THE UTILISATION AND CONSERVATION OF INDIGENOUS
MEDICINAL PLANTS IN SELECTED AREAS IN BARINGO
CAROL JERUTO ROTICH (B.ENV S. ERC)
A Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment for the Award of Degree of Master of Environmental Science of Kenyatta University, Nairobi.
This thesis is my original work and has not been presented for a degree or award in
any other University.
CAROL JERUTO ROTICH Date
Reg. No: N50/CTY/PT/23013/2011
Declaration by Supervisors
We confirm that the work reported in this thesis was carried out by the candidate
under our supervision as the University Supervisors.
Dr. Najma Dharani Date
Department of Environmental Sciences Kenyatta University
Dr. Esther Kitur Date Department of Environmental Sciences
I dedicate this work to my husband Hillary and sons Leroy, Lerin and Leron for
Foremost, I would like to express my deepest thanks to my two supervisors, Dr.
Najma Dharani and Dr. Esther Lesan Kitur. Their patience, encouragement, and
immense knowledge were key motivations throughout my Master Programme.
They carried out their supervision with an objective and principled approach to
Environmental Science. They persuasively conveyed an interest in my work.
Dr. Dharani has been my supervisor and guiding beacon from proposal
development to report writing. I am truly thankful for her steadfast integrity and selﬂess dedication to my academic development. Dr. Kitur is a mentor from whom
I have learnt the vital skill of disciplined critical thinking in the field of research
and environment. Her supervision, guidance and scrutiny of my proposal and
thesis writing have been invaluable. She has always found the time to propose
consistent excellent improvements. I owe a great debt of gratitude to Dr. Dharani
and Dr. Kitur.
Special thanks to Mr. Demissew for his assistance and guidance in data analysis
and report writing.
To my parents Mr&Mrs Rotich, thank you for everything; Moral, financial and spiritual support. You made me into who I am today! I thank my parents‟ in-law
Mr&Mrs Kwambai for their constant support and invaluable encouragement to
Idah, Ruth & Tito and in-laws Viola, Kathurima, Lyce & Becky; I am grateful for
their encouragement, prayers and constant reminder that I had to complete my
work as soon as possible.
To Mr. Paul Maiyo and his family, I am grateful for your support and treating me
as one of your children all times.
To my friends Ndeda, Mirriam, Jela, Kiptore and Faith I say thank you for your
continued friendship, support, encouragements and prayers. To my classmates
Linet, James, Nkatha, Eric-Moses, Kipchumba, Mbugua, Philip, Aura, Shikorire,
David and Wadegu, thank you all for the helpful discussions and for providing
enlightenment and encouragement every now and then.
Finally, I would like to thank my sons-Leroy, Lerin & Leron and husband Hillary
for their love and constant support, for all the late nights and early mornings, and
for keeping me sane when I thought I could not go on with this thesis. Hillary,
thank -you for being my editor, proof-reader and sounding board. But most of all,
thank you for being my best friend. I owe you everything.
Above all, I thank the Almighty God for constantly renewing my strength and
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DEDICATION ... iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS ... vi
LIST OF TABLES ... ix
LIST OF FIGURES ... x
LIST OF PLATES ... xi
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ...xii
ABSTRACT ... xiii
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ... 1
1.1 Background to the Problem ... 1
1.2. Statement of the Problem and Justification of the Study ... 3
1.3. Research questions ... 5
1.4. Research Hypotheses ... 5
1.5. Broad objective ... 6
1.5.1. The Specific objectives ... 6
1.6. Significance of the study ... 6
1.7. Conceptual framework ... 7
1.8. Definition of operational terms ... 9
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ... 12
2.1. Overview of traditional Medicinal Plants ... 12
2.2. Arid and Semi-Arid Lands and Indigenous Medicinal Plants ... 15
2.3. Threats to Traditional Medicinal Plants ... 17
2.3.1. Deforestation ... 19
2.3.2. Human density and biodiversity risk ... 21
2.3.3. Land tenure policies ... 21
2.3.4. Erratic Rainfall and Droughts ... 22
2.3.5. Impact of livestock grazing ... 22
2.4. Health seeking and use of herbal medicines ... 23
2.5. Use of indigenous medicinal plants in various communities in Kenya ... 24
2.6. Composition of medicinal plants ... 24
2.7. Abundance of Medicinal plants ... 25
2.8. Medicinal plants diversity and conservation ... 25
2.9. Utilization of IMPs ... 26
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY ... 28
3.1. Introduction ... 28
3.2. Study area ... 28
3.2.1. Study area location ... 28
3.2.2. Climate and Relief ... 28
3.2.3. Vegetation ... 30
3.2.6. Population of the Study area ... 31
3.3. Research design ... 31
3.3.1. Selection of the Study Area ... 31
3.4. Sampling procedure ... 32
3.5. Data collection ... 32
3.5.1 Administration of questionnaires ... 32
3.5.2 Transects ... 33
3.6. Data analysis and presentation ... 34
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSIONS ... 35
4.1. Introduction ... 35
4.2. Respondents profile and background ... 35
4.2.1. Gender of the respondents ... 35
4.2.2. Household head ... 35
4.2.3. Ages of the respondents ... 36
4.2.4. Education Level ... 37
4.2.5. Household Economic Activity ... 38
4.2.6. Preferred means of treatment ... 39
4.3. Composition and abundance of the common Indigenous Medicinal Plants (IMPs) in Koipiriri, Ikumae and Ilchurai ... 40
4.3.1. Composition of the Common IMPs in the study areas ... 40
4.3.2. Abundance of IMPs in the study sites ... 41
4.4. Diversity and evenness of Indigenous Medicinal Plants (IMPs) in the study sites ... 43
4.4.1. Species diversity in the study sites ... 43
4.4.2. Species evenness ... 44
4.5. Modes of utilization and harvesting of Indigenous medicinal plants among the rural communities in the study area ... 45
4.5.1. Mode of utilization of the identified common IMPs in the study areas ... 45
4.5.2. Other uses of IMPs in the study areas ... 49
22.214.171.124. Statistic Mean of Various utilization of IMPs ... 50
126.96.36.199. Correlation of use values of medicinal plants ... 51
4.6. Harvesting Techniques ... 53
4.6.1. Parts Used as IMPs ... 53
4.6.2. Quantity and frequency of harvesting medicinal plants ... 54
4.7. Conservation measures in place to conserve Indigenous medicinal plants of IMPs in the study areas ... 55
4.7.1. Habit of the common IMPs ... 55
