Parts of Speech

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(1)Parts of Speech. Page 1. NOUN Noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing and abstract idea. There are many different types of nouns. PROPER NOUN You always write a proper noun with a capital letter, since the noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organisations, religions, their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns. A proper noun is the opposite of a common noun. Azeem is the son of Mukhtar Mughal. The Nile is one of the largest rivers of the world. COMMON NOUN A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense --usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. I kept the book on the shelf. Canada is a big country. CONCRETE NOUN A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. A concrete noun is the opposite of an abstract noun. Meat, milk, gold, cloth, etc ABSTRACT NOUN An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which can not be perceived through your five physical senses. In other words it denotes quality, state or action. It is the opposite of a concrete noun. Honesty, laughter, poverty, love, music, etc COLLECTIVE NOUN A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, or persons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group as a whole, generally as one unit. You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement .e.g. cattle, swarm, bouquet, committee, jury, etc COMPOUND NOUN: A compound noun is a noun that is made with two or more words. A compound noun is usually [noun + noun] or [adjective + noun]. Each compound noun acts as a single unit and can be modified by adjectives and other nouns. e.g., bus stop, washing machine, book seller, brother-in-law, etc.

(2) Parts of Speech. PRONOUN. Page 2. A pronoun is a word or form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase. We use pronouns like he, which, none, and you to make our sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. KINDS OF PRONOUNS. 1.PERSONAL PRONOUNS A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender. a ) Subjective Personal Pronouns (NOMINATIVE). A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are "I, we, you, she, he, it, they.". I was glad to see my old friend. You are surely the strangest child I have ever met.. b) Objective Personal Pronouns (ACCUSATIVE) An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb. The objective personal pronouns are: "me, us, you, her, him, it, them.". Deborah and Roberta will meet us at the newest café in the market. After reading the pamphlet, Judy threw it into the garbage can. 2.POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. A possessive pronoun indicates possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are mine, yours, hers, his, its, ours, theirs. Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like my, her and their.. Theirs will be delivered tomorrow. The smallest gift is mine. 3.REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. A reflexive pronoun refers back to the subject of the clause or sentence. The reflexive pronouns are myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day. The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do the important work. 4.EMPHATIC PRONOUNS. An intensive/ emphatic pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.. I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister. The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes. They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time..

(3) Parts of Speech. 5.DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. Page 3. A demonstrative pronoun is used to point to or indicate. ‘This’ and ‘these’ refer to things that are nearby either in space or time, while ‘that’ and ‘those’ refer to things that are farther away in space or time. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently. This is puny; that is the tree I want. This must not continue. 6.RELATIVE PRONOUNS. A relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are who, whom, that and which. The compounds, whoever, whomever and whichever are also relative pronouns. You can use the relative pronouns ‘who’ and ‘whoever’ to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and ‘whom’ and ‘whomever’ to refer to the objects of a verb.. You may invite whomever you like to the party. The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected. 7.INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are who, whom, which, what and the compounds formed with the suffix ‘ever’ (whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever).. ‘who, whom, and occasionally which’ are used to refer to people, and ‘which, what’ to refer to things and to animals. ‘Who’ acts as the subject of a verb, while "whom" acts as the object of a verb.. Who wrote the novel Rockbound? Whom do you think we should invite? 8.INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some. The most common indefinite pronouns are all ,another ,any, anybody, anyone, , few, many, none, one, several, some, somebody and someone.. Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up. The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor. 9.DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUN. A distributive pronoun considers members of a group separately, rather than collectively. e.g. each, everyone, any, either, neither etc 10.RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS. We use reciprocal pronouns when each of two or more subjects is acting in the same way towards the other. For example, A is talking to B, and B is talking to A. So we say: A and B are talking to each other.. • •. The action is "reciprocated". John talks to Mary and Mary talks to John. I give you a present and you give me a present. The dog bites the cat and the cat bites the dog. There are only two reciprocal pronouns, and they are both two words: each other one another.

(4) Parts of Speech. Page 4. ADJECTIVE An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVE/ADJECTIVE OF QUALITY This adjective shows the quality of a noun or a pronoun. The descriptive adjective can be a) proper adjective, formed from a proper noun. e.g., Pakistani school, African student b) nouns can also be used as adjectives. e.g., a college girl, a radio station c) present participles can be used as adjectives. e.g., a burning house, a drowning man d) past participles can be used as adjectives. e.g., a broken bat, a lost book ADJECTIVE OF QUANTITY It shows how much of a thing is meant. e.g., some, few, four, third, all, little, etc. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE It shows possession or ownership. e.g., my, our, your, his, her, etc. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE The demonstrative adjectives "this, these, that, those" are identical to the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases. e.g., When the librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of books. This apartment needs to be furnished. DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVE It refers to each one of the number. e.g., each, every, either, neither INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES An interrogative adjective (which, whose, what) is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own. Which plants should be watered twice a week? What book are you reading? COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES: Adjectives change in form to show comparison. They are called the degrees of comparison namely positive degree, comparative degree and superlative degree. e.g., good, better, best.

