• No results found

VOICE AND INTERNET SERVICE CHARGES IN ASEAN MEMBERS : ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2021

Share "VOICE AND INTERNET SERVICE CHARGES IN ASEAN MEMBERS : ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS"

Copied!
12
0
0

Loading.... (view fulltext now)

Full text

(1)

Available online at

http://www.iaeme.com/currentissue.asp?JType=IJARM&VType=7&IType=1 Journal Impact Factor (2016): 6.9172 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com ISSN Print: 0976 - 6324 and ISSN Online: 0976 - 6332

© IAEME Publication

___________________________________________________________________________

VOICE AND INTERNET SERVICE

CHARGES IN ASEAN MEMBERS :

ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Settapong Malis uwan, Dithdanai Milindavanij and Wassana Kaewphanuekrungsi

National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission (NBTC) Bangkok, Thailand

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to analyze voice and internet service charges in ASEAN countries. The approach of the research is a comparative study of the service charges based on currency exchange rates announced by the Bank of Thailand. Various service charges in each country are demonstrated based on different types of packages, technology, traditional values adopted in each country. The analysis in this paper also presents comparisons of voice service charges relative to National Per Capita Incomes and Internet Service Charges relative to National Per Capita Incomes. However, there is a possibility that network operators will generate less partial income from providing services such as voice calls, SMS, and data because more and more users turn to use the OTT or Over-The-Top services such as WhatsApp, Line, Skype, and Facebook. Therefore, in this research, the paper also analyzes the trend of telecommunications industry and the transformation of mobile services and provides recommendations for network operators to survive and gain more competitive advantage in digital ecosystem. Innovative services to increase the network operators revenue are discussed including smart cars; wearable devices; location based services, and smart city that will see them evolve to embrace the Internet of things.

Key words: Voice, Internet, Services, Charge, Analysis, ASEAN

Cite This Article: Settapong Malisuwan, Dithdanai Milindavanij and Wassana Kaewphanuekrungsi. Voice and Internet Service Charges in Asean Members : Analysis and Recommendations. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management, 7(3), 2016, pp. 01-12. http://www.iaeme.com/currentissue.asp?JType=IJARM&VType=7&IType=1

1. INTRODUCTION

The Office of Telecommunications Fees and Service Charges, the Office of the National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission (NBTC), has conducted

(2)

a comparative study of service charges in ASEAN by trawling websites of big service providers in each member of the ASEAN countries on May 20, 2015, with service charges based on currency exchange rates announced by the Bank of Thailand on the same day. The study focused on charges that were easily accessible for pre-paid mobile phone services which were sub-divided into voice and Internet services. The criteria for selecting information and calculation were as follows [1]:

1. Selected services for the study were domestic pre-paid mobile phone services in ASEAN countries.

2. Service providers selected for service charge comparison were those with leading numbers of subscribers in their respective countries. Different charges for on-net and off-net voice services during peak and off-peak hours were worked out to determine averages.

3. Entry-level service promotion packages referred to lowest charge services as far as can be promptly accessed.

4. Relevant service charges can be converted into per unit rates for comparison purposes.

5. Internet service charges are expressed in baht per MB on highest speeds of related networks.

2. ASEAN VOICE SERVICE CHARGES IN ASEAN

ASEAN, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, was founded in 1967 “to strengthen further the existing bonds of regional solidarity and cooperation.” The ten member states of ASEAN span more than 1.7 million square miles and include a population of over 626 million people. The important information related to ASEAN members is shown in Table 1 [2].

Table 1 ASEAN members ASSOCIATION SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS (ASEAN) ASEAN Secretariat: Jakarta

Population: 626 million

Chair rotates annually among member states. www.aseansec.org

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan Population: 0.4 million Member Since: 1984

US-Brunei treaty relations have been Active since 1850

INDONESIA Capital: Jarkarta Population: 248 million Member Since: 1967

World’s fourth largest country by population

CAMBODIA

Capital: Phnom Penh Population: 15 million Member Since: 1999

The United states is Cambodia’s largest Trading partner

LAOS

Capital: Vientiane Population: 7 million Member Since: 1997

Laos joined the World Trade Organization In 2013

(3)