4.7.2. Declining Species ... 56
4.7.3. Respondents‟ views on the importance of conservation ... 58
4.7.4. Herbalist view of the locally available IMPs ... 59
4.7.5. Threats to locally available IMPs ... 59
4.7.6. Suggested Conservation measures in the study areas ... 60
188.8.131.52. Restrictions on the harvesting ... 61
184.108.40.206. Cultivation of medicinal plants in the farms ... 62
220.127.116.11. Cultivation of other woody species ... 63
18.104.22.168. Setting aside a conservation area/preservation area ... 63
4.7.7. Activities carried out within the conservation area ... 64
4.7.8. Recommendations on what to be done so as to ensure conservation and sustainability of IMPs in the study area ... 65
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... 67
5.1. Introduction ... 67
5.2. Conclusions ... 67
5.3. Recommendation ... 68
5.4. Areas for future research ... 70
REFERENCES ... 71
APPENDICES ... 79
6.1. Questionnaire ... 79
6.2. Observations –photographs ... 85
6.3. Results of Eveness and Diversity in Ikumae site ... 93
6.4. Results of Eveness and Diversity in Koipirir site ... 94
6.5. Results of Eveness and Diversity in Ilchurai site ... 95
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1. Respondents Gender and Household headError! Bookmark not
Table 4.2. Households economic activity ... 39
Table 4.3. Composition of Indigenous Medicinal Plants in Koipiriri (K), Ikumae (IK) and Ilchurai(IL) areas ... 41
Table 4.4. Abundance of IMPs in the study areas (%) ... 42
Table 4.5. Species diversity H' and Evenness (H'/Hmax) for Koipirir, Ilchurai and Ikumae (Using Shannon Weiner Index) ... 43
Table 4.6. Mode of utilization of the identified common IMPs-above14m H ... 46
Table 4.7. Mode of utilization of the identified common IMPs 8-10.5m H ... 47
Table 4.8. Mode of utilization of the identified common IMPs 4.9-6.5mH ... 48
Table 4.9. Mode of utilization of the identified common IMPs 0.6-4.0m H ... 49
Table 4.10. Pearson Correlation of other uses of IMPs against Medicinal Use ... 52
Table 4.11. Quantity of medicinal plants harvested ... 54
Table 4.12. Threats to Locally available IMPs ... 60
Table 4.13. Impacts of setting aside a conservation area ... 63
Table 4.14. Activities carried out within the conservation area ... 64
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure1.1. Conceptual Framework on the utilization and conservation of
indigenous medicinal plants ... 8
Figure 3.1. Map of Baringo Central showing Koipiriri, Ikumae and Ilchurai study areas ... 29
Figure 4.1. The age of the respondents at the study site ... 37
Figure 4.2. Respondents Education level at the study sites ... 38
Figure 4.3. Various utilization/exploitation modes of IMPs in the study area ... 50
Figure 4.4. Parts being utilized ... 53
Figure 4.5. Habit of the common IMPs in the study area ... 56
LIST OF PLATES
Plate 1 Azadirachta indica ... 85
Plate 2 Cussonia holstii ... 85
Plate 3 Albizia anthelmintica... 85
Plate 4 Vepris simplicifolia ... 86
Plate 5 Leonotis nepetifolia ... 86
Plate 6 Grewia tephrodermis... 86
Plate 7 Aloe secundiflora... 87
Plate 8 Senna didymobotrya ... 87
Plate 9 Aloe secundiflora... 87
Plate 10 Solanum incanum ... 88
Plate 11 Acacia lahai ... 88
Plate 12 Acacia nilotica ... 88
Plate 13 Acacia tortilis ... 89
Plate 14 Ficus sycomorus ... 89
Plate 15 Elaedendron buchananii ... 89
Plate 16 Zingiber officinale ... 90
Plate 17 Tamarindus indica ... 90
Plate 18 Ximenia americana ... 90
Plate 19 Obetia pinnatifida ... 91
Plate 20 Solanum aculeastrum ... 91
Plate 21 Maesa lanceolata ... 91
Plate 22 Acacia mellifera ... 92
Plate 23 Balanites aegyptica ... 92
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
ASAL Arid and Semi-Arid Land
BCI Biodiversity Calculator Index
CR Critically Endangered
DFO District Forest Officer
IMP(s) Indigenous Medicinal Plant(s)
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature
KEFRI Kenya Forest Research Institute
NMK National Museums of Kenya
PHC Primary Health Care
SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences
STDs Sexually Transmitted Diseases
USAID United States Agency International Development
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Problem
Increasing demand for medicinal plants internationally has resulted in the
over-exploitation and indiscriminate over-harvesting of medicinal plants (Dharani and
Yenesew, 2010). The degree of vulnerability of medicinal plants to
overexploitation and disturbance largely depends on the part used be it bark,
leaves, twigs, roots or stem and the life form (Fratkin, 1996). Indigenous
medicinal plants are particularly vulnerable to over-exploitation because they are
slow growing species and partly because of their scarcity (Giday et al., 2003).
The harvesting technique employed in the prevailing area is important in the
conservation of medicinal plants as some of the practices may be destructive. In
view of these threats to medicinal plants there is need for sustainable management,
cultivation and conservation of medicinal plants (WHO et al., 1993). According to
Giday et al., (2003), the conservation of African medicinal plant species is critical
for local health as well as for international drug development. As much as 95% of
African drug needs come from medicinal plants, and as many as 5000 plant
species in Africa are used for medicinal purposes (Taylor et al., 2001; Dharani and
According to Gauto et al., (2011), one of the major concerns of our times is the
loss of the Earth‟s biological diversity. The world‟s flora and fauna are facing an
alarming decline of its wild populations, mainly due to the loss of their natural
existing habitats. A lack of ecological knowledge can seriously hinder the
conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plant species, especially in the face
of anthropogenic threats such as overexploitation and land use changes.
Along with overexploitation, land use changes threaten many medicinal plant
species in Africa (Giday et al., 2003; Alves and Rosa, 2007). Research has shown
that medicinal plants with ruderal life history characteristics tend to be more
tolerant of habitat disturbance and degradation (Giday et al., 2003). The
insufficient knowledge about the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal
plants is a serious problem for resource managers. The creation of protected areas
may facilitate the conservation of medicinal plant species by reducing habitat loss
and, via restrictions on access and extractive use, reducing disturbance and
overexploitation (Okello et al., 2009; Ndangalasi et al., 2007).
