A Comparative Study on the Vocabulary Mastery of Students of English Education Department through Classical Songs and Modern Songs

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A Thesis

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan (S.Pd) of English Education Department

of Education and Teacher Training Faculty of Alauddin State Islamic University of Makassar

By:

ZULKIFLI

Reg. Number: 20400115041

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING

ALAUDDIN STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF MAKASSAR

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NIM : 20400115041

Tempat/Tgl. Lahir : Talamangape/07 September 1998 Jur/Prodi/Konsentrasi : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Fakultas : Tarbiyah dan Keguruan

Alamat : Bontonompo

Judul : A Comparative Study on the Vocabulary Mastery of

Students of English Education Department through Classical Songs and Modern Songs

Menyatakan bahwa skripsi ini benar adalah hasil karya penyusun sendiri. Jika di kemudian hari terbukti bahwa ia merupakan duplikasi, tiruan, atau dibuat oleh orang lain, sebagian atau seluruhnya, maka skripsi dan gelar yang diperoleh karenanya dinyatakan batal demi hukum.

Gowa, 05 November 2019 Penyusun,

Zulkifli

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PERSETUJUAN PEMBIMBING

Pembimbing penulisan skripsi Saudara Zulkifli, NIM: 20400115041, mahasiswa Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris pada Fakultas Tarbiyah dan Keguruan UIN Alauddin Makassar, setelah dengan seksama meneliti dan mengoreksi skripsi yang bersangkutan dengan judul, “A Comparative Study on the Vocabulary Mastery of Students of English Department through Classical Songs and Modern Songs” memandang bahwa skripsi tersebut telah memenuhi syarat-syarat ilmiah dan dapat disetujui untuk diajukan ke sidang Munaqasyah.

Demikian persetujuan ini diberikan untuk diproses lebih lanjut.

Gowa, 8 November 2019

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Alhamdulillahi Robbil Alamin. By the name of Allah the Almighty, the Lord

of the universe, who has given His guidance, mercy, blessing, and health to complete this academic requirement. Also Sholawat and Salam forever are delivered to the prophet Muhammad S. A. W who had brought the human beings from the darkness to the lightness.

Further, the researcher also expresses sincerely unlimited thanks to his beloved parents (Tajuddin – Nuraeni) for their prayer, affection, financial support and motivation for her success, and their sincere love. The researcher considers that in carrying out the research and writing this thesis, many people have also contributed their valuable guidance, correction, assistance, suggestion and advice for his completion of this thesis.

Therefore, in this opportunity, the researcher would like to express the great thanks and appreciation to :

1. Prof. Hamdan Juhannis, M.A, Ph.D, The Rector of Alauddin State Islamic University (UIN) of Makassar for the words and policies during the researcher pursued his education at UIN Alauddin Makassar as well as the Ex-Rector, Prof. Dr. H. Musafir Pababbari, M.Si.

2. Dr. H. Marjuni, S.Ag., M.Pd.I, the Dean of Tarbiyah and Teaching Science Faculty of Alauddin State Islamic University (UIN) of Makassar for the

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supports and kindness during the researcher continued his education at UIN Alauddin Makassar as well as Dr. H. Muh. Amri, M.Ag, Lc as the Ex-Dean. 3. Dra. Hj. St. Azisah, M.Ed.St., Ph.D. and Dr. Sitti Nurpahmi, S.Pd., M.Pd., the Head and the Secretary of English Education of Tarbiyah and Teaching Science Faculty, Alauddin State Islamic University (UIN) of Makassar as well as the Ex- Head, Dr. Kamsinah, M.Pd.I. A profound thank to them for the great lessons, suggestions, guidance, motivations, and everything when the researcher studied at the university.

4. Dr. H. Abd. Muis Said, M.Ed.TESOL. and Indah Fadhilah Rahman, S.Pd.I., M.Hum. the first and the second consultant as professional support team, who spent much of their time on correcting, helping, advising, and allowing the writer to conduct the research with enjoyment and easeness. 5. Dr. Sitti Nurpahmi, S.Pd., M.Pd. and Dr. Hj. Mardiana, M.Hum. the first

and the second examiner who spent much of their time on improving the researcher’s thesis.

6. The researcher’s lecturers and staff, Muthi’ah, M.Pd., Multazam Abubakar, M.Hum., Annisa Shofa Tsuraya, S.Pd., M.Pd, and Juhdah Ulwiah, and other lecturers who always support me everytime.

7. All of the lecturers of Tarbiyah and Teaching Science Faculty of Alauddin State Islamic University of Makassar for the lessons, leads, and motivations to the researcher.

8. The researcher’s classmates, called “Linguist” who always help and motivate the researcher to be a professional English lecturer.

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9. Superb and true friends, Ary Putra Utama Akmas, Tri Mandala Putra, Nur Fadilasari, Desy Harfani Hakim, Putri Nurul Ifani, Devi Safitri, Ariana Amir, and all good outside motivators who lead the researcher to write English essays well and always motivate the writer to be a professional English lecturer.

10. Great thank to Soraya Khumaira, who always supports, accompanies, motivates, and helps the researcher.

11. Thank you for the researcher’s organizations, United English Forum Makassar and Students Association of English Education Department. 12. The subjects of the research, the first semester students of English Education

of UIN Alauddin Makassar for the academic year 2019/2020 (PBI 1-2 and PBI 3-4). The researcher thanks very much for them for their available time for the sake of the success of the study conducted.

Ultimately, the researcher realizes that this thesis is far from being perfect; therefore, corrections, suggestions, comments, and criticisms will be fully appreciated for the improvement of this writing. Finally, gladly the researcher prays; may all the efforts and pains get endless blessings from Allah S.W.T.