(5) Parts of Speech. Page 5. PREPOSITION A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. The children climbed the mountain without fear. In this sentence, the preposition, "without" introduces the noun "fear." There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated. The spider crawled slowly along the banister. The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for chewing up a pair of shoes. Prepositions are of five different kinds: SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS Simple prepositions are words like in, on, at, about, over, under, off, of, for, to etc. She sat on the sofa. He is going to the market. He fell off the ladder. There is some water in the bottle. She is about seven. COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS Compound prepositions are words like without, within, inside, outside, into, beneath, below, behind, between etc. He fell into the river. He sat beside her. There is nothing inside the jar. The boy ran across the road. DOUBLE PREPOSITIONS Double prepositions are words like outside of, out of, from behind, from beneath etc. Suddenly he emerged from behind the curtain. He walked out of the compound. PARTICIPLE PREPOSITIONS Participle prepositions are words like concerning, notwithstanding, pending, considering etc. There was little chance of success, notwithstanding they decided to go ahead. You did the job well, considering your age and inexperience. PHRASE PREPOSITIONS Phrase prepositions are phrases like because of, by means of, with regard to, on behalf of, instead of, on account of, in opposition to, for the sake of etc. I am standing here on behalf of my friends and colleagues. The match was cancelled because of the rain. He succeeded by means of perseverance..

(6) Parts of Speech. Page 6. RELATIONS EXPRESSED BY PREPOSITIONS Preposition of place, direction: went across the road, travelled round the world, stood behind the tree, below, upon, within , towards, etc Preposition of time: after his death, arrived before me, since yesterday, until his arrival, on Friday , throughout, etc Preposition of manner: fought with courage, won with ease, behave like a fool, by the neck ,etc Preposition of cause, reason, purpose: died of fever, took medicine for cold, did it for our good, etc Preposition of possession: the Masjid of Omar ,a man of means, the man with a white moustache Preposition of instrumentality/agency: sent the parcel by post, was destroyed by fire, cut with a knife, through a friend.

(7) Parts of Speech. Page 7. VERB Verbs are words that express action or state of being, and they are an essential part of a complete sentence. There are three types of verbs: action verbs, linking verbs, and helping verbs. ACTION VERBS: Action verbs are words that express action .e.g. give, eat, walk, etc. Action verbs can be either transitive or intransitive. TRANSITIVE VERBS A transitive verb always has a noun that receives the action of the verb. This noun is called the direct object. EXAMPLE: Laura raises her hand. (The verb is raises. Her hand is an object receiving the verb’s action. Therefore, raises is a transitive verb.) INTRANSITIVE VERBS An intransitive verb never has a direct or indirect object. Although an intransitive verb may be followed by an adverb or adverbial phrase, there is no object to receive its action. EXAMPLE: Laura rises slowly from her seat. (The verb is the word, rises. The words, slowly from her seat, modify the verb. But there is no object that receives the action.) TRANSITIVE OR INTRANSITIVE? To determine whether a verb is transitive or intransitive, follow these two steps: 1. Find the verb in the sentence. EXAMPLE 1: Dustin will lay down his book. What is the action? will lay EXAMPLE 2: His book will lie there all day. What is the action? will lie 2. Determine whether the verb has a direct object. Ask yourself, “What is receiving the action of the verb?” If there is a noun receiving the action of the verb, then the verb is transitive. If there is no direct object to receive the action, and if the verb does not make sense with a direct object, then it is intransitive. EXAMPLE 1: Dustin will lay down his book. (Dustin will lay down what? his book. Since the verb can take a direct object, it is transitive.) EXAMPLE 2: His book will lie there all day.(His book will lie what? nothing. It does not make sense to “lie something.” Since the verb does not make sense with a direct object, it is intransitive.) NOTE: Some verbs can be transitive in one case but intransitive in another. INTRANSITIVE: Becky walked to school. (No direct object). TRANSITIVE: Becky walked the dog to school. (The direct object is the dog.).

(8) Parts of Speech. Page 8. MAIN VERBS AND HELPING VERBS (AUXILIARY). A sentence can have both main verb and helping verb (auxiliary verb). Main verb: A verb which has major meaning in terms of action is called main verb i.e. write, buy, eat etc. Helping verb: A verb which supports the main verb to form the structure of sentence (according to a specific tense) and gives us information about the time of action expressed by main verb, is called helping verb or auxiliary verb, i.e. is, am, are, have, has, had, was, were, etc. Main verb has real meaning and tells more about action while helping verb has no (or little) meaning if it is alone but it adds time information about action if used with main verb to specify the tense or time of the main verb. The examples below will help in better understanding. She is eating an apple. (eat: main verb is: helping verb) She was eating an apple. (eat: main verb was: helping verb) The main verbs in these sentences “eat” convey the information about the action which is done on an apple, while the helping verbs in these sentences "is, and was" tell us about the time of action by referring to specific tense Use of helping verbs There are three primary helping verbs, be, do and have, which are majorly used in tenses.. •. Be (am, is, are, was, were). Forms of “be” are used for continuous tenses. Example. She is laughing. (Present Continuous tense). •. Have (have, has, had). Forms of “have” are used in perfect tense. Example. He has completed his work. (Present prefect tense) He had bought a car. (Past perfect tense). •. Do (do, does, did). Forms of “do” are used in indefinite (simple) tenses i.e. present simple tense or past simple tense. Example They do not play chess. (Present simple tense) I did not see him. (Past simple).