The communities‟ knowledge on traditional medicine, changing lifestyles and
practices is also affecting the status of medicinal plants (Kiringe, 2005). It is
generally agreed that in the less developed countries like those of Africa, human
activities are taking a serious toll on renewable resources including plant species
Deforestation is one of the activities that have led to tremendous loss of important
plant resources in both the developed and developing countries.
Tremendous land use changes have taken place in the recent past in Baringo
County which made agriculture become popularized as in other areas, including
West Pokot and Samburu where medicinal plants are preferred as means of
treatment (Campbell et al., 2000), and this has the potential to undermine the
conservation of important plant resources to the community. Based on these
changes that appear to move swiftly across Baringo land, this study tried to
investigate the utilization and conservation measures of locally available
indigenous medicinal plants in Koipirir, Ilchurai and Ikumae in Baringo County.
1.2. Statement of the Problem and Justification of the Study
Unmonitored trade in medicinal plant resources, destructive harvesting techniques,
overexploitation, habitat loss and habitat change are the primary threats to
medicinal plant resources in most developing countries (IUCN, 2002). Also, the
plant parts used and the harvesting technique of medicinal plants affect plant
population, structure, availability and abundance. Cunningham (2000) indicated
that little is known about the sustainability of harvesting strategies being employed
currently in harvesting medicinal plants. The study area has little documented data
human and animal diseases, exploitation of medicinal plants for different uses and
also on the conservation strategies of these plants.
Anthropogenic activities such as deforestation in quest to get more land for
grazing, cultivation and charcoal making are being carried out in the study area
hence a threat to indigenous medicinal plants. According to the Institute of
Economic Affairs (2011), Baringo is the third County to seek for medical
treatment using medicinal herbs after Samburu and West Pokot. The vegetation of
Baringo County is an important source of local building materials, fuel wood and
also used as traditional medicines for the treatment of diseases in both human
beings and their livestock (WHO et al., 1993).
Due to lack of awareness, research and education in conservation of natural
resources and biodiversity, deforestation resulting in land degradation has been a
major problem of the area. Habitat loss is threatening the survival of many
important medicinal plants which in turn causes a great challenge in treating
human and livestock diseases such as headaches, toothaches, stomach problems
and other diseases as the rural communities depend on herbal medicine for primary
1.3. Research questions
The study was guided by the following questions:
(i) What is the composition and abundance of the common Indigenous
Medicinal Plants (IMPs) in Koipirir, Ikumae and Ilchurai in Baringo
(ii) What is the diversity and evenness of Indigenous Medicinal Plants (IMPs)
in Koipirir, Ikumae and Ilchurai in Baringo County?
(iii) What are the modes of utilization and harvesting of Indigenous medicinal
Plants among the rural communities in the study area?
(iv) Which conservation measures are in place to conserve Indigenous
Medicinal Plants in Koipirir, Ikumae and Ilchurai?
1.4. Research Hypotheses
The study was guided by the following hypotheses:
(i) The composition and abundance of the common Indigenous Medicinal
Plants (IMPs) in Koipirir, Ikumae and Ilchurai is significantly diverse.
(ii)The diversity and evenness of Indigenous Medicinal Plants (IMPs) in
Koipirir, Ikumae and Ilchurai is significantly different.
(iii)The modes of utilization and harvesting of Indigenous Medicinal Plants is
significantly different in Koipirir, Ikumae and Ilchurai.
(iv)There are no measures in place to conserve Indigenous Medicinal Plants in
1.5. Broad objective
The broad objective of the study was to determine the utilization and conservation
of Indigenous Medicinal Plants among the rural communities in Koipiriri, Ikumae
and Ilchurai sites in Baringo County, Kenya.
1.5.1. The Specific objectives
The specific objectives were:
(i) To assess the composition and abundance of the common Indigenous
Medicinal Plants (IMPs) in Koipiriri, Ikumae and Ilchurai in Baringo
(ii) To find out the diversity and evenness of Indigenous Medicinal Plants
(IMPs) in Koipiriri, Ikumae and Ilchurai in Baringo County.
(iii)To determine the modes of utilization and harvesting of Indigenous
Medicinal Plants among the rural communities in the study area.
(iv)To find out the conservation measures in place to conserve Indigenous
Medicinal Plants among the rural communities in Baringo County.
1.6. Significance of the study
The study will provide information on composition, abundance, diversity,
evenness, utilization and harvesting techniques of IMPs in Koipiriri, Ikumae and
Ilchurai. Thus, the information is important as it forms the basis of their
similar studies. The study also contributes to knowledge on the utilization,
harvesting and conservation measures of Indigenous Medicinal Plants.
1.7. Conceptual framework
This study conceptualized on the basis that medicinal plants are a valuable
biological resource that can be sustainably exploited or utilized and contribute in
measurable ways to better livelihood of the local community in the study area. In
general, there is a relationship between utilization of IMPs and their conservation.
On utilization, their uses are explained together with the parts used and modes
used. IMPs have threats which include deforestation, overgrazing, over harvesting,
genetic erosion etc. These threats affect conservation. Therefore, the following
Figure1.1. Conceptual Framework on the utilization and conservation of indigenous medicinal plants
-Erosion of traditional knowledge -Over harvesting
-Increased human population
-Overgrazing and inadequate policies
-Treatment of human
1.8. Definition of operational terms
Abundance indicates the percentage of individuals within each species present in a community and how that species relates numerically to the abundance of any
other species present in that community. It also reveals ecological patterns that
indicate which species is dominant or least dominant on that specific site (WHO,
Bark is outermost layer of stems and roots in woody plants; all tissue outside the cambium.
Correlation between sets of data is a measure of how well they are related. The most common measure of correlation in statistics is the Pearson Correlation. It
shows the linear relationship between two sets of data.
Composition in this study refers to the common species that are available in the study area.
Diversity refers to the quality of being different or with variety. It can be described as the product of the richness or variety of entities (usually species) and
the variance of that richness or its importance value.
Ecology is the study of the interaction of organisms with each other and with their environment.
Ecosystem is the total of all organisms and their interaction with each other, habitat and environment within a specific area.
Herb is a plant without a persistent woody stem above ground.
Herbalist is a person who treats diseases by means of medicinal herbs and is mainly referred to as herb doctor.
Indigenous means that something is originating locally and performed by a community or society in a specific place. It emerges as peoples‟ perceptions and
experience in an environment at a given time in a continuous process of
observation and interpretation in relation to locally acknowledged everyday
rationality and transcendental power.