MALAYSIA

Capital: Kuala Lumpur Population: 30 million Member Since: 1967

The United States is the largest investor in Malaysia

SINGAPORE Capital: Singapore Population: 5 million Member Since: 1967

First US Free Trade Agreement partner in Asia

MYANMAR (BURMA) Capital: NAY Pyi Taw Population: 65 million Member Since: 1997

Myanmar is America’s newest trading Partner

THAILAND Capital: Bangkok Population: 68 million Member Since: 1967

America’s oldest treaty partner in Asia, Starting in 1833

THE PHILIPPINES Capital: Manila Population: 97 million Member Since: 1967

Largest Filipino population outside the Philippines is in the US

VIETNAM Capital: Hanoi

Population: 90 million Member Since: 1995

Trade relations with the US reestablished in 1994

Nowadays, ASEAN has implemented several policies that strongly promote Information Communications Technology (ICT). Under the framework for the ASEAN ICT Master Plan, the year 2015is marked the 10th anniversary of ASEAN ICT cooperation. During the past 10 years, the ministers, policymakers, the bodies responsible for enforcing and investigating regulations, and telecommunications industry incumbents have already collaborated to impose and improve the prospect of ASEAN ICT [2]. Population and mobile subscribers in every ASEAN countries are illustrated in Fig.1.

Figure 1 Unique Subscribers and Population in ASEAN members

The study on voice service charges in ASEAN [1] showed that Thailand had lowest entry-level voice service charges for all service providers at 0.55 baht/minute,

(4)

followed by Myanmar, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia and Cambodia (as shown in Table 1) which had lowest entry- level voice service charges of not more than 2.00 baht/minute. Countries with entry- level voice service charges of more than 2.00 baht/minute were Brunei, Laos, Singapore and the Philippines. The last country had the highest entry- level voice service charges in ASEAN of 5.00-5.76 baht/minute which probably could be attributed to the fact that the Philippines is made up mostly of islands which requires higher investment in telecommunication facilities than other countries. Another observation was that Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore had uniform entry- level voice service charges applicable to all service providers which probably was due to the fact that these countries managed network connection costs and to favourable government support conducive to further telecommunication development.

Voice service charges shown here had not taken into account the different purchasing power of each country, rather than simply making necessary exchange rate adjustments by converting them into baht in order to determine the cost of similar pre-paid mobile phone service in each country.

However, the different per capita incomes in each country could affect the final determination of voice service charges. It is noticeable from the table that the voice service charges in Myanmar were low relative to a new telecommunication market still in its early stage of investment and service area coverage that still did not expand to the whole country. Additionally in the case of Myanmar, both service providers Telenor and Ooredoo decided to offer low charges regardless of whether voice services used by subscribers were provided by the same providers or not. This service charging practice helped attract more subscribers and raise market shares.

Table 2Comparison of Thai domestic voice service charges with other ASEAN members on May 20, 2015 [1]

Country No. of Service Providers chosen for calculating

sample groups

Phone (Voice)

Thailand 3 All networks 0.55

baht/minute

Myanmar 3 0.78 – 1.55 baht/minute

Malaysia 2 All networks 1.27

baht/minute

Vietnam 2 1.77 – 2.08 baht/minute

Indonesia 3 1.86 – 2.77 baht/minute

Cambodia 3 1.95 – 2.70 baht/minute

Brunei 1 All network 2.42 baht/minute

Laos 3 2.31 – 3.56 baht/minute

Singapore 3 All networks 3.30

baht/minute

(5)

Notes:

1. Foreign sourced information was gathered from websites of service providers in related countries on May 20, 2015 which referred to prepaid domestic voice services accessible by any subscribers without signing any service contracts.

2. Information on voice service charges were those easiest to access, in baht per minute excluding monthly packages and on top of supplementary services with calculation based on exchange rates of Bank of Thailand on May 20, 2015

3. Average voice service charges for calls made within or cross service networks. Additional studies should therefore be made to determine suitable services to get the most out of the charges being paid.

4. Service providers MPT in Myanmar and Beeline in Laos resorted to service charge calculations different from other providers.

3. INTERNET SERVICE CHARGES IN ASEAN

A study of Internet service charges [1] at an entry level of 1 GB and service terms from one week to one month, with inputs of various Internet service charges in different countries converted into baht, and the result showed that Laos offered the lowest Internet service charges of 0.056 baht/M B, followed by Indonesia and Cambodia with entry- level charges of not over 0.1 baht/MB, while charges of 0.11-0.15 baht/MB were applicable to three countries - Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand.

Internet service charges starting at 0.20 baht/MB are those in the Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore with the last country applying the highest Internet service charges averaging 0.429 baht/MB by offering the highest Internet speeds (4G) in ASEAN.

