On Reciprocal Complementary Wiener Index of a
Graph
H. S. RAMANE1, V. B. JOSHI2, V. V. MANJALAPUR1,, S. D. SHINDHE2
1
Department of Mathematics, Karnatak University, Dharwad – 580003, India
2
Department of Statistics, Karnatak University, Dharwad – 580003, India
ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT
Article History:
Received 9 December 2016 Accepted 25 August 2017
Published online 15 September 2018 Academic Editor: Zehui Shao
The eccentricity of a vertex v of G is the largest distance between v and any other vertex in G. The reciprocal complementary Wiener (RCW) index of G is defined as
( ) =∑
( , ),
where D is the diameter of G and d(vi,vj) is the distance between
the vertices vi and vj. In this paper, we have obtained bounds for
the RCW index in terms of eccentricities and given an algorithm to compute the RCW index.
© 2018 University of Kashan Press. All rights reserved
Keywords:
Eccentricity Diameter
Reciprocal complementary Wiener index
Selfcentered graph
1
I
NTRODUCTIONGraph theory has provided chemist with a variety of useful tools, such as Topological Index. Molecules and molecular compounds are often modeled by molecular graph. A molecular graph is a representation of the structural formula of a chemical compound in terms of graph theory, whose vertices correspond to the atoms of the compound and edges correspond to the chemical bonds.
Throughout this paper we consider only simple, connected graphs without loops and multiple edges [1]. Let G be such graph with n vertices, m edges and vertex set V(G) = {v1,
v2, … ,vn}. The degree of ∈ ( ), denoted by deg(vi), is the number of vertices adjacent
to . The sum of the degrees of the vertices of G is 2m. The distance between the vertices
Corresponding Author (Email address: vinu.m001@gmail.com) DOI:10.22052/ijmc.2017.69915.1259
and of ( ), denoted by ( , ), is the length of the shortest path joining them. The
eccentricity of a vertex ∈ ( ), denoted by ( ), is the largest distance between and any other vertex of the graph . The radius r = r(G) of is the minimum eccentricity of the vertices and the diameter D = D(G) of is the maximum eccentricity. A vertex is called central vertex of , if ( ) = ( ). A graph is called selfcentered if every vertex is a central vertex. Thus in a selfcentered graph ( ) = ( ). A vertex u is said to be an
eccentric vertex of a vertex v if d(u, v) = e(v). An eccentric path ( ) of a vertex is a path of length ( ) joining and its eccentric vertex. There may exist more than one eccentric path for a given vertex.
A topological index is a graph invariant applicable in chemistry. The Wiener index is the first topological index introduced by Harold Wiener in 1947 [11]. There are many topological indices which are frequently made their appearance in both chemical and mathematical literature.
Wiener index ( ) of a graph is defined as [11],
( ) = ∑ , . (1) The reciprocal complementary Wiener (RCW) index of a graph G is defined as [3, 4]
n j
i D d vi vj
G RCW
1 1 ( , )
1 )
( , (2)
where D is the diameter of G.
The reciprocal complementary distance number of vertex v_{i} of G, denoted by
RCDN(vi  G) is defined as,
n
j i j
i
v v d D G
v RCDN
11 ( , )
1 )

( .
Therefore,
_{}
n
i
i G v RCDN G
RCW
1
)  ( 2
1 )
( .
The chemical applications of RCW index are reported in the literature [3−5, 10] and one can refer the mathematical properties of RCW index in [2, 6, 8, 12−14]. RCW index has been successfully applied in the structure property modeling of the molar heat capacity, standard Gibbs energy of formation and vaporization enthalpy of 134 alkanes C6 – C10 [3].
the RCWindex in terms of eccentricities and moreover, we have given a simple algorithm to compute RCWindex for any simple graph.
2.
M
AINR
ESULTSTheorem 1. Let Gbe a simple, connected graph with n vertices, m edges, diameter D and )
( _{i}
i e v
e , for i1,2,...,n. Then,
_{}
n
i e
j n
i
i i
j D D
D n m D
e n
n G
RCW
1 1 1
) 1 (
1 )
1 ( 2 1
) 1 (
2 1 )
( . (3)
Equality holds if and only if for every vertex vi of G, if P(vi) is one of the eccentric path of
vi, then for every vjV(G) which is not on P(vi), d(vi, vj) ≤ 2.
Proof. Let P(vi) be one of the eccentric path of viV(G). Let
A1(vi) = {vj  vj is on eccentric path P(vi) of vi},
A2(vi) = {vj  vj is adjacent to vi and which is not on the eccentric path P(vi) of vi},
A3(vi) = {vj  vj is not adjacent to vi and not on the eccentric path P(vi) of vi}.