Indigenous Knowledge is human life-experience in distinct natural and social compound within unique local and contemporary setting. It is not formally taught
but perceived in a particular context at a certain stage of the perceiver‟s
consciousness that grows in the world of local events.
Indigenous Knowledge System is the inter-relationship developed and maintained by indigenous people using their own system of knowledge suitable to
their environment, underutilized and valuable for their livelihood, which is the
basis for local level decision-making in agriculture, education, natural resources
management and the host of other activities in rural communities. It is dynamic
and is continually influenced by internal creativity and experimentation as well as
by contact with external systems (Institute of Economic Affairs, 2011).
Population refers to all individuals of a particular species in a given area.
always not available to local inhabitants. It is retained within them, modified over
time and transferred to the next generation.
Shrub is a self-supporting woody plant branching at or near the ground or with several stems from the base.
Species refers to Linnaean unit of plant classification; group of populations of similar morphology and constant distinctive characters, thought to be capable of
interbreeding and producing offspring.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
Traditional medicinal plants are important source of local building materials, fuel
wood and also used for the treatment of diseases in both human beings and their
livestock in developing countries where 80% of the population has been reported
to depend on traditional medical systems (Dharani and Yenesew, 2010; Dharani et
al., 2010; Njoroge et al., 2010). The use of herbal medicines however, is on the
increase even in developed countries because of the belief that herbal remedies are
safe because of their natural origin. Globally, there are about 120 plant-derived
drugs in professional use; three quarters being obtained from traditional medicinal
plants (Fabricant and Farnsworth 2001).
2.1. Overview of traditional Medicinal Plants
In developing countries, it has been estimated that up to 90% of the population rely
on the use of medicinal plants to help meet their primary health care needs (WHO,
2002). Apart from the importance in the primary health care system of rural
communities, medicinal plants also improve the economic status of the people
involved in their sale in markets all over the world (Taylor et al., 2001). In Kenya,
traditional medicine has still continued to play a major role as a source of local
building material and fuel wood and in Primary Health Care (PHC) for example
Acacia lahai is used to treat skin infections as well as used as firewood by the
malaria as well as a source of firewood and at times timber by many communities
(Arwa et al., 2010).
More than 70% of the Kenyan population relies on traditional medicine as its
primary source of health care, while more than 90% use medicinal plants at one
time or another (Dharani and Yenesew, 2010; Dharani et al., 2011). This is
because of the accessibility to the traditional medicine as compared to modern
health facilities for most of the population in the country and it is relatively
inexpensive, locally available, and usually accepted by the local communities as
compared to modern conventional medicine.
Although there have been intensive efforts to identify medicinal plants and explore
their biochemistry (Fabricant and Farnsworth, 2001; Fennell et al., 2004), very few
studies have investigated the conservation biology of medicinal species. A major
constraint being faced in obtaining information about medicinal plants in the
marketplace, however, lies in the difficulty of identifying many of the species
being sold. In many medicinal plant shops, piles of barks, roots, and herbs are
unlabeled and lack identifying characteristics of fruit, flower, or leaf (Kipkore et
According to Gauto et al., (2011), one of the major concerns of our times is the
alarming decline of its wild populations, mainly due to the loss of their natural
existing habitats. A lack of ecological knowledge can seriously hinder the
conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plant species, especially in the face
of anthropogenic threats such as overexploitation and land use changes. Along
with overexploitation, land use changes threaten many medicinal plant species in
Africa (Giday et al., 2003; Alves and Rosa, 2007). Research has shown that
medicinal plants with ruderal life history characteristics tend to be more tolerant of
habitat disturbance and degradation (Giday et al., 2003; Shanley and Luz, 2003;
The insufficient knowledge about the conservation and sustainable use of
medicinal plants is a serious problem for resource managers (Ayaad, 2003). The
creation of protected areas may facilitate the conservation of medicinal plant
species by reducing habitat loss and, via restrictions on access and extractive use,
reducing disturbance and overexploitation (On et al., 2001; Ndangalasi et al.,
2007). According to Njoroge et al., (2010), in Kenya, 90% of the population has
used medicinal plants at least once for various health conditions. Also 95% of the
population has used medicinal plants as firewood or timber with and without
knowing. In other regions such as Peru, it has been found that about 84% of the
local people prefer traditional medicinal plants for their health care needs in
the fact that they are of natural origin and no risks or harm is experienced when
used (Bussman et al., 2007).
Hamilton, (2009), indicated that almost one third of medicinal plant species could
become extinct, with losses reported in China, India, Kenya, Nepal, Tanzania and
Uganda. Greater losses are expected to occur in arid and semi-arid areas due to
factors such as: climate change, erosion, expansion of agricultural land, wood
consumption, and exploitation of natural vegetation, increased global trade in
natural resources, domestication, selection and grazing among other factors
(Weizel and Rath, 2002).
2.2. Arid and Semi-Arid Lands and Indigenous Medicinal Plants
In Kenya, arid and semi-arid land (ASAL) ecosystems are globally significant
repository of biodiversity (including indigenous medicinal plants) and are
acclaimed for their species richness and habitat diversity, Baringo County
included. Other ASALs, in Kenya include Garissa, Isiolo, Mandera, Marsabit,
Moyale, Samburu, Tana River, Turkana and Wajir counties. ASALs account for 88% of the land‟s surface area and are home to over 10 million people (Njoroge et
al., 2010). These areas are facing intense degradation due to pressure arising from
It is estimated that 70% of Kenya‟s rural population use a combination of
traditional and modern medicine, with a larger percentage using indigenous
medicinal plants for other uses such as firewood, charcoal, and as income
generating mechanism (Lekoyiet, 2006) and the traditional knowledge of
medicinal plants is most often passed down within families and communities from
generation to generation. According to Sindiga et al., (1995), high dependence on
traditional medicine revolves around its ability to meet four criteria of “accessibility, availability, acceptability and dependability”. High rate of reliance
on medicinal plants in Kenya comes about due to the inability to reach modern
health facilities even in urban areas where supplements to western forms of
medicine are available (Pandit and Babu, 1998).