Aamiin Ya Allah

Gowa, 05 November 2019 The Researcher

Zulkifli

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ... i

PERNYATAAN KEASLIAN SKRIPSI ... ii

PERSETUJUAN PEMBIMBING ... iii

PENGESAHAN SKRIPSI ... iv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ... v

LIST OF CONTENTS ... viii

LIST OF TABLES ... x

LIST OF CHARTS ... xi

LIST OF APPENDICES ... xii

ABSTRACT ... xiii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background ... 1 B. Research Problems ... 6 C. Research Objectives ... 6 D. Research Significances ... 6 E. Research Scope ... 7

F. Operational Definition of Terms ... 7

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW A. Related Research Findings ... 10

B. Some Pertinent Ideas ... 12

1. Concept of Song ... 12

a. Description of Classical Song ... 13

b. Description of Modern Song ... 13

c. The Differences between Classical and Modern Song ... 14

2. Concept of Vocabulary Mastery ... 15

a. Definition of Vocabulary Mastery ... 15

b. Types of Vocabulary ... 17

C. Conceptual Framework ... 21

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD

A. Research Design ... 23

B. Research Variables ... 24

C. Research Setting ... 24

D. Population and Sample ... 25

1. Population ... 25

2. Sample... 25

E. Research Instrument ... 25

F. Data Collection Procedure ... 26

G. Data Analysis Technique ... 27

CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION A. Findings ... 32

B. Discussion ... 44

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion ... 47

B. Suggestion ... 47

BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 49

APPENDICES ... 52

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 The Differences between Classical and Modern Songs ... 14

Table 2.2 The Example form of Regular Verb ... 19

Table 2.3 The Example form of Irregular Verb ... 19

Table 4.1 Group Distribution of Classical Song Score in the First Test ... 33

Table 4.2 Group Distribution of Modern Song Score in the First Test ... 34

Table 4.3 Group Distribution of Classical Song Score in the Second Test ... 36

Table 4.4 Group Distribution of Modern Song Score in the Second Test ... 37

Table 4.5 Group Distribution of Classical Song Score in the Third Test ... 38

Table 4.6 Group Distribution of Modern Song Score in the Third Test ... 40

Table 4.7 Group Distribution of Classical Song Score ... 41

Table 4.8 Group Distribution of Modern Song Score ... 41

Table 4.9 Frequency distribution of Classical song and Modern Song ... 42

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LIST OF CHARTS

Chart 2.1 Conceptual Framework ... 21

Chart 4.1 Group Distribution of Classical Song Score in the First Test ... 33

Chart 4.2 Group Distribution of Modern Song Score in the First Test ... 35

Chart 4.3 Group Distribution of Classical Song Score in the Second Test ... 36

Chart 4.4 Group Distribution of Modern Song Score in the Second Test ... 37

Chart 4.5 Group Distribution of Classical Song Score in the Third Test ... 39

Chart 4.6 Group Distribution of Modern Song Score in the Third Test ... 40

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix I Test Instruments ... 53

Appendix II List of Vocabulary... 63

Appendix III Test Result and T-test of Try out and Final Test ... 65

Appendix IV Data Calculating ... 68

Appendix V Statistical Hypothesis Test Calculation (T-test) ... 72

Appendix VI Sample of Test Answer Filled Sheet ... 74

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xiii ABSTRACT Name : Zulkifli

Reg. Number : 2040115041

Department : English Education

Title : “A Comparative Study on the Vocabulary Mastery of Students

of English Education Department through Classical Songs and Modern Songs”

Consultant I : Dr. H. Abd. Muis Said, M.Ed.TESOL.

Consultant II : Indah Fadhilah Rahman, S.Pd.I., M.Hum.

This research is aimed to find out whether there is a significant difference or not on students’ vocabulary mastery who learn through classical songs and modern songs.

The method used in this research was ex post facto with causal comparative design. The variable of this research were classical songs and modern songs as independent variable and vocabulary mastery as dependent variable. This research was conducted at the English Education Department of Education and teacher Training Faculty of UIN Alauddin Makassar. The class pointed to be tested using classical songs was PBI 1-2 which consist of 45 students and tested using modern songs was PBI 3-4 which consist of 48 students. The researcher chose 15 students in PBI 1-2 and 15 students in PBI 3-4. The instrument used to gather the data were tests. The tests were divided into three, namely fill in the blank, verb form, and translating the meaning.

In the classical song class, the total score of the first, second, and third test was 1202 with the average was 80. The lowest score was 53 and highest score was 94. However, the result of the pre-test and post-test of classical song class showed that there was a significant different on students vocabulary mastery. The tvalue was higher than ttable (4.77 > 2.14). Meanwhile, the total score of modern song from the first test until the third test was 1416 with the average was 94. The lowest score was 90 and the highest score was 100. Moreover, the result of the pre-test and post-test of modern song class also showed that there was a significant difference on students vocabulary mastery. The tvalue was higher than ttable (2.66 > 2.14).

The final test of hypothesis indicated that the tvalue was -5.03 and ttable was 2.14 in level of significant a = 0.05. It meant that tvalue was lower than ttable (-5.03 < 2.14). Moreover, test of significant testing showed that H0 was accepted and Ha was rejected which meant that there was no significant difference on students vocabulary mastery between using classical song and modern song. Therefore, it concluded that both types of song were suitable to use in learning vocabulary because it could improve students’ vocabulary mastery. The music of the song was able to bring students to enjoy the class and minimized their boredom, thus they were motivated to learn vocabulary.