It is clear that A1(vi) A2(vi) A3(vi) = V(G) and A1(vi) = ei + 1, A2(vi) = deg(vi) – 1,
A3(vi) = n – ei – deg(vi). Now
)
( 1
1 ( 1)
1 )
, ( 1
1
i j
i
v A v
e
j j
i v D j
v d
D , 2( )
( ) 1 1
1 ( , )
j i
i v A v i j
deg v D d v v D
,3( )
( ) 1
1 ( , ) 1
j i
i i v A v i j
n e deg v D d v v D
.Therefore,
n
j i j
i
v v d D G
v RCDN
11 ( , )
1 )
 (
1 2
3
( ) ( )
( )
1 1
1 ( , ) 1 ( , )
1 1 ( , )
j i j i
j i
v A v i j v A v i j
v A v i j
D d v v D d v v
D d v v
i e
j i
i
j D D
D
v deg e
n D
1 ( 1)
1 )
1 (
1 ) ( ) 1 (
.
n i i G v RCDN G RCW 1 )  ( 2 1 ) (
n i e j i i i j D D D v deg e n D1 1 ( 1)
1 ) 1 ( 1 ) ( ) 1 ( 2 1
_{}
n i e j n i i i j D D D n m D e n n 1 1 1 ) 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( 2 1 ) 1 ( 2 1 .For equality, Let d(vi,vj) = 2, where vjA3(vi). Therefore
) ( 11 ( 1)
1 ) , ( 1 1 i j i v A v e j j
i v D j
v d
D , 2( )
deg( ) 1 1
1 ( , )
j i
i v A v i j
v D d v v D
,3( )
( )
1
1 ( , ) 1
j i
i i
v A v i j
n e d eg v D d v v D
. Thus
nj i j
i v v d D G v RCDN
11 ( , )
1 )  ( 1 2 3 ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1
1 ( , ) 1 ( , )
1
1 ( , )
j i j i
j i
v A v i j v A v i j
v A v i j
D d v v D d v v
D d v v
i e j i i j D D D v deg e n D1 ( 1)
1 ) 1 ( 1 ) ( ) 1 ( . Hence
n i i G v RCDN G RCW 1 )  ( 2 1 ) ( _{}
n i e j n i i _{i} j D D D n m D e n n 1 1 1 ) 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( 2 1 ) 1 ( 2 1 .Conversely, suppose G is not such as explained in the equality part of this theorem. Then there exist at least one vertex vjA3(vi) such that d(vi, vj) ≥ 3. Let A3(vi) be partitioned
into two sets A31(vi) and A32(vi), where
A32(vi) = {vj  vj is not adjacent to vi, not on the eccentric path P(vi) of vi and d(vi, vj) ≥ 3}.
Let A32(vi) = l≥ 1. So, A31(vi) = n – ei – deg(vi) – l. Therefore
) ( 11
(
1
)
1
)
,
(
1
1
i j i v A v e j ji
v
D
j
v
d
D
, 2( )deg( ) 1 1
1 ( , )
j i
i v A v i j
v
D d v v D
,31( )
( ) 1
1 ( , ) 1
j i
i i
v A v i j
n e deg v l
D d v v D
,32( )
1
1 ( , ) 2
j i
v A v i j
l
D d v v D
. Therefore,
nj i j
i v v d D G v RCDN
11 ( , )
1 )  ( 1 2 31 32 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1
1 ( , ) 1 ( , )
1 1
1 ( , ) 1 ( , )
j i j i
j i j i
v A v i j v A v i j
v A v i j v A v i j
D d v v D d v v
D d v v D d v v
( 2)( 1)
) 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( 1 ) ( ) 1 ( 1
_{}
D D l j D D D v deg e nD ei
j i i and so
_{}
n i i G v RCDN G RCW 1 )  ( 2 1 ) (
n i e j i i D D l j D D D v deg e n D i 1 1 ) 1 )( 2 ( ) 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( 1 ) ( ) 1 ( 2 1
) 1 )( 2 ( ) 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( 2 1 ) 1 ( 2 1 1 1 1 D D nl j D D D n m D e n n _{n} i e j n i i i .This is a contradiction to the equality as l≥ 1. This completes the proof.
_{}
r
j r j n
r r
n m r n nr G
RCW
1 ( 1)
1 )
1 (
2 ) 1 ( 2 1 )
( . (4)
Equality holds if and only if for every vertex vi of a selfcentered graph G, if P(vi) is one of
the eccentric path of vi then for every vjV(G) which is not on the eccentric path P(vi),
d(vi, vj) ≤ 2.
Proof. Since G is a selfcentered graph, the radius r = ei= e(vi) = D for i = 1, 2, … ,n.
Therefore by Eq. (3)
_{}
n
i e
j i
j r r
r n m r
r n n G
RCW
1 1 ( 1)
1 )
1 ( 2 1
) 1 ( 2 1 ) (
r
j r j n
r r
n m r n nr
1 ( 1)
1 )
1 (
2 ) 1 ( 2 1
.