For thousands of years worldwide, plants have been used in traditional medicine,
resulting in the development of a large body of local knowledge. This knowledge
base arises primarily from trial and error experiences and is rarely embedded in
complete and systematic theories of medicine (Bo et al., 2003). In many cases,
local knowledge of medicinal plants remains poorly documented in the scientific
literature. For example, in a study of herbs used for medicinal baths among the
Red-headed Yao in China, only 5% of 110 species registered had been previously
identified as having medicinal properties, and 79%were newly recorded for their
Local knowledge of how medicinal plants are used may be a rich basis for the
phytochemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies necessary to secure
sustainable and rational use of these plants as a resource (Taylor et al., 2001). In
addition to the limited documentation, much traditional medical plant knowledge
is being lost before its incorporation into modern science. Environmental
degradation and large changes in modern social and economic systems have
affected medicinal plant use over the past few decades (Kipkore et al., 2013). A
study of medicinal plants of the Zay in Ethiopia reported the use of 33 species, but
the informants all agreed that more species had been used in the past. It was
suggested that deforestation, degradation, and acculturation over many years
caused the reduction (Giday et al., 2003). Likewise, in northwestern Yunnan in
China, over-exploitation and deforestation are depleting the medicinal plants used
by the Lisu (Ji et al., 2005).
2.3. Threats to Traditional Medicinal Plants
The most serious threat to local medicinal plant knowledge, however, appears to
be cultural change, particularly the influence of modernization and the western
worldview (Voeks and Leony, 2004). Knowledge loss has possibly also been
aggravated by the expansion of modern education, which has contributed to under-
mining traditional values among the young (Giday et al., 2003). Bussmann and
Sharon (2006), based on a study of medicinal plant knowledge in southern
evolved in traditional cultures over hundreds of years, and to keep it alive, it is
necessary to document and describe traditional use of plants.
Accordinf to Farnsworth et al., (1985) many researchers have made the
assumption that all plants mentioned as useful are also actually being used. But a
few studies have teased apart what people say and what they do, and it turns out that the “local knowledge,” represented by what the informants tell the researcher,
is not always equal to “local use,” which refers to which plants and which uses are
actually practiced (Byg and Balslev, 2001). This gap between local knowledge and
local use can be taken as the first sign of degradation of traditional ethno botanical
knowledge and can be used to measure loss of knowledge (Reyes-García et al.,
The high anthropogenic pressures and associated fragmentation of the landscapes
has resulted in loss of habitat and species (Altmann et al., 2002). Under these
conditions, medicinal plants are also being under constant threat due to over
exploitation from natural habitats even in the absence of cultivation (Njoroge et
al.,2010). During periods of food scarcity in the dry areas of Kenya or during
famines the poor rural communities harvest wild plants, including fruits and leaves
for food (Pascaline et al., 2010). The type of plants and parts removed vary from
one locality to another and their use depends on the local indigenous knowledge
Deforestation caused by the need for human settlement and allied infrastructure
development and cultural expansion, charcoal production, timber sales and
overgrazing have further caused the shortage of herbal plants (Hosier,1988).
Deforestation directly reduces the biodiversity of wild plant resources and
indirectly so through the loss of the habitat areas as well as other organisms
important for ecosystem function (Njoroge, 2012). Demand for herbal products
however, is on the increase, exerting a lot of pressure on the remaining indigenous
medicinal plants (Lykke et al., 2003). This calls for the need to devise strategies to
increase the supply of these resources as well as protecting the source habitats. The
major threat in the conservation of medicinal plant can be given as deforestation,
human density and biodiversity risk, land tenure policies, erratic rainfall and
droughts and impact of livestock grazing (Njoroge, 2012).
The vegetation of Baringo County is important source of local building material,
fuel wood and also used as traditional medicines for the treatment of diseases in
both human beings and their livestock (Bryan, 1994). The Tugen and Ilchamus
pastoralists rely on IMPs for healthcare in both human beings and their livestock.
IMPs are not only used in primary healthcare but also means of generating income
for several traditional herbalists in this area (Cunningham, 2001). Currently, in the
rate at which old indigenous tress are cut down and forests are being destroyed for
unsustainable logging and making charcoal. Deforestation results in land
degradation and catastrophic habitat loss are threatening the survival of many
important medicinal plants (Giday et al., 2003). This poses an acute challenge to the survival of their livestock and local community‟s livelihood.
According to Njoroge (2012), rural farmers may be responsible for clearing land,
but rural firewood users rarely cause deforestation. While urban charcoal users
may contribute more to the process, they frequently purchase charcoal produced
from surplus wood left after the clearance of land for agriculture (Reta,2012). In
both cases where trees are felled to provide fuel and trees; agricultural land,
economic development seems to lead inevitably to environmental deterioration
(McGeoch et al., 2008).
Species like Balanites aegyptica, Acacia tortilis and Acacia mellifera have been
observed to be on decrease on ASALs such as in Mwingi, Machakos and Narok
due to anthropogenic factors including deforestation and over exploitation
(Njoroge et al., 2010).
Srithi et al.,(2009) indicated that the primary causes of deforestation can be the
clearance of land for agricultural production and the harvesting of wood for fuel.
energy balance for all the countries in this region (Hosier, 1988). Thus, wood fuel
consumption places a major pressure on forest resources.
2.3.2. Human density and biodiversity risk
The driving forces behind land transformation resulting biodiversity losses include
mainly growth of the human population and its greater demand for resources. The
link between high human population densities and risk to biodiversity is mainly
indirect, but are nevertheless linked (Cincotta et al.,2000). The correlation of
human density with forest cover suggests that increasing human population density
may make forests vulnerable as they are converted to agricultural or urban areas,
or logged to provide timber. In addition, forests in heavily populated areas also
remain vulnerable to overharvesting (Cunningham,2000).
2.3.3. Land tenure policies
Ill-defined tenure rights over forest adjoining or in nature reserves also make
effective forest management impossible. In the study conducted by Sodhi et al.,
(2010), user rights for conservation areas are not well-defined or difficult to
enforce. Vijay (2006) indicates that disputes over grazing rights between villages
in Nujiang and Diqing prefectures have continued for decades. In 2000, the alpine
pasture was adjudicated by a provincial agency to belong to Diqing, but villagers
in Nujiang continue to contest the decision. Fearing that a conflict may erupt,
degradation of pasture in those areas. In both cases, difficulties in enforcing tenure
rights have adverse impacts on biodiversity (Garcia, 2006)
Moreover, the study in Southeast Asia by Sodhi et al., (2010), sudden changes in
tenure policy have historically been related to increases in the use of forest
resources and even clear-felling. The introduction of the household responsibility
system and forestland allocation policies in the early 1980s are two examples of
forest tenure policy changes which in many sites led to excessive felling of timber,
from which the forest has still not recovered.