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A. Background

Learning a language is not something new for people who have been interested in it since a long time ago. It is caused by the main function of language that is for communication. In the learning process, one of the important parts in creating and understanding the language is vocabulary mastery. People cannot express their opinion and ideas in English without knowing their vocabulary. Low vocabulary mastery also makes them unable to express the opinion properly. This statement is appropriate with the Qur’an, Allah said:

“And He taught Adam all the names of everything, then He showed them to the angels and said: Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful”, (Al Baqoroh: 31). In the verse above, Allah shows that people should learn vocabulary in order to create their language skill. People can choose appropriate words in spoken or written language. A good vocabulary is a vital part of effective language communication.

Vocabulary is an important aspect in learning language, especially in learning a foreign language. When learners are learning a new language, they should know enough vocabulary. Wilkins (1972) said that without grammar very

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little could be conveyed but without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed. People are able to understand the language if they do not understand the grammar. Otherwise, they are not able to understand one simple sentence if they do not know the meaning of the vocabulary. Vocabulary is the entire words that make up a language. Before someone studies about the English skill, he should learn about vocabulary as the first step.

According to Wiriyacitra in Kitiyya (2016: 2), the main reason that English learning is not very successful is that the students lack of the opportunity to learn English in real life interaction in an English environment. Similarly, Putri (2018: 129) concluded in her research that one of the students’ problem in learning English is that they lack of support for the surrounding environment. They only learn English limited to campus. Therefore, many teachers try their best to find the strategies and techniques to teach English especially vocabulary to students. Moreover, in order make the students motivated and enjoy to study vocabulary, the teacher should be creatively in delivering material (Masning Zahro, 2010: 2). Inadequate vocabulary is one of the serious problems in learning English, and it affects language development and learning ability because vocabulary is a basic component of language use which creates the foundation for learner’ performance in other skills (Alemi and Tayebi, 2011).

Language is important, thus learning vocabulary is needed to use the language. As the Qur’an surah Ibrahim verse 4 explained about the language:

ُ زي ِزَعْلا َُو ه َو ُُۚ ءاَشَي نَم يِدْهَي َو ُ ءاَشَي ُنَم ُ َاللّ ُ ل ِض يَف ُُْۖم هَل َُنِ يَب يِل ُِهِم ْوَق ُِناَسِلِب َُلِّإ ُ لو سَر ُنِم ُاَنْلَسْرَأ اَم َو ُ ميِكَحْلا

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“And we do not send any messenger except in the language of his people to state clearly for them, and Allah sends astray (thereby) whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And He is the exalted in might, the wise.”

The verse above shows the language is really important, especially to communicate with other people. Language cannot be used if we do not recognize the vocabulary. Therefore, people need to know the vocabulary to make good communication with other people.

Teaching vocabulary is generally written on the whiteboard, then the teachers asked the students to read it after them. The teacher thought that the students memorized it and asked them to write it on their note book. This method is one of the ways to teach vocabulary to the students.

However, the teacher or lecturer should use varied strategies in teaching vocabulary. One of the strategies that can be used by teacher is using media to support the teaching learning process. There are some teaching media available now. In this case, the researcher chose song as the media to learn vocabulary.

Based on the interview, teaching vocabulary not only supposes to deal with presenting new words but also requires the students’ ability to understand and use the words correctly. Sometimes, teachers think that teaching vocabulary is simple, they ‘just’ give a list of vocabulary, and then ask the students to memorize it and next they test it. Murphy in Fadrulrohman (2017: 14) said that songs can be useful tools in the learning of vocabulary, sentence structure, and sentence patterns, not to mention their reflectivity of mother tongue culture. Song as a media is easy to remember the vocabulary because it is familiar to them. Media provides an

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enjoyable atmosphere for the students, hopefully the students will master the vocabulary better.

Wallace (1982: 144) stated that learning foreign vocabulary is not only memorizing the words. It requires the ability to recognize words, recall, pronounce, spell and use them appropriately. Teaching vocabulary in the class usually happens in a way that create boredom both for the teacher and the students because there is lack of variation. Therefore, the use of songs in vocabulary teaching can be chosen as one of the variations in the teaching in order to eliminate boredom among the students and the teacher.

In order to help the students to succeed in learning language they need to learn vocabulary that is used in daily life. One tool that can interest students in learning vocabulary is the use of song, which introduces students to new vocabulary and phrases in a lively way. Many schools have used songs to help students in learning and improving their behavior. Music allows students to learn vocabulary more rapidly (Salcedo, 2010).

Music is powerful stimulus for students’ engagement precisely because it speaks directly to our emotions while still allowing to us to use our brains to analyze it and its effect if we so wish (Harmer, 2002). Music and song are included in teaching media, the use of music and song in the classroom can stimulate very positive associations to someone who study language. In addition, Harmer also stated that a piece of music can change and prepare students for a new activity, it can amuse and entertain and it can make a satisfactory connection between the world of leisure and the world of learning.

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Lecturers at State Islamic University of Alauddin Makassar especially in the Department of English Education apply the use of song in learning English because it is an interesting way to learn English. Using song to learn English give more motivation to the students and help them to achieve the learning goals (Hidayat, 2013). It is also supported by the research of Valianti (2017) that teaching vocabulary through listening to English song is more effective to improve students’ vocabulary mastery.

According to Murphey (1992), using the students’ favorite songs can help them learn vocabulary over the long term; this is called the song-stuck-in-my –head phenomenon. Related to this, Alipour, et.al (2012) state that popular song can promote a wide variety of useful words. Popular songs nowadays are modern songs. People like to listen the modern songs because the songs are followed by the good listened music.

