokyo-Rome Axis

Hitler now sought co-operation with like minded nations. England and France though did not intervene in Hitler's projects against Rhine land and Spain.

Hitler knew that there were delicate issue like Austrian independence and Belgium neutrality. In which these powers would not permit a free hand to Hitler.

Because of the anti-communist ideas of Hitler and his attitude towards Bulgaria, Rumania and Czecholslovakia the Soviet Union was opposed to the Nazi Germany.

Therefore, Hitler wanted to ally Germany with powers that had grievances against the western nations and who would profess a forward policy Japan and Italy suited the taste of Germany.

In 1936, Germany entered into an Anti-comintern Pact with Japan. In 1937, Italy joined that pact, and thus the Berlin-Tokyo-Rome-Axis came into being. Germany and Japan came together as both of them were opposed to Communism. Both had left the League of Nations because of their eaggressive


policies. In the case of Mussolini, who opposed Hitler in 1933 when Germany attempted to capture Austria, his attitude had changed after the Italy-Abyssinian crisis, in which the western powers condemned Italy and enforced economic sanctions through the League of Nations. Hitler adopted a friendly attitude towards Italy on the question of Abyssinia. It was this friendly act which brought Mussolini to Hitler side. Not only the two dictators agreed to work together. Mussolini even agreed to give Hitler a free hand in Austria.

Annexation of Austria (1938)

After the failure of his effort to annex Austria 1934, Hitler made overtures to Austria and made them believe that Germany has no evil intentions towards Austria. A favourable situation was created and in July 1936, Hitler entered into a friendly pact with Austria.

In 1938, at the insinuation of Hitler, demonstrations were made by the Nazis in Austria. Hitler cajoled the Austria Chancellor and by threats made him accept some of the Nazi's to be inducted in his cabinet. Hitler's ideas was annexation of Austria by cunning methods but the Chancellor did not yield and suggested a plebiscite to be held on March 13, 1938 to decide whether Austria was remain independent or to join Germany. The time span between the announcement of the plebiscite and the date of conduct of the plebiscite was felt to be too short for Nazi propaganda. Therefore, they insisted on postponement.

The Chancellor not only rejected this and cancelled the plebiscite but also resigned his post. Chancellor of Austria had invited Hitler to come to save Austria from internal chaos. The German air force and army rushed to Austria and on March 4, 1938. Hitler himself was in Vienna. Austria was annexed. The Western democracies sat with folded arms, a silent spectators.

Czechoslovakia : Sudeten Germans

Czecholslovakia was a creation of the peace settlement of 1919-20. Of the many minorities the most important was the Sudeten Germans. After five years of Hitler's propaganda, the Sudeten German began to look up to Germany for their absorption into that country though they were treated very well in Czecholslovakia.

Hitler had a special reason to intervene in Sudeten because of its strategic importance. If this country could come under his control, the penetration into southern Europe would be easier. Moreover, the factories would increase the industrial out put of Germany. But Sudeten land forts by a treaty of 1925 France had undertaken to help Czechoslovakia in case of an aggression. A similar guarantee had been given by the Soviet Union also. The capture of Sudetan land posed problems but the advantages compared to the difficulties were on the plus side. From the experience of Manchuria, Abyssinia and Spain. Hitler was


convinced that the Western powers would not be willing to fight to save Czechoslovakia from the Germans. The Soviet Union would not be able to accomplish much even if it wanted to help, because of the policies of Poland and Rumania. Therefore, Hitler thought that he could deal with Czechoslovakia as he pleased.

The Sudeten Germans demonstrated to join Germany. In 12th September 1938, Hitler demanded self-determination for the Sudeten Germans, under threat of war. The Soviet proposed a conference with Great Britain, France and the United State, to decide on collective action Hitler. Britain flatly refused to risk a war and asked Czecholslovakia to agree to the demands of the Germans France followed Britain. Now Hitler increased his demands. Roosevelt made a "peace by Conference" proposal to Hitler. Mussolini also supported it. Hitler agreed and the Munich Pact was signed on the night of 29-30 the September 1938. The signatories were Great Britain, France, Italy and Germany ; Czechoslovakia found no place.

The sum total of this agreement was that these powers stood by the German demands. They granted Hitler, whatever he wanted. It is said that the Western democracies agreed to the dictates of Hitler because he promised not to create any more territorial problem. But one wonders how they believed Hitler so easily.

At any rate Munich pact was the symbol of the collapse of collective security.

Annexation of Czecholslovakia (1939)

After the Munich Pact, Hitler had promised that the rest of Czecholslovakia would not be disturbed. But Hitler began to make preparations to annex the rest of the state. At his insinuation on 14th March 1939, the government of Solvakia and Ruthenia declared their independence. Dr. Hacha was summoned to Berlin and asked to sign a document that would place the fate of the people of Czecholslovakia in the hand of Hitler. He had to sign under duress and sufferance of wa r a n d d estr uction of Czech olslova k ia. T h e Na zi tr oop s occup ied Czecholslovakia on March 15, and on March 16, Hitler declared that henceforth Czecholslovakia would be known as "protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and", Hitler became the Protector and thus Czecholslovakia ceased to exist.

Memel (1939)

H itler gave a n ultima tum to L ithua nia to sur ren der Memel an d surrounding districts. The German forces occupied this region on 21st March 1939.


The next target of attack was Poland. In spite of the friendship treaty with Poland in 1934, Hitler demanded restoration of Danzing to Germany. The German intention was to connect Prussia with the rest of Germany through this strip of


territory. The Polish Government refused. Great Britain and France fearing if Poland fell then the logical target of attack would be on them work from their slumbers and backed Poland. Hitler accused Britain and France of betrayal and breach of Munich Pact. He denounced Great Britain for following a policy of enrichment.

Non-Aggression Pact (1939)

Now that Britain and France had raised objection. Hitler felt that he must make sure that the Soviet Union was neutral in the Polish question. Hitler did not want to fight on all front. This war intended to be a strategical move. Without much difficulty, on 23rd August, 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union, in Moscow.

Securing the non intervention of Soviet Union, Hitler renewed his demands on Poland. On refusal Nazi troops matched into Poland. Britain and France decided to check the Nazi advance and entered the war. On the Asian front, Japan the ally and partner in the Tokyo-Berlin Axis was devastating the British territories to create co-prosperity zone of Asian, Italy also joined the war and the war took global dimensions.

The hunger of Hitler was not satisfied even after the defeat and annexation of Poland. He conquered Belgium, Holland and Denmark. In June 1940, France also fell. Before attacking England, Hitler attacked the Soviet Union during the winter of 1942-43 and lost more than 3 lakhs of troops in the Moscow campaign.

He committed the same blunder which Napoleon had committed.

Meanwhile Japan's attack on Pearl Harbour brought the U.S.A. into war.

With the coming of the U.S.A. Western powers got rejuvenated. The outstanding leadership of that all time great giant Churchill and the economic and technological strength of U.S.A. coupled with the numerical and dedicated service of the Soviet Union, defeated Germany.

It is true that when Hitler enumerated his foreign policy in the Mein Kampf by acquisition of further territory, he meant only global annexation and rule. He seemed to succeed in his proclaimed aggressive policy to begin with. But in the end country to his wish of a global control, all the powers on the globe wanted to control him. His foreign policy proved to be a failure.


1. Roy Pascal : The Nazi Dictatorship 2. Palmer and Parkins: International Relations.

3. C.D.M. Ketelbey : A History of Modern Times.

4. J.W. Wheeler : Bement- The New Regime.

5. G.B. Sansom : Japan and her Allies.




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