2.3.4. Erratic Rainfall and Droughts
The degraded lowlands of Baringo County exemplify the challenges experienced throughout Kenya‟s dry lands (Bryan, 1994). Seventy per cent of Baringo County
is arid or semi-arid unproductive land (Wahome, 1984) due to soil erosion which
leads to loss of vegetative cover.
Erratic rainfall in the County causes increased water run-off and flash floods when
it fall (Institute of economic affairs,2011). Also the intensive storms are worsened
by deforestation, as well as intensified grazing which threatens the medicinal
plants in the study areas, (Lekoyiet, 2006).
2.3.5. Impact of livestock grazing
Free grazing of livestock is another threat to the viability of medicinal plant
degradation of pastures containing numerous medicinal plants, herbs and shrubs.
(Seno and Shaw, 2002). Also, expanding agriculture is also contributing to the
elimination of many medicinal plants. The study by Xu and Wilkes (2004)
indicated that, more than 80% of the total population in Northwest Yunna of
Astore valley is highly dependent on agriculture and livestock for its livelihood,
thus putting tremendous pressure on pastures and associated natural resources. Due
to limited cultivable land there is rapid encroachment of forests and pastures
(Harms et al., 2001).
2.4. Health seeking and use of herbal medicines
The substantial contribution to both socio-economic and human health and
well-being made by traditional medicinal plant species is now widely appreciated and
understood (Njoroge, 2012). Indeed, there is a growing demand for many of the
species and an increasing interest in their use. This, combined with continued
habitat loss and erosion of traditional knowledge, is endangering many important
medicinal plant species and populations and creating an urgent need for improved
methods of conservation and sustainable use of these vital plant resources
(Leamann et al., 1999).
The incidence of diseases in Baringo remains quite high approximately at 34%
according to Institute of Economic Affairs, (2011). The main diseases by the
chest, lungs and skin problems. Most of the residents in these areas still value
IMPs as a form of treatment.
2.5. Use of indigenous medicinal plants in various communities in Kenya
Several communities value IMPs for the treatment of diseases both in human and
animals (Njoroge, 2012). For example in the Nyanza region in Gwasi Hills, the
Abasuba local community is widely known for using herbal and forest products in
traditional rituals of rain making or ritual cleansing alongside other medicinal uses
including remedies for common ailments such as headaches, malaria fever,
stomach aches, etc. (Institute of Economic Affairs, 2011). In the western region,
the Luhya community around the Kakamega Forests also use the forest resources
as a source of health remedy to diseases such as malaria, stomach aches, cancer,
appetizer and vigour booster etc. (Odera, 1997). In the coast region, the Gede
community are known to use the IMPs found in the Gede forest to cure different
types of diseases (Kamau, 2009).
2.6. Composition of medicinal plants
Medicinal plants species found in different areas usually vary depending on factors
such as climate, soils and the vulnerability to anthropogenic factors (WHO, 1999).
The beneficial medicinal effects of plant materials typically result from the
combinations of secondary products present in the plant and more than 50,000
al., 2002). The medicinal actions of plants are unique to particular plant species or
groups in a particular plant and are often taxonomically distinct (Wink, 1999). In
many studies on medicinal plants, local and scientific names are used to identify
the composition of IMPs.
2.7. Abundance of Medicinal plants
The abundance of a plant species is usually the percentage of individuals within
each species present in a community and how that species relates numerically to
the abundance of any other species present in that community (WHO,2012). It also
reveals ecological patterns that indicate which species is dominant or least
dominant on that specific site.
The results of species abundance and scarcity are used to inform what kind of
conservation measures should be taken in an area. According to Odat et al., 2009,
disturbed and fragmented habitats are usually dominated by a very few species
compared to the undisturbed sites.
2.8. Medicinal plants diversity and conservation
Biological diversity can be described as the product of the richness or variety of
entities (usually species) and the variance of that richness or its importance value.
heterogeneity (Addo-Fordjour et al., 2008). Biological diversity also can be
appreciated by the number of endemic species whose distributions are restricted to
a confined geographic area (Robert et al., 1995). In recent years, public attention
has been given to diversity at the world level. The diversity of medicinal plants
mainly gives priority to conservation of medicinal plants (Barbhuiya, 2009).
In studies of IMPs, the observed species diversity is affected not only by the
number of individuals but also by the heterogeneity of the sample (Sodhi et al,
2010. If individuals are drawn from different environmental conditions (or
different habitats), the species diversity of the resulting set can be expected to be
higher than if all individuals are drawn from a similar environment. Increasing the
area sampled increases observed species diversity both because more individuals
get included in the sample and because large areas are environmentally more
heterogeneous than small areas (Odum, 1971).
2.9. Utilization of IMPs
Medicinal plants can be taken as decoctions where the plant parts are boiled or
simply soaked in water and the decoction taken alone, or in some instances
combined with honey, soup, or milk if the decoction is from a bitter plant (Jeruto
et al, .2008). The soup is made from the head, intestines and hooves of an animal,
herbs may also be used depending on the condition being treated and the
concoction administered to the patient.
Again, they can be taken in form of ashes where leaves are dried and burnt to form
powder ash (Okello et al., 2009). The ashes may then be licked, or in some
instances applied on incisions that are made on the skin to treat particular ailments.
In other cases the green leaves are crushed, and sometimes soaked in water and the
resultant concoction may be drunk, or applied directly on the affected area such as
in the treatment of toothache. The latex may also be applied on the affected area of
the skin, an example being in the treatment of allergy (Kipkore et al., 2013).
Apart from the indigenous medicinal plants being taken as medicine, other uses
include being used as firewood, source of timber, shade, fencing trees and at times
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1. Introduction
This chapter describes the study area, study location, selection of the study site,
methods of data collection, methods of data analysis and presentation.
3.2. Study area
The study area is Koipiriri, Ilchurai and Ikumae sites in Baringo Central
Constituency, Baringo County.
3.2.1. Study area location
Baringo County is situated between longitudes 35°36‟ and 36°30‟ East and
between latitude 00°13‟ and 1°40‟ south. Baringo County is to the southern part of
the entire Rift Valley region and borders Nakuru to the South, Turkana County to
the North, Samburu and Laikipia Counties to the East and Elgeyo Marakwet
County to the West (Figure 3.1).
