Parts of Speech

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Freshman Grammar

Everything you could ever want to know about parts of speech, parts of a sentence, and types of


Hey, Pac, I can

never remember the parts of speech.


Remembering the Parts of Speech


What part

of speech are we, Pac?


are people, and people are nouns,



• Person, Place, Thing, or Idea

• Types of Nouns

• Proper vs. Common


Proper Vs. Common Nouns

• Proper Noun

• A specific person, place, thing, or idea

• Framingham High School, Ms.

Delaporta, United States of America, Christianity

• Common Noun

• A general person, place, thing, or idea


Abstract Vs. Concrete Nouns

• Concrete Noun

• a noun that physically exists

• something you can touch

• desk, grass, building, Mom, Mr. Welch, wind

• Abstract Noun


Abstract Noun Suffixes

• Abstract Nouns often end in these suffixes:

• -ity, -ship, -hood, -sion, -ism, -ence, -ance, -ment, -ness, tion


Noun Song!

• grammar-videos/noun-video/


Actually, Pac, we are concrete

proper nouns.




• Stand in for or replace a noun

• PROfessional nouns. Acting like nouns is their job!

• Antecedent


Pronouns (cont.)

• Eight types of pronouns

• Most common types are:

• Personal Pronouns

• I, me, you, he, she, him, her, we, us, they, them, it

• Possessive Pronouns

• my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirs, its


Pronouns (cont.)

• The other types of pronouns include:

• Reflexive

• Intensive

• Interrogative

• Relative

• Indefinite


Pronoun Song


I’m bored of

just standing here. Can’t we do



to verbs, we can do all sorts



• A word that shows action, a state of being or a change in time

Action Verbs Linking Verbs

-show action -show state of being jump, run, sleep, think, travel,


am, is, are, was, were, being, been seem, appear, look,

become grow, remain

all verbs that include physical or mental action

“to be,” “might be,” and “will be” verbs

verbs of the senses: look, smell, taste, sound, feel


Action vs. Linking Verbs

• To check if your verb is action or linking, you need to determine if

someone or something is performing an action (ACTION VERB) or if the verb is describing a condition (LINKING



Action vs. Linking Verb

• Trick Example:

• Grandma smells tuna salad.

• The tuna salad smells awful.


Verb Song!

• v=wn0WEuH4mF4


LV: I am

still bored. complaining!AV: Stop


know an

adjective that describes you:


AV: Let’s



• Words that modify (describe/changes) a noun or pronoun

• All adjectives answer these questions:

• What kind?

• Which one?

• How much?


Adjective Question Practice

• Which question does each adjective answer?

• The determined student studied until she understood the concept.

• The tall student turned on the projector.

• Many students laughed at the joke.



• The most common type of adjective

• A, an, the


Adjective Song!


Adjectives are cool,


They’re pretty



• Words that modify (describe/change) verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs

• All adverbs answer these questions:

• When?

• Where?

• How? (how long? how often?)

• To what extent?


Common Adverbs

• Adverbs often end in -ly

• happily, sadly, quickly, slowly, carefully, purposefully, etc.

• Other common adverbs:


Adverb Question Practice

• I always eat breakfast.

• I like to sit outside.

• I entered the dark room very slowly.

• I almost forgot my homework.


Adverb Song!


I will

never again forget

that you too always know

very interesting grammar ideas.

Pac, you

are without a

doubt the best friend



• A word that describes the relationship between two other words

• Usually part of a prepositional phrase that includes the preposition and a

noun or pronoun

• The noun or pronoun is called the “object of the preposition”


Prepositional Phrase Examples

• in the store

• on time

• across the street

• without a doubt

• between the rows


Preposition Song!



Piv, you

are my best friend in the world and the

smartest person in

class! you’re sometimes Although a know-it-all, Pac, sometimes you’re



• A word that brings two things (words, phrases, clauses) together

• Examples:

• I like cats and dogs.

• She lives over the river and through the woods.

• I went for a walk, but it was raining.



• Two types

• Coordinating


Coordinating Conjunctions

• Only 7 of them

• All 7 can be remembered with FANBOYS:


Subordinating Conjunctions

• Major ones can be remembered with ISA BU BU WA WA:


Conjunction Song!



we’ve learned a lot about the parts



• Express emotion

• Can be taken out of sentences

Not onomatopoeia

• Followed by a comma or exclamation


Interjection Examples

• Wow! I got an A+!

• Oh no, I forgot my homework.

• Yes! We have a snow day!