On the other hand, classical songs are also good to use in teaching English especially in teaching vocabulary. Students at the first and second semester in the Department of English Education of UIN Alauddin Makassar learn the listening subject through song. The use of classical song is believed that the it could be effective to use in learning English either for students’ listening ability or vocabulary mastery. The melodies and rhymes help students to use good pronunciation like native speaker (Siskova, 2008).

The researcher believed that using song in teaching vocabulary is more interesting and fun. Learning a foreign language with something familiar such songs are helpful because songs are familiar in our daily life. Many students listen

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to songs. The teacher used songs to make English vocabulary learning better which students are required to repeat the same words or the same structure without boring them. Thus, it encourages the students to learn new words and memorize them easily.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher was interested in comparing between the use of classical songs and modern song in purpose to find out the better type of song to be used in learning vocabulary.

B. Research Problem

Based on the background above, the researcher formulates the research question as follows:

1. Is there any the significant difference between the use of classical songs and modern songs toward the students’ vocabulary mastery?

C. Research Objective

Related to the problem statements above, the objectives of the research is:

1. To find out the significant difference between the use of classical songs and modern songs toward the students’ vocabulary mastery

D. Research Significances 1. Theoretical Significance

The result of this research is expected to give information about the better media between classical songs and modern songs on the students’ vocabulary mastery.

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2. Practical Significance

a) For the Lecturer/Teacher

The result of this research is useful for additional information to teach vocabulary innovatively and to find out the appropriate way to teach vocabulary. b) For the Students

The use of classical songs and modern songs in mastering vocabulary can help students to learn vocabulary better. However, the students were very excited to learn English through song.

c) For next Researcher

This research is expected to be a useful reference for the other researcher to conduct research in the future dealing with similar problem by using another comparison.

E. Research Scope

The scope of this research was focused to compare the use of classical songs and modern songs as media to teach vocabulary for the students of English Education Department in the first semester. The researcher focused to evaluate students’ vocabulary mastery especially on verbs and nouns.

F. Operational Definition of Terms

To give clear clarification and to prevent misunderstanding or different interpretation between the researcher and the reader, the researcher clarifies the terms are used in this study as follows:

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1. Classical Song

The researcher uses the word “classical” to replace “old”. Thus, the meaning of Classical song is the old song that is accompanied by slow tempo of music and rhyme. The classical song is close related to the classical music which is the music of any genre or style that is born from a pure and sincere motivation, empowered not by the energies of one's self, but rather by something greater, which exists beyond time, history or culture.

The researcher chose two songs as the classical songs, such as we could

have it all by Maureen McGovern and hurt by Christina Aguilera. Both of the

songs are very pleasant to hear and easy to understand the pronunciation of the singer.

2. Modern Song

The word “modern” is used to replace the word “new”. Therefore, the modern song means the new song that is popular nowadays. Modern song is close related to modern music which was born because of the modern culture such as bands, marching bands, symphony orchestras, and concerts that are generally oriented to popular culture.

The researcher chose two songs as the modern songs, such as Something

Just Like This by The Chainsmoker Feat Coldplay and One Call Away by

Charlie Puth. These songs are very popular in nowadays especially for teenagers.

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3. Vocabulary Mastery

Vocabulary mastery is the total number of words, a list or set of words in a particular language that a person knows or uses. Vocabulary mastery is always being an essential part of English. English vocabulary is very important for the English learner. It is more than grammar for communication purpose, particularly in the early stage when students are motivated to learn the basic words.

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This part provides an overview of some previous findings about the use of verb technique, pertinent ideas, theoretical framework, and hypothesis.

A. Some Preview of Related Research Findings

Kustiana Dewi (2010) conducted the research: Improving Students’

Vocabulary Mastery Through Listening English Song of the Eighth Year Students of SMPN 25 Semarang 2009/ 2010. She found that using song in learning vocabulary

could give students more motivation to learn. However, students’ score of vocabulary mastery test improved after they have been taught using Listening English Song.

Sri Wahyuni (2012) in her thesis entitled Improving Students’ Vocabulary

Mastery through Popular Songs found that using song in teaching vocabulary can

increase the student’s vocabulary mastery. The students tend to be cooperative, active, enjoyed and have motivated in Learning English. They also enrich and memorize vocabulary well. The students very enjoyed the class and they often shout each other, and it made the class crowded. Therefore, she needed much energy to handle the class.

Dyan Alviana Safitri and Indah Fadhilah R. (2016) conducted the research about: The Use of RAP Music to Improve Students’ Vocabulary Mastery. They concluded that using this technique in teaching vocabulary to the English Student Learner is very helpful because when students listened to the song and sang along,

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they felt enjoy and stress-free, it can help second language learner to acquire the language more naturally and effectively.

Muh Fadrulrohman Al Ihsani (2017) in his thesis: Improving Students’

Vocabulary Mastery Using Song Lyric. He found that the implementation of Lyric

Song can improve the student’s vocabulary mastery. There were several improvements reached by the students, not only on their academic score, but also on their behavior to the lesson. Dealing with the score that the students got, there was a significant improvement. The use of lyric song improved the students’ achievement in learning English especially in vocabulary mastery.

Meanwhile, Tatik Muflihah (2017) conducted the research entitled Úsing

Song to Improve Students’ Vocabulary Mastery. She concluded that teaching

learning process by using English song is more effective. There were several improvements of the students who were being taught by using songs and students who are not taught using song. Another interesting aspect was found that the students had higher motivation in learning English vocabularies. This can be seen from their enthusiasm after having the class, they requested to have the next teaching learning program.

Based on the previous findings research above, it can be concluded that song is effective to use in teaching English especially for teaching vocabulary mastery. The use of song could make the class more fun and enjoyable. All the researches above showed the result that students’ vocabulary mastery could be increased if they learn it through songs. The classical song with its slow tempo and rhyme can make the students enjoy and relax while in the learning process. Meanwhile, the

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modern song could enhance students’ motivation because the popularity of the songs are familiar to them. The researcher interested to handle a research in comparing the better type of songs as a media to learn vocabulary for students in the department of English education.