3.2.2. Climate and Relief
The climate of the area is influenced by relief. The altitude varies from 300m at
the plains to 1,000m above the sea level. The rainfall is bimodal with short rains
being experienced between November to January and long rains in March to May.
The mean annual rainfall is 410 mm. Temperatures vary from 300 C and
temperatures of above 300 C. The coldest months have temperatures ranging from
160 C to 180 C but can drop to as low as 100 C (Ministry of State Development of
Northern Kenya and other Arid Areas, 2009).
Figure 3.1. Map of Baringo Central showing Koipiriri, Ikumae and Ilchurai study areas
(Source: Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, 2000).
Longitudes 35°36‟ & 36°30‟ E latitude 00°13‟ & 1°40‟ S
rainfall is 410mm
The vegetation is characteristic of a dry savannah. The natural vegetation consists
of several species of acacia and grasses. Common tree species are Acacia tortilis,
Acacia seyal, Acacia nilotica, Acacia brevispica, Acacia mellifera and other acacia
species. Other species include Balanites aegyptica, Tarconanthus comphratus and
Terminalia. The grasses found in the area are Cynodon, Digitaria, Hyperhenia and
Cenchrus sp. (Wetangula et al., 2010). Baringo Central specifically consists of
traditional medicinal plants which can survive the harsh climatic conditions as the
area is an ASAL (MoE, 2000).
3.2.4. Soils and drainage
The soils in the area are sandy and poor in humus. There are several seasonal
rivers which flow from the hills to the escarpments through very deep gorges. One
of the prominent river valleys is the Kerio Valley which is fairly a flat plain. In the
eastern part of the county near Lake Baringo and Bogoria is the Liboi Plain
covered mainly by the latchstring salt-impregnated silts and deposits (MoE, 2000).
3.2.5. Economic activities
The main economic activity in the area is agriculture with pastoralism being the
most practiced. The livestock kept include goats, hardy cows, and few sheep and
in some places camels as there are large grazing pastures. Irrigated agriculture is
pawpaws, passion fruits and maize mainly as food crops and for income generation
(Insitute of Economic Affairs, 2011).
3.2.6. Population of the Study area
The population of Baringo County is 555,561 people and Baringo Central Sub
County is 80,871 and 15,730 in Ilchamus Ward (Population census, 2009). The
tribes consist of Tugen (Samor) mainly from the upper regions that is the south,
south east and south west and Ilchamus mainly from the low regions northwards
and at the western Pokot communities who are mainly pastoralists and the main
economic activity has remained semi-nomadic pastoralism with the vast majority
relying on livestock.
3.3. Research design
3.3.1. Selection of the Study Area
The actual study was preceded by a preliminary survey. The aim of the
preliminary survey was to test the instrument to be used in the actual study, collect
background information on the Indigenous medicinal plants and assess the
accessibility of the study sites. During the survey, it was found out that the
indigenous medicinal plants were mainly found in five areas in Baringo Central,
Baringo County (Koipiriri, Namunyak, Ilchurai, Naserian and Ikumae). Only 3
sites were purposefully chosen for the study because of their accessibility and the
3.4. Sampling procedure
Prior to the sampling, the local administration informed the researcher that
approximately 50% of the houses had been displaced due to high state of cattle
rustling and the drought which had made people look for greener pastures in other
areas. In each study site questionnaires were administered randomly to 32
households per study site (using the Fischers equation Formula) to collect data on
common IMPs used to treat /human and animal disease and other uses, their
names, method of administration, part used, availability, modes of exploitation and
conservation strategies which are in place. Herbalists who had at least a structure
to administer/sell the medicine were purposefully selected in the nearby markets of Murda, Ntepes, Lororo and Ngo‟swe and were systematically interviewed. In total
twelve herbalists were interviewed. Purposive sampling was used to select the key
informants who included the Ecosystem Conservator, a Botanist, a District Forest
Officer (DFO) and a registered herbalist because they know about the area and
were conversant about the local culture.
3.5. Data collection
Primary data was mainly through use of questionnaire, key informants, interviews,
observations and photography.
3.5.1 Administration of questionnaires
The semi structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on utilization,
study area. In total 96 questionnaires were randomly administered to the
households with the assistance of three trained research assistants who understood
the local language and culture of the respondents. The household number was
arrived by using the formulae below:
(Fisher et al. 1991)
Where n=sample size, z score =1.96 for a confidence limit of 95%, p is the
standard deviation (in this study was 0.021), d = degree of desired precision of 0.5
and q=1 - p.
The questionnaires were administered to the household head (male) and where the
male was not present then the female head was allowed to fill. After explaining the
purpose of the study and obtaining oral prior informed consent, interviews were
undertaken. The questionnaires were written in English but translated in Tugen
and or Ilchamus local language by the research assistants in cases where the
interviewee indicated that they could not read/write. The questionnaires were
administered and collected once it was completed. Also 12 herbalists in the nearby markets of Murda, Ntepes, Lororo and Ngo‟swe were purposeful selected and the
questionnaires were systematically administered to them.
Plot based line transects were used where the composition, abundance, evenness
a quadrant was used on both sides of the transect 50m from the main transects thus
forming 50 by 50 meter grids, which were assigned a number. Six plots, 15 long
transects (500m long) and 150 quadrats were taken for each study site therefore in
total 45 transects were used forming 450 quadrats. In each quadrat, all plants
identified as used for medicinal purposes were numbered. A botanist helped to
identify the plants. Identification was also done using the relevant taxonomic
literature on the Flora of Tropical East Africa (Njoroge et al., 2010).
3.6. Data analysis and presentation
Data obtained from the questionnaires was captured in SPSS version 20.0; coded
and analyzed mainly using descriptive statistics and Pearson Correlation was used
to compare between medicinal use and other uses. Data on IMPs abundance were
captured and analyzed using Biodiversity Calculator Index (BCI). The abundance
of the locally available IMPs was calculated in terms of percentage abundance.
Shannon Weiner Index was used to calculate Species diversity and evenness. The
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSIONS 4.1. Introduction
This chapter presents results and discussions from the findings. The chapter also
compares the results of the study and those of other similar studies.
4.2. Respondents profile and background 4.2.1. Gender of the respondents
The study showed that female respondents were 71.58% while male respondents
were 28.42% (Table 4.1). The high percentage of women (71.58%) could be
attributed to the fact that the study was conducted at homestead level and during
the day when most women stay at home while men are away in the grazing fields.