Internet services in each country differed in speed, co nnection efficiency, and service technology. The data shown were those of highest speeds provided by various networks or similar types of service, complicating service charge comparison. It was therefore advisable to weigh other factors before arriving at a decision, namely volume and duration of service, connection speed, network technology, and area coverage. The latest data provided an observation on Myanmar where there was a fierce price war for market shares between service providers Telenor and Ooredoo which had resorted to slash service charges by 40% to 50% on the 2 Mbps speed which resulted in charges dropping by about half from original levels. As for other countries, Internet subscribers were given options of diverse packages to choose from.

Various service charges in each country were shown in Table 2 and Table 3 based on different types of packages, technology, traditional values adopted in each country, geography, etc. which were factors determining charges for different types of service. The comparison of service charges indicated that they were not so much different as technology and selected equipment were of same standards. Accordingly, the fixed costs of equipment were not much different. But key factors affecting service charges were cost fundamentals, cost of living, and average net incomes of each country in ASEAN which influenced service demand in each market. Charges worked out by service providers were relative to volumes of data and Internet used with government agencies acting as regulators to ensure that charges are fixed fairly relative to market demand and consistent with prevailing cost of living in each country.

(6)

Table 3 ASEAN Internet (Data) Service Charge Comparison, May 20, 2015 Country

Numbers of service providers picked as sample for calculating

charges Internet (Data) Laos 3 0.056 baht/MB Indonesia 3 0.065 baht/MB Cambodia 3 0.076 baht/MB Vietnam 2 0.110 baht/MB Myanmar 3 0.120 baht/MB Thailand 3 0.134 baht/MB Philippines 2 0.236 baht/MB Brunei 1 0.249 baht/MB Malaysia 2 0.350 baht/MB Singapore 3 0.429 baht/MB Notes:

1. Data were obtained from websites of service providers on May 20, 2015

2. Internet (data) service charges for entry-level packages (minimum 1 GB) at highest speed for 7 days to 1 month periods excluding on-top packages and based on exchange rates announced by Bank of Thailand on May 20, 2015.

3. Subscribers should study details of subscription terms to ensure that service conditions were suitable for their requirements and that they could maximize usage of the service to make it financially worthy of charges being paid.

4. VOICE AND INTERNET SERVICE CHARGES RELATIVE TO

PER CAPITA INCOME OF ASEAN MEMBERS.

In ASEAN, Singapore has the highest monthly per capita income [3], followed by Brunei, of 154,309.7 and 108,422.5 baht respectively, compared with the much lower monthly per capita income of other ASEAN members that average 34,367.83 baht. The next ASEAN country with relatively high per capita income is Malaysia which is put together with Singapore and Brunei in Group 1 (Fig. 1), while Group 2 includes Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines which have monthly per capita incomes ranging 9,625.12 to 15,137.18 baht, which are only roughly half of the whole ASEAN average. The third group lumps together Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia with monthly per capita incomes ranging 2,825.98 to 5,288.22 baht, or about 6 times lower than the whole ASEAN average. The group classification is made due to the wide disparity of incomes among ASEAN members and helps explain the stages of their current economies.

(7)

Figure 2 Levels of per capita incomes (monthly) in 2014 [1] Note :

1. Figure for Brunei was 2013

2. Average per capita income (monthly) of all ASEAN countries in green frame

Table 4 Comparison of Voice Service Charges relative to National Per Capita Incomes and Internet Service Charges relative to National Per Capita Incomes (May 20, 2015)

Voice Service Charge (baht/minute) Internet (Data) Service Charge (baht/MB)

Ranking Country Avg % GNI Per Capita

(M)

Ranking Country Avg. % GNI Per Capita (M) 1 Singapore 3.300 0.0021% 1 Brunei 0.249 0.0002% 2 Brunei 2.420 0.0022% 2 Singapore 0.429 0.0003% 3 Thailand 0.550 0.0036% 3 Indonesia 0.065 0.0006% 4 Malaysia 1.270 0.0043% 4 Thailand 0.134 0.0009% 5 Indonesia 2.315 0.0227% 5 Malaysia 0.350 0.0012% 6 Myanmar 1.165 0.0328% 6 Laos 0.056 0.0013% 7 Vietnam 1.925 0.0364% 7 Vietnam 0.110 0.0021% 8 Philippines 5.380 0.0559% 8 Philippines 0.236 0.0025% 9 Laos 2.935 0.0656% 9 Cambodia 0.076 0.0027% 10 Cambodia 2.325 0.0823% 10 Myanmar 0.120 0.0034% Notes:

(8)

2. Service charges ranged from the lowest percentage of GNI Per Capita (M) to the highest to show rankings starting from countries with low cost burdens to those with high cost burdens as relative to their GNI Per Capita (M)

Table 4 shows that in comparing voice service charges as relative to per capita incomes of Group 1 (Singapore, Brunei and Malaysia), Singapore had the lowest charges followed by Brunei. As for comparison of Internet service charges as relative to per capita incomes, Brunei had the lowest charges followed by Singapore. For Malaysia, its voice service charges were slightly higher relative to its per capita income when compared with those in Thailand of Group 2 due to geographical reasons because Malaysia's territory is made up of two big, far apart islands which raises the overall cost of its services. Additionally for the same reason, Malaysia's Internet service charges were higher than those in its same group and higher than Indonesia and Thailand.

Both Singapore and Brunei were in the same Group 1 as Malaysia, but they had lower costs of their networks due to their smaller territories that are not separated by water which reduces costs of network investments, and their higher per capita incomes compared with other ASEAN countries. In Group 2 (Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines), Thailand had the lowest cost for voice service as relative to its per capita income while Indonesia had the lowest cost for Internet service as relative to its per capita income within the group. As for the Philippines, both its voice and Internet services had the highest costs for obvious geographical reasons. For Thaila nd, its per capita income was higher than those of other two members in the same group and did not carry any additional cost for geographical reasons for its voice and Internet services which may explain why Thailand's cost for both voice and Internet services as relative to its service charges were even lower than those of Malaysia in Group 1 [4].

Group 3 (Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia). Members of this group had lower per capita incomes than those of Groups 1 and 2, with some members of this group just embarking on initial stages of telecommunications that included network investments that still had not covered entire countries and for which still required considerable fresh investment. All this involved subscribers facing higher voice and Internet service charges relative to their incomes when compared with other countries [4].

Studies of voice and Internet services were simply one way of comparing service charges to show levels of telecommunication expenses relative to incomes. ASEAN members had different ways of offering diverse service charges that can be summarized as follows:

Brunei Darussalam: The study was based on information from one service provider DST which indicated that charges for an entry- level voice service package that differentiated rates for calls made on all networks, during peak and off-peak service hours and days and holidays. But charges for SMS were uniform for all networks. Charges for Internet services were based on KBs and in Brunei dollar.

Cambodia: Cambodia had 3 major service providers Cell Cards, Smart and Metfone. All three applied the same voice service charges for both on-net and off- net calls, and for both peak and off-peak hours. SMS services were separated between on-net and off- on-net messages, while Interon-net charges were based on KBs and in U.S. dollar.

(9)

Indonesia: The study was based on information of 3 service providers Indo sat, Telkomsel and XL Axiata (XL). Indosat and XL imposed different charges for their voice services during peak and off-peak hours, as well as on-net and off- net calls. Telkomsel charged different rates of its voice service for on-net and off- net calls, and counted in seconds. As for SMS services, only Indosat charged a uniform rate for both on-net and off- net messages. Other services entailed different charges and the Internet service charges were based on KBs.

Laos: The study was based on information fro m 3 service providers Laotel, ETL and Beeline. All three charged uniform rates throughout 24 hours for all networks. Beeline was the only service provider that charged its voice service based on on- net and off- net calls. Charges for Internet were based on different rates of promotional packages that could most easily be accessed for each service provider. Internet service charges were based on KBs.

Malaysia: The study was based on information from 2 service providers Celcom and Maxis which charged voice services on uniform rates throughout 24 hours, without separating between on- net and off- net calls except for the Activ 10 package of Maxis. For Internet services, charges were based on monthly packages for 4G LTE technology with a minimum entry rate. Internet service charges were based on KBs.

Myanmar: It was originally a country apparently without any market competition, with its only service provider MPT announcing promotional packages on its website (Feb. 25, 2015). Later on May 20, 2015, more ads for voice service packages appeared on websites of Telenor and Ooredoo, raising market players to three. Initially, their charges for both voice and Internet services were uniform rates except that Ooredoo's charges were based on seconds. A latest survey on June 4, 2015, showed that Internet service charges of both Telenor and Ooredoo came down. MPT's voice service charges were still based on on- net and off- net calls, and differentiated for peak and off-peak hours. For Internet services, both Telenor and Ooredoo charged according to KBs while MPT's still based on minutes.