B. Some Pertinent Ideas

The researcher in this point presents a further concept about both classical and modern songs which bring the students to learn vocabulary in a relaxed and comfortable way.

1. Concept of Song

Song is a musical composition intended to be sung by the human voice. This is often to be done at distinct and fixed pitches using pattern of sound and silence. Songs contain various form, such as those including the repetition of sections. Through semantic widening, a boarder sense of the word “song” may refer to instrumental.

Songs are often a welcome change from the routine classroom activity in learning a language. Songs also make experience of learning English and enjoyable. The song lyrics provide a target vocabulary, grammar, and patterns for students to study. By listening to English songs, students can listen to the native pronunciation and also develop their listening ability. Melodies and rhymes help students to use good pronunciation like a native speaker (Stansell in Kittiya, 2008).

Singing is the most common musical expression. Betsy B. Lee, the author of Learning Abilities Books, states that by singing a song someone can develop their ability to learn something and also at the same time can build their creativity. It

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gives students a degree of ‘fluency before they have succeeded in speaking. Words usually occur in context in lyrics; the sound of new words is easily remembered through the melody of the song.

a) Description of Classical Song

Classical song is an old song that released a long time ago. In this case, it is a song that released around 1980 to 2006. Therefore the classical songs are not really popular especially for teenagers because those songs might release before they born. However, there are only a few repetitions of the same lyric in the song and the words used are also uncommon and quite difficult to understand the meaning. At least it presented more new vocabularies to learn. This could be a worthy way for the students to learn vocabulary.

Slow tempo and rhyme become one of the characteristics of classical songs. Using classical song as a media to learn vocabulary could make students to feel enjoyable and relax while in the learning process.

b) Description of Modern Song

Modern song is a new song that released in the near time from now. In this case, it is the song that released around 2015 to 2019. People nowadays especially teenagers, they love listening to the modern songs such as popular songs. Besides it is pleasant to hear, it also provides a common words that usually used in daily life. Since it is not really difficult to understand the meaning. In addition, there are a quite number of repetitions of the same lyric in the song. It makes the songs easy to memorize.

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The tempo and rhyme of modern songs are faster than classical song, but people love it. However, Using modern song as a media to learn vocabulary could make students more motivated and excited.

c) The differences between Classical song and Modern song

The researcher compared between two songs as media for students to learn vocabulary. He categorized the differences of both medias based on the songs that have been chosen in the following table:

Table 2.1. The differences between Classical and Modern song

Classical Song Modern Song

The released date is a long time ago, around 1980 to 2006

The released date is around 2015 to 2019

Classical song is not really popular especially for teenagers

Modern song is quite popular especially for teenagers

The words used in the song lyric are uncommon and quite difficult to understand the meaning

The word used in the song lyric is commonly used in daily life, therefore it is not really difficult to understand the meaning.

There are only a few repetitions of the same lyric in the song

There are a quite number of repetitions of the same lyric in the song.

The music tempo and rhyme is generally slow

The music tempo and rhyme tends to be fast

Song has a role in language learning. Song can be useful for teaching vocabulary to the English students because song is close related to their daily life. Based on the world book dictionary, song is something to sing; short poem set to music. Song can make students learn English more fun. Song is not just for

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enjoyment but also an art that is setting of a poem to music, especially conceived to enhance the meaning of text.

2. Concept of Vocabulary Mastery a) Definition of Vocabulary Mastery

There are many definitions of vocabulary proposed by some experts. It is very important for one to know what vocabulary is before discussing vocabulary mastery. According to Hatch and Brown (1995: 1), the term vocabulary refers to a list or set of words for particular language or a list of words that individual speakers of language use. Since vocabulary is a list which only involved alphabetical order. The method used to choose in vocabulary selection to teach vocabulary are important factors. It needs the process of learning in context to get the meaning of words as stated by Allen (1983: 4).

Vocabulary is a fundamental component of second language proficiency, one of the primary goals of language learning is to know the meanings of the words. It is needed to communicate successfully in the second language. Hornby (1995: 985) states that vocabulary is the total number of the words (with their meaning and with rules for combining them) making up the language. Burn and Broman (1975: 295) define that vocabulary is the stock of words used by a person, class or professional, all having much in common, yet each distinctly different. The primary thing in learning a language is the acquisition of a vocabulary. Therefore, success in learning English requires vocabulary acquisition. Nunan (1998: 118) said that, the development of a rich vocabulary is an important element in the acquisition of a second language.

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Studying language cannot be separated from vocabulary because it is an essential part of language. Vocabulary mastery is important for the students. It is more than grammar for communication purpose, particularly in the early stage when students are motivated to learn the basic words. Without having proportional English vocabulary, student will get some difficulties in using English or conveying what is on his/her mind. Vocabulary mastery can be measured by the requirements of generalization (being able to define words) and application (selecting an appropriate use of it). In addition, Schmitt and McCharty (1997: 326) state “Receptive and Productive knowledge may prove the only realistic way to measure depth of vocabulary knowledge”. Receptive knowledge is words that the learners recognize and understand when they occur in a context. While productive knowledge relates to words which the learners understand, able to pronounce correctly and use constructively in speaking and writing. Further, Madsen (1983:12) states the purpose of vocabulary test is to measure the comprehension and production of words used in speaking or writing.