The distribution above therefore does not necessarily reflect the population gender
distribution in the study area. According to the population structure for 2012 based
on the 2009 population and housing census, the ratio of male to female in Baringo
County is 1.01:0.99.
Table 4.1. Gender and Household head
Status Male (%) Female (%)
Gender of respondents 28.42 71.58
Household head 81.1 18.9
4.2.2. Household head
The study showed that 81.1% of the household were headed by men and 18.9% by
attributed to the strong culture and tradition of the community which states that “a
man is the head of the home / family and the woman can only take up the role after
the death of the husband. It is also a taboo and an abomination for a woman to
disrespect the husband or take his leadership role in the family” (Source: the
4.2.3. Ages of the respondents
For this study, ages of the respondents were important so as to identify those in
position to recognize the use and conservation of IMPs. 18.9% of the respondents
were 56 years of age and above, while 15.8% accounted for respondents between
46-55 years, 30.5% were 36-45 years, 25.3 % of the respondents 26-35 years and
9.5% were between ages 18-25 years (Figure 4.1). Approximately 90.5% of the
respondents therefore were between ages 26 and 55 years.
The study showed that ages 36-45 (30.5%) of the respondents were more involved
Figure 4.1. The age of the respondents
4.2.4. Education Level
The study showed that 51.6% of the respondents had attained primary education as
their highest level of education, 25.3% secondary school education while 12.6%
had never gone to school, 8.4 % had attained post-secondary education and only
2.1% had attained adult education (Figure 4.2).
Baringo Central being in an ASAL area, attaining even secondary education is a
great challenge because of the disturbance of floods, community strife, droughts
and pastoralism which usually make families move from one place to another.
Therefore, these findings are a true reflection of one of the many challenges the
rural communities in the study area undergo in their day to day lives. Also these
findings are in line with findings by the Kenya Population and Census, 2009 which 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0
18 - 25 yrs 26 - 35 yrs 36-45 yrs 46 -55 yrs 56 and above yrs 9.5
P er ce n tage
showed that 69% of Baringo residents had attained primary education level while
3.4% post-secondary education.
Figure 4.2. Respondents Education level at the study sites
4.2.5. Household Economic Activity
The study showed that the main economic activity in the study area that brought
income to the household was pastoralism with 48.9%, agro-pastoralism 30.2%,
agriculture 11.5% and the least activity was extraction and selling of medicinal
plants which contributed to 9.4%. Pastoralism formed the main economic activity
and this could be attributed to the climatic conditions experienced in the area
which is mostly dry throughout the year with mean annual rainfall of 410mm. This
makes people move with their livestock from one place to another in search of
green pastures and water, agriculture done only along the rivers and medicinal
plants obtained far from the homes. According to Kitur (2009), pastoralism is 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0
none primary secondary post
practiced in areas which have harsh climatic conditions and scarce water
Table 4.2. Households economic activity
Economic activity Frequency Percent (%)
Pastoralism 47 48.9
Agro- pastoralism 29 30.2
Agriculture 11 11.5
Extraction of medicinal plants and selling
Total 96 100.0
This study agrees with a report by Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of
Planning and National Development (2005/2006) which indicated that 62% of the
residents in Baringo are absolute poor and 34% are hardcore poor. The study also
found out the rural communities of in the study areas of Baringo County are still
practicing pastoralism and even though 51.6% had attained primary education they
are still absolute poor.
4.2.6. Preferred means of treatment
The study revealed that the preferred means of treatment was use of IMP with 84%
while 16% preferred modern medicine. This is the case because of easy
accessibility to the traditional medicine as compared to modern health facilities for
are relatively inexpensive, locally available, and usually accepted by the local
communities as compared to modern conventional medicine (Njoroge et al., 2010;
Odera, 1997). This study compares well with a study by Dharani et al., (2011)
which shows that large area of the country especially ASALs rely on traditional
medicine as its primary source of health care, while more than 90% use medicinal
plants at one time or another.
4.3. Composition and abundance of the common Indigenous Medicinal Plants (IMPs) in Koipiriri, Ikumae and Ilchurai
4.3.1. Composition of the Common IMPs in the study areas
The study revealed that the composition of IMPs in the study areas varied (Table
4.3). All the studied medicinal plants were found in the three areas. Solanum
incanum and Ximenia americana were absent in Ilchurai while Azadirachta indica
and Vepris simplicifolia were absent in Ikumae. However in the IUCN Red List
2015 of Species, the above absent species are not indicated as threatened.
The absence of these species could be attributed to the harsh climatic changes
such as the prolonged dry periods that have been taking place especially in the
ASALs of Baringo (Lekoyiet, 2006), which could affect the soil hence their
unavailability. Also the unavailability of plants such as Solanum incanum,
Azadirachta indica and Ximenia americana could be attributed to the fact that they
Table 4.3. Composition of Indigenous Medicinal Plants in Koipiriri (K), Ikumae (IK) and Ilchurai(IL) areas
Species Local name (Tugen/Njemps)
Scientific names Presence (p), Not present(n) K IL IK
Mwarobaini Azadirachta indica p p n
Sokwe /Lelekwet Cussonia holstii p p p
Otonwo/Lemukutan Albizia anthelmintica p p p
Olglei/Kuriot Vepris simplicifolia p p n
Chuchuniet Leonotis nepetifolia p p p
Sitet/OlSitete Grewia tephrodermis p p p
Chepkumiande /Olabai Psidia punctulata p p p
Senetwet/Olesenetoi Senna didymobotrya p p p
Tengeretwo/Tangeretwet Aloe secundiflora p p p
Ntulelei/Endulelei/Tawolwot Solanum incanum p n p
Tebeswet/Oletepessi Acacia lahai p p p
Lorityet/OlKiloriti Acacia nilotica p p p
Tepes Acacia tortilis p p p
Seketetwo/Mogoiywet Ficus sycomorus p p p
Soket /OlSoket Elaedendron buchananii p p p
Tangawizi/Lemunyi Zingiber officinale p p p
Tamarinds Tamarindus indica p p p
Ilamai/lamaek Ximenia americana p n p
Elil Obetia pinnatifida p p p
Sigowet /Osigawai Solanum aculeastrum p p p
Kipnandi /Kibabstaniet Maesa lanceolata p p p
Oiti Acacia mellifera p p p
Ngoswet Balanites aegyptica p p p
Otitmaei Commiphora campestris p p p
4.3.2. Abundance of IMPs in the study sites
The study revealed that the abundance of the species in the study areas was varied