Interjection Song


Wow! That was

fun. Oh, we almost


Pronoun Song



• Eight types of pronouns

• Most common types are:

1. Personal Pronouns

• I, me, you, he, she, him, her, we, us, they, them, it

2. Possessive Pronouns

• my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirs, its



4. and 5. Reflexive and Intensive:

• myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, itself

• Intensives are used for emphasis and can be removed.

• Miranda herself made the explanation.

• Reflexive are needed for meaning.



6. Relative Pronouns

• who, whom, that, which, whose

• Used to start dependent clauses, like the ISA BUBU WAWA words

• The student who won the award is in my class.



7. Interrogative Pronouns

• who, whom, what, which, whose

• Used to ask questions

• Who is going tonight?



8. Indefinite Pronouns

• pronouns that do not usually refer to a certain antecedent

• typically express quantity

• all, another, any, anybody, anyone, both, each, either, everybody, everyone, few, many, most, neither,


So those

are all of the

parts of speech. Yup. What should we do


Parts of a Sentence


Parts of a Sentence


Parts of a Sentence


Parts of a Sentence



Parts of a Sentence



Parts of a Sentence




Parts of a Sentence




Parts of a Sentence





Parts of a Sentence






Parts of a Sentence






Parts of a Sentence






Parts of a Sentence









Parts of a Sentence






Parts of a Sentence




Complete Predicate



What is a sentence?

• A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete thought.

• A sentence has two parts:

• the subject


Identifying Parts of a Sentence

• Tip:

• When identifying parts of a sentence, always begin by crossing out

prepositional phrases.


Subject and Predicate Song




Good to Know:

• All of the parts of a sentence can be described as Simple or Compound

• Simple means just one

• Simple subject: the girl

• Simple predicate: walked

• Compound means more than one

• Compound subject: the girl and boy



• Part of the sentence about which something is being said

• The star of the sentence!

• Can be simple or compound


Subject Rules

1. Never “here” or “there”

The subject is never the word “here” or “there”

Rearrange the sentence to find the “who” or “what”

EX: There are many trees in the yard.


Subject Rules

2. The Missing You

• In commands or requests, the subject is “you” even if “you” does not appear in the sentence.

• The “you” is implied or understood.

• EX: Go to your room!


Subject Rules

3. Never in a Prepositional Phrase

• The subject of a sentence is never in a prepositional phrase.

• Cross the prepositional phrase out of the sentence to find the subject.

• EX: Hundreds of people went to the concern.


Subject Rules

4. Turn Questions into Statements

• To find the subject of a question,

rephrase the sentence as a statement.

• EX: Were the boys late?



• Remember, all sentences have a subject and a predicate

• The predicate is the part of the sentence that says something about the subject



• The complete predicate is made up of the verbs and the subject complements

• The part with just verbs is called the predicate



• Find the complete and simple predicates:

• Ms. Delaporta loves grammar.


Subject Complements

• A sentence can be complete with just a subject and predicate (verb).

• I ate. She slept. He cried. You laughed.

• Most sentences have more though...

• I ate an apple. She wants more sleep. He is my friend . The joke caused laughter.


Subject Complements

• There are four types of subject complements

• The type of subject complement in a sentence depends on the type of verb


Subject Complements with AV

Direct Objects

• Only follow action verbs

• Receive the action of the verb/shows the result of the action

• Answers the question “What?” or “Whom?” after an action verb

• EX: The dentist cleaned my teeth.

• EX: She filled a cavity.


Subject Complements with AV

Indirect Objects

• Only follow action verbs

• Always comes with Direct Object (you can’t have an IO without a DO)

• Tells to whom or for whom an action is done

• Often precedes the DO in the sentence


Subject Complements with LV

Predicate Adjective

• Only with Linking Verb

• Always an adjective

• Identifies, describes, or explains the subject

• EX: Susan grew tired.

• EX: Ms. Delaporta and her students are fascinated by grammar.


Subject Complements with LV

Predicate Nominative

• Only with Linking Verb

• Always a noun or pronoun

• Identifies, describes, or explains the subject.

• EX: Ms. Delaporta is a teacher.



• A group of words that does NOT have a subject and a verb


Prepositional Phrase

• Begins with a preposition

• Ends with a noun/pronoun

• Used as an adjective/adverb


Prepositional Phrases

• Adjective Phrase:

• works like an adjective

• answers an adjective question


Prepositional Phrase

• Adjective Clause Examples


Prepositional Phrases

• Adverb Phrase:

• works like an adverb

• answers an adverb question


Prepositional Phrase

• Adverb Phrase Examples

1)She practices with diligence. (how she practices)

2)She practices before a concert tour. (when she practices)

3)She practices in her studio. (where she practices)

4)She practices for weeks. (to what extent she practices)


Types of Sentences

• There are only four types of sentences:

• Simple, Compound, Complex, Compound-Complex

• All sentences can be categorized into these four types.