Referring to the explanation above, it can be concluded that vocabulary mastery is a skill to understand the stock of words and their meanings of a particular language. The students who have proportional words or vocabularies will reduce their difficulties in using English. A teacher as facilitator in learning process should keep looking for way to make learning vocabulary easier and more pleasant. Alfayanah (2014: 2) states that Education is supposed to become less stressful, more relaxed, and more enjoyable, bring a long list of educational advantages. In addition, Tekeng (2016: 122) says that even though vocabulary mastery is

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important in order to support the mastery in English skill, in fact many English learner are often face with the problem of the vocabulary mastery. Vocabulary is greatly importance to learn for students in language education. Students can still communicate one another even they do not master the grammar, but without vocabulary they cannot communicate at all. In order to fix the problem, teachers or lecturers use various technique to teach vocabulary, one of them is by using song. The lyric of song is formed from a collection of words and sentences.

b) Types of Vocabulary

Some experts have classified types of vocabulary. Shepherd (1980: 1) classifies vocabulary into two kinds, such as a receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary (productive vocabulary). Further, he defines the receptive vocabulary as the words known when the learner listens and reads. The receptive vocabulary is also called a passive process because the learner only receives thought from others. In language application, the receptive vocabulary is considered as the basic vocabulary. Later, expressive vocabulary is defined as the words that the learners understand, can pronounce correctly, and use constructively in speaking and writing. It involves what is needed for receptive vocabulary plus the ability to speak or write the appropriate time. Therefore, productive vocabulary can be addressed as an active process, because the learners can produce the words to express their thought to others.

In language, words can be considered as the smallest element that have distinctive meaning. Based on their use and function, words are categorized into several types of part of speech. Marcella Frank (1972: 4) divides part of speech

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into several parts, such as central core (verb and noun or pronoun), modifier (adjective and adverb), connector (preposition and conjunction). He adds that only nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs have special inflectional and derivational endings, and use special markers for identification. The great bulk of our vocabulary falls into these four part of speech, and new words enter into these category only.

In this research, there are two focused types of vocabulary namely verb and noun. For the detail information, the explanation of them are as follows:

1) Verb

Verb is a word that shows an action, occurrence, or state of being. Generally, every sentence requires a verb. Since verb is the most important element to form a sentence. It is a part of word classes in learning vocabulary. The words of verb in English have the forms relevant to the time that they indicate.

Verb is one of the element that the researcher focused on his research. it is learned from the song lyric that has been chosen. Since the verbs in song generally have a past form because most of songs tell about the past. Verb is the most complex part of speech. Its varying arrangements with noun determine the different kinds of sentences statements, question, commands, and exclamation.

Base on the object, verb is divided into transitive verb, which is a verb that needs object to complete the meaning of sentences and intransitive verb, which is a verb that does not require an object. In additional, verb is divided

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into two types according to its form namely regular verb and irregular verb. The details of the information are as follows:

a. Regular verb

Azar (1989: 17) in her book says that regular verb is change of verb which systematic, that is adding –d or –ed of first verb so to be v2 (past tense) and v3 (past participle). These following examples of regular verbs form from present, past tense and past participle :

Table 2.2. The example form of regular verb Simple Form Simple Past Past Participle

Ask Asked Asked

Call Called Called

Look Looked Looked

Play Played Played

Stay Stayed Stayed

b. Irregular verb

Azar (1989: 17) says that irregular verb is verb that have some functions with regular verb. Irregular verb different with regular verb, in regular verb the verb just added by ed, but in irregular verb, the change of verb which not systematic. These following examples of irregular verbs form from present, past tense and past participle:

Table 2.3. The example form of irregular verb Simple Form Simple Past Past Participle

Become Became Become

Break Broke Broken

Hide Hidden Hidden

Know Known Known

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2) Noun

Noun is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, or ideas. Marcella Frank (1972: 6) says in his book that noun is one of the most important part of speech. Its arrangement with the verb helps to form the sentence core which is essential to every complete sentence. in addition, it may function as the chief of “head” word in many structures of modification.

Noun is one of the element that the researcher focused on his research. it is learned from the song lyric that has been chosen. Finding songs that have proportional nouns to learn is not so easy. There are only a little bit of songs that contain enough nouns in their lyric.

There are several types of nouns that may be contained in a song. Marcella Franks in his book divides some types of nouns based on the meaning, such as:

a. Proper noun

Proper noun is a name which refers only to a single person, place, or thing and there is no common name for it. In written English, a proper noun always begins with capital letters. Example: Mr. John Smith, Makassar, Jakarta, etc.

b. Concrete and abstract noun

A concrete noun is the exact opposite of abstract noun. It refers to the things we see and have physical existence. Example: Chair, table, bat, ball, water, money, sugar, etc. later, An abstract noun is a word for something that cannot be seen but is there. It has no physical existence. Generally, it refers to ideas, qualities,

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and conditions. Example: Truth, lies, happiness, sorrow, time, friendship, humor, patriotism, etc.

c. Countable or noncountable noun

The nouns that can be counted are called countable nouns. Countable nouns can take an article: a, an, the. Example: Chair, table, bat, ball, etc. Whereas, the nouns that cannot be counted are called non-countable nouns. Example: Water, sugar, oil, salt, etc.

d. Collective noun

A collective noun is a word for a group of things, people, or animals, etc. Example: family, team, jury, cattle, etc. Collective nouns can be both plural and singular. However, Americans prefer to use collective nouns as singular, but both of the uses are correct in other parts of the world.

C. Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework of this research that had been done served in the following diagram:

Vocabulary

Modern Songs Classical Songs

The better media for students to learn vocabulary

The students’ score by using modern songs The students’ score by

using classical songs

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The main focus in this research is vocabulary especially on verbs and nouns. The objectives of this research was to find out the significant difference between the use of classical songs and modern songs toward the students’ vocabulary mastery. However, the researcher wanted to find out the better media format between classical songs and modern songs for the students’ vocabulary mastery of English Education Department. Thus, he gave several tests of both medias to the classes that have learned vocabulary through songs. Next, the researcher used the determined formula to analyze students’ paper test in order to obtain their score. Finally, the researcher compared the both test results to find out which media is better for the students to learn vocabulary well.

D. Hypothesis

Hypothesis is proposition that is stated is a testable form and that predicts a particular relationship between two or more variable. In other words, we think that a relationship exists, we first state it is hypothesis and then test hypothesis in the field (Baily, 1978). Therefore, there are two hypotheses in this research:

H0: There is no significant difference between using classical songs and modern

songs on students’ vocabulary mastery of English Education Department.

Ha: There is a significant difference between using classical songs and modern

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23

This chapter provides information about the research design, population and sample, variable of the research, and instrument.

A. Research Design

The method used in this research was ex post facto with causal comparative design. According to Sugiyono (2016: 57) Comparative research is a study comparing the existence of one or more different samples or at the different times. The researcher used comparative design in ordered to compare the better type of song namely classical song and modern song to use for the students in learning vocabulary. The representative design picture as follow:

Group Independent Variable Dependent Variable

E X O1

C O2

Using this model, the investigator hypothesizes the independent variable and then compares two groups, an experimental group (E) which has been exposed to the presumed independent variable X and a control group (C) which has not. The dashed line in the model shows that the comparison groups E and C are not equated by random assignment. Alternatively, the researcher may examine two groups that are different in some way or ways and then try to account for the difference or differences by investigating possible antecedents (Cohen, 2007: 269).

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B. Research Variables

The kinds of variable related to the research consists of independent and dependent variable. Independent variable is the variable that is influenced by another variable to achieve what is expected by researcher, whereas the dependent variable is the result that is expected through the implementation of the independent variable (Arikunto: 2006).

Based on the title above, the researcher could identify the clear illustration on the research variable. The variable is divided into:

1. Independent Variable

Independent variable is a variable that influence another variable to achieve the researcher expectation (Sugiyono, 2017: 61). Therefore, the independent variables in this research are classical song and modern songs.

2. Dependent Variable

Dependent variable is the result that expect through implement of the independent variable (Sugiyono, 2017: 61). Hence, the dependent variable in this research is vocabulary mastery.

C. Research Setting

This research was carried out at the Department of English Education, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training of UIN Alauddin Makassar. The researcher started working on this research from 2th February 2019 to 13rd November 2019. This research was began from the time the researcher composed the draft of thesis, consulted the draft, held the research, and present the research finding.

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D. Population and Sample 1. Population

Arikunto (2015: 173) says in his book that Population is the whole subject of the research, while sample is the part of population. The subjects of this research were students in the first semester of English Education Department of UIN Alauddin Makassar in academic year 2019 that consist of 93 students. they are divided into four groups and two classes namely PBI 1-2, which consist of 45 students and PBI 3-4 which consist of 48 students.

2. Sample

Nunan in Fatmawati (2016: 35) said that sample is the subset of individuals from a given population. However, sample must represent the population as the part of it.

The researcher used simple random sampling in this research, which the participants were randomly selected. Simple random sampling is a technique of sampling in which the member of the population is taken randomly without regarding to the strata that exist in the population (Sugiyono 2016: 120). The researcher took 30 of 93 students as a sample. The researcher picked 15 students randomly from each class, they were 15 students from PBI 1-2 who learned vocabulary through classical songs and 15 students from PBI 3-4 who learned vocabulary through modern songs.

E. Research Instrument

Instrument is the tool or facility used by the researcher in collecting the data in order to make his or her work easier and get better result (Arikunto, 2015: 160).

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Therefore, the researcher concluded that instrument takes an important role in the research. The instruments used in this research were tests and songs. Test is technique or a method that is intended to measure students’ knowledge and ability to complete a particular task.

This research was focused on vocabulary, so that it is needed to evaluate the students’ vocabulary mastery. In this case, there will be 2 different tests for verbs and nouns. The test was adapted from the research of Safitri and Rahman (2016), which is Verb-form. It is a test where the students are supposed to know the others form of the verbs in the song lyric. Next, the test was adapted from the English teaching material of listening subject, which is Fill in the blank. It is a test where the students are required to fill the gap or blank page in the song lyric. Later, the students are also required to translate the focused words from English to Indonesian.

F. Data Collecting Procedure

This research was carried out from 20th September 2019 to 14th October 2019. The researcher conducted meetings and tests in both classes. The procedures in collecting the data are as follows:

1. Friday, 20th September 2019, the researcher and lecturer held the first meeting of PBI 1-2 in the laboratory. Students’ vocabulary mastery were evaluated by listening to the classical songs and filling the blank page of the song lyric. There were two songs played, namely “we could have it all” and “hurt”. The first song was focused to the nouns, while the second is focused to the verb.

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2. Monday, 23rd September 2019, the researcher and lecturer held the first meeting of PBI 3-4 also in the laboratory. Students vocabulary mastery were evaluated by listening to the modern songs and filling the blank page of the song lyric. There were also two songs played, namely “something just like this” which focused to the nouns and “one call away” that focused to the verbs.

3. Friday, 27th September 2019, the researcher held the second meeting of PBI 1-2. He gave explanation about the focused vocabulary in classical songs, such as meaning of the words and form of the verbs.

4. Monday, 30th September 2019, the researcher held the second meeting of PBI 3-4. He gave explanation about the focused vocabulary in modern songs, such as meaning of the words and form of the verbs.