Equality part can be proved in analogous to the proof of equality part of Theorem 1.
Theorem 3. Let G be a connected graph with n vertices and ei= e(vi), i= 1, 2, … ,n. Then
_{}
n
i e
j n
i
i _{i}
j D D
e n
n G
RCW
1 1 1
) 1 (
1 )
1 (
2 1 )
( . (5)
Equality holds if and only if for every vertex vi of G, if P(vi) is one of the eccentric path of
vi, then for every vjV(G) which is not on P(vi), d(vi, vj) = 1.
Proof. Let P(vi) be one of the eccentric path of viV(G), B1(vi) = {vj  vj is on eccentric path
P(vi) of vi} and B2(vi) = {vj  vj is not on the eccentric path P(vi) of vi}. It is easy to check
that B1(vi) B2(vi) = V(G), B1(vi) = ei + 1 and B2(vi) = n – ei – 1. Now
)
( 1
1 ( 1)
1 )
, ( 1
1
i j
i
v B v
e
j j
i v D j
v d
D , 2( )
1 1
1 ( , )
j i
i v B v i j
n e D d v v D
.Therefore
_{}
n
j i j
i
v v d D G
v RCDN
11 ( , )
1 )

(
1( ) 2( )
1 1
1 ( , ) 1 ( , )
j i j i
v B v D d v vi j v B v D d v vi j
D e n j
D
i e
j
i _{1}
) 1 (
1
1
_{}
Therefore
n
i
i G v RCDN G
RCW
1
)  ( 2
1 ) (
n
i
i e
j D
e n j
D i
1 1
1 )
1 (
1 2
1
_{}
n
i e
j n
i
i _{i}
j D D
e n
n
1 1 1
) 1 (
1 )
1 (
2 1
.
For equality, let d(vi,vj) = 1, where vjB2(vi). Hence
)
( 1
1 ( 1)
1 )
, ( 1
1
i j
i
v B v
e
j j
i v D j
v d
D and 2( )
1 1
1 ( , )
j i
i v B v i j
n e D d v v D
.Therefore
n
j i j
i
v v d D G
v RCDN
11 ( , )
1 )
 (
1( ) 2( )
1 1
1 ( , ) 1 ( , )
j i j i
vB v D d v vi j vB v D d v vi j
D
e n j
D
i e
j
i _{1}
) 1 (
1
1
_{}
.
Therefore
n
i
i G v RCDN G
RCW
1
)  ( 2
1 ) (
_{}
n
i e
j n
i
i i
j D D
e n
n
1 1 1
) 1 (
1 )
1 (
2 1
.
Conversely, suppose G is not a such graph as explained in the equality part of this theorem. Then there exist at least one vertex vjB2(vi) such that d(vi, vj) ≥ 2. Let B2(vi) be
partitioned into two sets B21(vi) and B22(vi), where B21(vi) = {vj  vjis not on the eccentric
path P(vi) of vi and d(vi, vj) = 1}, B22(vi) = {vj  vj is not on the eccentric path P(vi) of vi and
)
( 1
1 ( 1)
1 )
, ( 1
1
i j
i
v B v
e
j j
i v D j
v d
D , 21( )
1 1
1 ( , )
j i
i v B v i j
n e l D d v v D
,22( )
1
1 ( , ) 1
j i
v B v i j l D d v v D
.Therefore
n
j i j
i
v v d D G
v RCDN
11 ( , )
1 )
 (
1 21
22
( ) ( )
( )
1 1
1 ( , ) 1 ( , )
1
1 ( , )
j i j i
j i
v B v i j v B v i j
v B v i j
D d v v D d v v
D d v v
1
1 )
1 (
1
1
_{}
D
l D
l e
n j
D
i e
j i
.
Therefore
n
i
i G v RCDN G
RCW
1
)  ( 2
1 ) (
n
i
i e
j D
l D
l e n j
D i
1 1 1
1 )
1 (
1 2
1
( 1)
) 1 (
) 1 (
1 2
1 _{1}
1 1 D D
nl D
e n
n
j D
n
i i n
i e
j i
.
As l≥ 1, it contradicts to the equality. This completes the proof.
If G is a selfcentered graph then ei =e(vi) = r(G) for all i = 1, 2, … , n. Substituting
this in Eq. (5) we get the following corollary.
Corollary 4. Let G be a selfcentered graph with n vertices and radius r = r(G). Then
_{}
r
j r j n
r r n n G
RCW
1 ( 1)
1 )
1 ( 2 1 )
( . (6)
Equality holds if and only if for every vertex vi of a selfcentered graph G, if P(vi) is one of
the eccentric path of vi then for every vjV(G) which is not on the eccentric path P(vi), then
Theorem 5. Let G be a connected graph with n vertices, m edges and diameter D. Let ei =
e(vi), i= 1, 2, … ,n. Then
n
i e
j n
i i
i
j D D
n m m e n
G RCW
1 1 1
2
) 1 (
1 2
2 2
1 )
( . (7)
Equality holds if and only if D 2.