What is a clause?

• Types of sentences are defined by

clauses, so it is imperative to understand what makes up a clause

• A clause is a group of words that

contains a subject and a predicate (verb)

• This is different from a phrase, which

does not have a subject and a predicate


Types of Clauses

Independent Clause

• Has a Subject and Predicate

• Expresses a complete thought

• Can stand on its own (because it’s independent!)

• EX: She ran.


Types of Clauses

Dependent Clause

• Has a Subject and Predicate

• Does not express a complete thought

• Cannot stand on its own (because it’s dependent!)

• EX: While she ran


Types of Clauses

Dependent Clause (cont.)

• Begin with subordinating conjunctions, relative pronouns, and connectives

• Subordinating Conjunctions = ISA BUBU WAWA

• Relative Pronouns = who, whom, that, which, whose


What makes a sentence?

• A sentence must:

• Contain at least one independent clause

• Has a subject and a predicate

• Expresses a complete thought

• Begin with a capital letter

• End with an ending punctuation mark


Simple Sentence

• A sentence with just one independent clause (and 0 dependent clauses)

• Examples:

• The cat meowed.

• The children laughed.

• The teacher and students learned.

• The boy and girl laughed, skipped, and jumped.

• Remember, your subjects and predicates can be


Simple Sentence

• A simple sentence can be quite long.

• You can have compound subjects,

compound predicates, many adjectives and adverbs, and many phrases and

still have a simple sentence, as long as


Simple Sentence

• The very small boy with freckles in the bright orange and blue t-shirt ran

quickly up the hill, past the trees,

through the garden, and into the tall,

crooked, broken-down house and saved the tiny barking dog with the spotted


Compound Sentence

• A sentence with two or more

independent clauses (and 0 dependent clauses)

• Independent clauses are joined with a

comma and coordinating conjunction or with a semicolon.


Compound Sentence

• Examples:

• I want to go to sleep, for I am very tired.

• I love you, and you love me.

• You are not my friend, nor are you my enemy.

• We won the game, but we lost the championship.

• We could go out to dinner, or we could eat at home.

• She wanted to go, yet she did not have permission.


Simple or Compound?

1. The couple held hands and kissed.

2. The bully laughed, but the child cried. 3. You could watch the game or go to the


4. I studied for three hours and still failed the test.


Complex Sentence

• A sentence with one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses

• Remember, dependent clauses with being


Complex Sentence

• Comma rule for subordinating conjunctions:

• If the dependent clause comes first, you put a comma between the

clauses. If the independent clause comes first, there is no comma.

• Dependent clauses can work as


Complex Sentence

• Examples:

• If you want an ice-cream, I will buy it for you.

• The student whose title is most creative will receive a bonus point.

• He studied for the test because he wanted an A.

• Whoever answers the bonus question correctly will get extra credit.

• Extra credit will go to the students that answer the bonus question correctly.


Complex Sentence

• More Examples:

• I went to the only restaurant that was open because I was hungry.

• If you are unhappy with your essay grade, you should revise your essay because that will

increase your score.


Simple, Compound, or Complex?

1. I love singing, dancing, painting, and

playing music and do them all the time. 2. I love singing, dancing, painting, and

playing music, so I joined three art clubs. 3. I joined the clubs because I love singing,


Compound-Complex Sentence

• A sentence with two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses

• Basically a compound sentence and a complex sentence combined

• Remember, independent clauses are joined with a

comma and coordinating conjunction or a semicolon.

• Remember, dependent clauses begin with a


Compound-Complex Sentence

• Examples:

• After I become president, I will try to

improve the country, but I cannot promise I will succeed.

• My cat is cute because he is soft, and he is very friendly.


Simple, Compound, Complex,

or Compound-Complex?

• We went to the beach, and we had a lot of fun, but Jake got sunburned because he did not wear sunscreen.

• I wrote a poem about my grandfather and read it to the class for the poetry slam.

• She likes painting, but she cannot fit the class into her schedule, so she just teaches herself at home.

• After I auditioned for the play, I was really nervous because I thought that I did poorly.


Types of Sentences

Simple: just 1 independent clause

Compound: 2 or more independent clauses

Complex: 1 independent clause and 1 or more dependent clauses

Compound-Complex: 2 or more




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