Philippines: The study was based on information from 2 service providers Smart and Globe with both offering an initial similar entry-level service charge but with a differentiation between on- net and off- net voice calls, though SMS charges were uniform. Smart's Internet service charge was based on minutes while Globe's based on MBs.

Singapore: The study was based on information from 3 service providers Singtel, Starhub, M1. Both Singtel and M1 had the same voice service charges separating on-net from off- on-net calls. But Starhub offered a single rate voice service charge for all hours but its initial first minute charge was higher before sliding down in subsequent minutes. Internet service charges were based on KBs and in Singapore dollar.

Vietnam: The study was based on information from 2 service providers Vinaphone and Viettel with their service charges showing very little differences but adopting unique ways of calculating them. Both applied differentiated charges for on-net and off- on-net services that were not based on peak or off-peak hours but on complicated terms of a compulsory initial 6-second charge and an additional charge based in second from the 7th second, The Internet service charge was based on KBs with both operators adopting quite similar charges.

For all these countries, differences were considerable in terms of service costs, legal frameworks, geographies, and subscriber behavior, all of which are key factors directly affecting service charges offered by operators. Studies of these charges were

(10)

based on available information gathered by NBTC and based on information found on websites of major service providers in each country of ASEAN.

5. TREND OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY:

ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Nowadays, there is a possibility that network operators will generate less partial income from providing services such as voice calls, SMS, and data because more and more users turn to use the OTT or Over-The- Top services such as WhatsApp, Line, Skype, and Facebook. Therefore, it is vital for network operators and service providers to reinvent and transform their business model and provide new services for the new digital economy, in addition to their current traditional carrier services — voice, messaging, data and video.

Data revenue per data subscriber per month is slowly increasing. Network cash costs for upgrading network technology are expected to lower unit costs. However, data traffic per subscriber is exponentially increasing that the network cash cost per data subscriber may also trend upward [5]. Based on Ovum’s research, the telecommunications industry will lose the revenue of $386 billion between 2012 and 2018, the firm predicts, from customers using over-the-top (OTT) voice applications such as the market-leading Skype and Lync [6]. In almost all markets, ARPU will fall over the forecast period as a result of increased competition and a rise in take-up of OTT services as shown in Fig. 3 [6]. The slowdown in customer acquisition will foster pricing competition among operators, which will in turn push down ARPU.

Figure 3 Monthly ARPU by region [6]

In mobile markets today, operators should focus attention on pricing innovation to take advantage of this change. They must also encourage new service innovation, including strategic partnerships and service bundling with nontraditional, non- telco, over-the-top (OTT) players and services. Development of LTE and LTE-A will increase the number of data subscriptions, contributing to revenue growth from

(11)

innovative technologies and services, such as MVNO subscriptions, IoT, M2M, and portable connected devices [7]. Moreover, location-based commerce will be potential services as a smartphone-centric application. The range of potential services has grown to include smart cars; wearab le devices; and smart city that will see them evolve to embrace the Internet of things. Mobile operators can create new services based on the location based applications to expand their revenue as shown in Table 5 [6],[8].

Table 5 Location Based Applications

Sector Service

SMART CITIES

• Access

• Local search & discovery

• Maps and navigation

• Parking

• Local in formation

TRANSPORT • Mapping and navigation

• Parking • Public t ransportation • Road/traffic-flow • manage ment • Turnstiles/road tolls PUBLIC SERVICES

• Eme rgency services

• Healthcare

• Education

• People tracking

• Weather reports

VERTICA LS • Sports Events Automotive Travel and hospitality

ENTERPRISE

• Fleet manage ment

• Delivery/order trac king

• Workforce manage ment

• Asset tracking • Warehouse • manage ment SOCIA L • Cro wdsourcing • Messaging • Ga mes • Check-ins

• Photo and videos

• (geotagging)

RETAIL

• Payments

• Clic k-and-collect • Delivery/order trac king • In-store search and discovery

• In-store navigation • In-store promotions • In-store information

These new services have a key specific feature — contrary to traditional communications services where the network operators are in control of the end-to-end delivery. The industry must therefore find the way out how to better leverage its unique position to optimize its role within the new services value chain. Nonetheless, the communications industry has already adapted towards offering new services. Further advancements such as mobile payments and mobile-commerce are going to become mainstream and enhance the role of network operators. Similarly, rapid advancements of other new services such as the interconnected ‘things’ (also known as the Internet of Things or IoT) other than traditional communication devices have brought potential to transform many other industries.