(9) Parts of Speech. Page 9. Modal Verbs (Modal auxiliaries) Modal verbs are used to express ideas such as ability, possibility, intention or necessity. MODALS. FUNCTIONS. EXAMPLES. Will. asking. Will you go to school?. Would. requesting. Would you give me a table tennis ball?. Shall. asking. Shall I do the work?. Should. suggestion. You should work hard.. Can. ability. He can drive a car.. ability requesting possibility permission prayer possibility suggestion. He could do the sum. Could you help me to do the sum? He may come here today. May I come in? May you live long. His statement might be true. You might go to Australia for higher studies.. Must. certainty obligation. It must be good. You must obey your teachers.. Must not. prohibition. You must not run in the sun.. Need. necessity. He needs to go there.. Need not. negation. I need not want a book now.. Dare. bold assertion daring courage. I dare say you are a fool. He dares to stand alone.. Dare not. afraid to do. I dare not follow you.. Ought to. moral obligation suggestion. We ought to love our neighbours. This is a really good book. You ought to read it.. Used to. habit. He used to walk early in the morning.. Could May Might. Modal verbs can be used before main verb as helping verbs. Examples I can play violin. It may rain today. You must learn the test-taking strategies. I will call you..

(10) Parts of Speech. Page 10. LINKING VERBS:. A linking verb links the subject of the sentence with the information about it. Sometimes linking verbs are called "state-of-being verbs." In other words, A linking verb connects the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective that renames or describes it. This noun or adjective is called the subject complement. EXAMPLES: Jason became a business major. (The verb, became, links the subject, Jason, to its complement, a business major.) Lisa is in love with music. (The verb, is, links the subject, Lisa, to the subject complement, in love with music which describes Lisa.) The most common linking verb is the verb to be in all of its forms (am, are, is, was, were). This verb may also be used as a helping verb. Two other common linking verbs, to become and to seem, are always used as linking verbs. Other verbs may be linking verbs in some cases and action verbs in others: to appear, to feel, to look, to remain, to stay, to taste, to continue, to grow, to prove, to sound, to smell, to turn LINKING: Libby appeared happy. (Appeared links Libby to the subject complement, happy.) ACTION: Deon suddenly appeared. (Here, appeared is an intransitive action verb.).

(11) Parts of Speech. Page 11. ADVERB An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much", etc While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix, most of them must be identified by untangling the grammatical relationships within the sentence or clause as a whole. Unlike an adjective, an adverb can be found in various places within the sentence. The tailor quickly made the new clothes. The students waited patiently for the result. The boldly spoken words would return to haunt the rebel. Unfortunately, the bank closed at three today. Kinds of Adverbs Adverbs of Manner ( how ) She moved slowly and spoke quietly. Adverbs of Place ( where ) She still lives there now. Adverbs of Frequency ( how often ) She takes the boat to the mainland every day. She often goes by herself. Adverbs of Time ( when ) It's starting to get dark now. She finished her tea first. She left early. Adverbs of Purpose/ Cause ( why ) He therefore left the school. She is hence unable to deny it. He is ill so he cannot go to school. He works hard so that he can succeed. Adverb of degree ( how much) The fruit is almost ripe. She is quite happy. Adverb of negation/ affirmation I never take tea. He is not active Yes, I know the answer. Interrogative adverb Where is Rehman? When did he come? NOTE: Who, whose, whom, which, what are interrogative pronouns whereas Where, when, why, how, how many, how much, how often, how far, how long, how high, etc are interrogative adverbs.

(12) Parts of Speech. Page 12. CONJUNCTION You can use a conjunction to link words, phrases, and clauses, as in the following example: I ate the pizza and the pasta. Call the movers when you are ready. KINDS OF CONJUNCTIONS 1. Co-ordinating Conjunctions We use a co-ordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet ) to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. Note that you can also use the conjunctions "but" and "for" as prepositions. He was intelligent but he failed in the examination. He played well and got the prize. 2. Subordinating Conjunctions A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s). You will be awarded because you have done well. I will go if the weather permits. The most common subordinating conjunctions are "after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, while." 3. Correlative Conjunctions Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs. We use them to link equivalent sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are "both...and," "either...or," "neither...nor,", "not only...but also," "so...as," and "whether...or” He is both wise and good. He must either work or go. He behaved neither wisely nor kindly.. INTERJECTION An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence. We usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark. Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct quotations. Ouch, that hurts! Oh no, I forgot that the exam was today. Hey! Put that down! I don't know about you but, good lord, I think taxes are too high! Hurrah! We have won the competition..

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