Proof. Let P(vi) be one of the eccentric path of viV(G). Let
A1(vi) = {vj  vjis on the eccentric path P(vi) of vi},
A2(vi) = {vj  vj is adjacent to vi and which is not on the eccentric path P(vi) of vi},
A3(vi) = {vj  vj is not adjacent to vi and not on the eccentric path P(vi) of vi}.
It is easy to check that A1(vi) A2(vi) A3(vi) = V(G) and A1(vi) = ei + 1, A2(vi) = deg(vi)
– 1 and A3(vi) = n – ei – deg(vi). Now
)
( 1
1 ( 1)
1 )
, ( 1
1
i j
i
v A v
e
j j
i v D j
v d
D , _{}
) (
2
1 ) ( )
, ( 1
1
i j A v v
i
j
i D
v deg v
v d
D ,
3( )
1
( )
1 ( , )
j i
i i
v A v i j
n e deg v
D d v v
.Therefore
n
j i j
i
v v d D G
v RCDN
11 ( , )
1 )
 (
1 2
3
( ) ( )
( )
1 1
1 ( , ) 1 ( , )
1
1 ( , )
j i j i
j i
v A v i j v A v i j
v A v i j
D d v v D d v v
D d v v
)) ( (
1 ) ( )
1 (
1
1
i i
i e
j
v deg e n D
v deg j
D i
_{}
i e
j i
i
j D D
v deg D e
n D
1 ( 1)
1 1
) ( ) 1 ( ) (
.
Thus
n
i
i G v RCDN G
RCW
1
)  ( 2
1 ) (
n
i
e
j i
i
i
j D D
v deg D e
n D
1 1 ( 1)
1 1
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( 2
_{}
_{}
n
i e
j n
i i
i
j D D
n m m e n
1 1 1
2
) 1 (
1 2
2 2
1
.
For equality, let D 2. We consider here two cases.
Case 1: If D = 1, then G = Kn, a complete graph on n vertices. Therefore, A3(vi) is an empty
set. Hence
2
1 1
(
1)
1
( )
1
2
2
n n
i
i i
n n
RCW G
n
e
n
_{}
_{}
.Case 2: If D = 2, then for vjA3(vi), d(vi, vj) = 2. Therefore,
) ( 3
)
(
)
,
(
1
1
i j A v v
i i
j i
v
deg
e
n
v
v
d
D
.Hence
_{}
_{}
n
i e
j n
i i
i
j m
e n
n G
RCW
1 1
1 3
1 2
1 2
1 )
( .
Conversely,
n
j i j
i
v v d D G
v RCDN
11 ( , )
1 )
 (
1 2
3
( ) ( )
( )
1
1
1
( ,
)
1
( ,
)
1
1
( ,
)
j i j i
j i
v A v i j v A v i j
v A v i j
D d v v
D d v v
D d v v
(8)The first summation of Eq. (8) contains the distance between vi and the vertices on its
eccentric path P(vi). Second summation of Eq. (8) contains the distance between vi and its
neighbor which are not on the eccentric path P(vi). The third summation of Eq. (8) contains
the distance between vi and a vertex which is neither adjacent to vi nor on the eccentric path
P(vi). Hence the equality in Eq. (8) holds if and only if D 2. It is true for all viV(G),
which completes the proof.
Corollary 6. Let G be a selfcentered graph with n vertices and radius r = r(G). Then
_{}
i e
j r j n
r n m m nr n G
RCW
1 2
) 1 (
1 2
2 2
1 )
( .
Proof. Follows by substituting ei = e(vi) = r, for i = 1, 2, … ,n in Theorem 5.
Algorithm: To compute RCW index
Distance matrix of a graph G is a matrix Dt(G) = [dij] of order n, where dij = d(vi, vj).
Input: Distance matrix of a given graph.
Step 1: Declared d[i ] [ j ], rc [ i ] [ j ], D = 0, RCW = 0, Sum = 0. Step2: Read the distance matrix of order n.
Step 3: For i1 to n
For j1 to n
if (d[i ] [ j ] >D)
D d[ i ] [ j ]. Step 4: For i1 to n
For j1 to n
Set rc[i ] [ j ] = 0 if i = j and rc[ i ][ j ] = 1/(1+D – dij), otherwise.
Sum= Sum + rc[i ] [ j ].
Step 5: Compute RCW = Sum divided by 2. Step 6: Display RCW.
Output: RCW index of given graph.
A
CKNOWLEDGEMENT.
The authors are thankful to the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi for support through research grant under UPE FARII grant No. F 143/2012(NS/PE).R
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