6. CONCLUSION

This paper reports voice and internet service charges in ASEAN countries. A comparison of Thai domestic voice service charges with other ASEAN members is analyzed in this study. However, the different per capita incomes in each co untry could affect the final determination of voice service charges. Moreover, Internet services in each country differed in speed, connection efficiency, and service technology. ASEAN Internet (Data) service charges are also compared. The details of

(12)

analysis for every ASEAN countries also are provided in this paper. For all these countries, differences are considered in terms of service costs, legal frameworks, geographies, and subscriber behavior, all of which are key factors directly affecting service charges. The trends ARPU in global picture are explained and reviewed by using previous studies from reliable reference sources. This paper also discusses that the growth in popularity of OTT services has affected the mobile operators revenue and what operators can do to survive. In an environment of intense competition and significant regulatory pressures, the revenue of mobile services has tended to reduce over time. Today, mobile operators are already experiencing continuously decreasing profit margins on sales of voice minutes, SMS messages and data. This paper suggests that, in the longer term, mobile operators have to play a very active role in the current disruption if they want to strengthen their competitive situation in the future mobile value chain. The mobile operators will especially have to rethink on their internal business structure and the revenue share agreements with external partners.

REFERENCES

[1] NBTC, “Comparative study of service charges in ASEAN”, 2015. [2] ASEAN ICT Master plan 2015 : http://www.asean.org

[3] World Bank, “Gross National Income (GNI) per capita”, 2014.

[4] The Internet Society (ISOC) and TRPC Pte Ltd 2015, “Unleashing the Potential of the Internet for ASEAN Economies”, 2015.

[5] The Declining Profitability Trend of Mobile Data, Alcatel-Lucent Market Analysis, 2011: http://www3.alcatel-lucent.com/belllabs/advisory-services/documents/Declining_Profitability_Trend_of_Mobile_Data_EN_Market _Analysis.pdf

[6] Telecoms, Media & Entertainment Outlook 2015, Ovum Research Paper, 2015: http://info.ovum.com/uploads/files/Ovum_Telecoms_Media_and_Entertainment_ Outlook_2015.pdf

[7] Mobile Economy 2015, GSMA Report, 2015:

http://www.gsmamobileeconomy.com/GSMA_Global_Mobile_Economy_Report _2015.pdf

[8] Guide to Smart Cities, GSMA Report, Feb., 2013: http://www.gsma.com/connectedliving/ wp-content/uploads/2013/02/ cl_sc_guide_wp_02_131.pdf

[9] Settapong Malisuwan, Dithdanai Milindavanij, Jesada Sivaraks and Noppadol Tiamnara. A Modified Model of ICT Development Index (IDI) for Thailand To Achieve the ICT Leader in Asean. International Journal of Advanced Research in

Engineering and Technology, 6(12), 2015, pp. 39-48.

[10] Settapong Malisuwan, Noppadol Tiamnara and Dithdanai Milindavanij. The Impact of Spectrum Assignment on Economic Growth and Competitiveness in Thailand. International Journal of Management, 6(12), 2015, pp. 11-21.

Figure

Table 1 ASEAN members  ASSOCIATION SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS (ASEAN)  ASEAN Secretariat: Jakarta
Figure 1 Unique Subscribers and Population in ASEAN members
Table  2Comparison of Thai domestic voice service charges with other ASEAN members on  May 20, 2015 [1]
Table  3 ASEAN Internet (Data) Service Charge Comparison, May 20, 2015
+4

References

Related documents

MoniUPS is the innovative remote monitoring system, able to control all brands and all kinds of UPS systems; acquire the data, elaborate them on a cloud application, and make

Different from previous iterative PEVD algorithms, which only eliminate the maximum (SBR2) or normalised maximum (SBR2C) off-diagonal element at every iteration step, we have proposed

Health-promoting lifestyle and quality of life among undergraduate students at school of health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.. The situation of

Three studies examined the association between alcohol use and harmful health behaviours such as tobacco smoking and substance abuse.(Jovic-Vranes, Vranes, Marinkovic, &

In FePt, the simulated image of the dissociated OD with a width of CSF that is less than 3nm will look like a single thick dislocation, as shown in Figure 47b, 48b, 49b and 50

The goal of the video presentations was to measure children’s immediate cognitions regarding specific, controlled presentations of interparental conflict stimuli, while the

When the agent’s type or quality is in doubt (adverse selection), incentive payments may be designed to make the agent reveal his true type.. But even then a problem remains, as

If your organization out sources any processes that affects product conformity, are the outsourced process controlled and identified?.