5. Tuesday, 8th October 2019, the researcher gave two types of test to PBI 1-2. The first test was held to know the students’ vocabulary mastery on verbs, and the second test was for collecting the data of their vocabulary mastery on nouns.

6. Monday, 14th October 2019, the researcher held the last meeting. He gave the same test to PBI 3-4 in order to collect the data of their vocabulary mastery on verbs and nouns.

G. Data Analysis Technique

The researcher obtained the data from the result of the tests. It was analyzed in order to find out whether there is a significant difference or not on students vocabulary mastery between using classical songs and modern songs. Since, the

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students' score would show the answer of the question. However, analyzing the students’ test data will be done by the steps as follow:

a. Calculating the students’ score from the test

Where: X = Score

P = Number of correct answers N = Total number of items

(Sudijono, 2008: 43) b. Finding out the mean score, the variance and the standard deviation

1) Mean score:

Sudijono (2012) states that mean is sum of all score which is divided by number of scores. In addition, Charles and Dianne (1995) say that mean is score on a test is what is commonly known as the average; that is the sum of all the students’ scores divided by the number of students. Determining the mean score was using the formula:

M = ∑𝑋 𝑁 Where:

M = The mean score ∑x = Sum of all score N = The number of sample

Sudijono, 2008: 314 X = 𝑃

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2) Range

Sudijono (2012) states that range is the difference between lowest score and highest score. The formula is:

Range (R) = Highest score – Lowest score

3) Variance

Variance is the amount of dispersion from standard deviation. The following formula is: S2 = ∑𝑓 (𝑥𝑖−𝑥)2 ∑𝑓 3) Standard Deviation SD = √S2 Where: SD = Standard Deviation S2 = The variance (Sudijono, 2008: 314) c. Finding out the significant difference

In order to find out difference between classical songs and modern songs on students’ vocabulary mastery. The researcher used “t-test” based on Sugiyono (2016).

The researcher used the t-test to test the existing hypothesis. In this case the hypothesis in this study was a comparative hypothesis of two independent samples. Hence, the t-test formula that could be used for testing comparative hypothesis of two independent samples namely the separated variance and polled variance

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formulas. The determination of the formula used is based on the number of samples and variant data from both groups. For more details, follow the explanation below: 1) If the sample sizes are equal (n1 = n2) and variances of two groups are

homogeneous then can use t-test formula both separated variant and polled variance. The degree of freedom used in t-table is; df = n1 + n2 – 2.

2) If the sample sizes are unequal (n1 ≠ n2) and variances of two groups are homogeneous then can use t-test formula polled variance. The degree of freedom used in t-table is; df = n1 + n2 – 2.

3) If the sample sizes are equal (n1 = n2) and variances of two groups are heterogeneous then can use t-test formula both separated variance and polled variance. The degree of freedom used in t-table is; df = n1 – 1, or df = n2 – 1. 4) If the sample sizes are unequal n1 ≠ n2 and variances of two treatment groups

are heterogeneous then can use t-test formula separated variance.

In this research, the number of samples from the group one and group two were the same. Meanwhile, the homogeneous of the variance was determined by the following formula:

F-count = 𝐻𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑉𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝐿𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑉𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒

However, the researcher determined the homogeneous of the variance by using t-table. If the F-count is lower than T-table, it means the variance are homogeneous. Whereas, if the F-count is bigger than T-table, it mean the variance is heterogeneous.

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The researcher analyzed the score between classical song and modern song classes. The data analysis technique was statistical analysis with t-test to find out the significant difference. The formula was:

𝑡 = 𝑋1− 𝑋2 √𝑆12 𝑛1+ 𝑆22 𝑛2 where:

X1 : Mean data of group one

X2 : Mean data of group two S12 : Varian data of group one

S22 : Varian data of group two

N1 : Sum sample of group one N2 : Sum sample of group two

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32

This chapter describes research findings which consist of the description of data, the analysis of data, the test of hypothesis and the interpretation of data.

A. Findings

The findings of this research were the data results from tests which were divided into three test for each media. The data would be explained by using descriptive statistic which presented in tables and described in quantitative manners. In order to give clear of the data findings, the researcher explain them as follows:

1. The Students’ Vocabulary Mastery Scores

The scores of students’ vocabulary mastery were obtained from the result of three tests of each media. The first test was filling in the blank where the students must fill the blank page of the son lyric. Next, the second test was verb form where the students were ordered to find out the form of the verb in the song lyric. They should pay attention for the forms which were divided into three form, such as present, past, and past participle. Finally, the last test was about translating the meaning of the focused vocabulary in this research, such as nouns and verbs. a. The students’ score in the first test (Fill in the Blank)

1) Students’ score by using Classical Song

After the researcher calculated the test score, it was found that in the first test using classical song the total score was 1006 with the average score was 67. The highest score was 93 and the lowest was 35. (Appendix iv)

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To simplify the data, they were grouped by using the steps suggested by Susetyo (2010: 20-21) :

a) Determining range of the data (R) R = highest score – lowest score

= 93 – 35 = 58

b) Determining the number of interval classes (K) K = 1 + 3.3 log (n)

= 1 + 3.3 log 15 = 1 + 3.3 x 1.17 = 5

c) Determining the length of interval classes (P)

P = 𝑅

𝐾= 58

5 = 12

d) Creating the grouped data distribution table

Table 4.1. Group Distribution of Classical Song Score in the First Test

Score Frequency 35 – 46 4 47 – 58 0 59 – 70 3 71 – 82 6 83 – 94 2 Total 15 4 0 3 6 2 0 2 4 6 8 35 - 46 47 - 58 59 - 70 71 - 82 83 - 94 Fr e q u e n cy o f r e spo n d e n ts

Students Score in the First Test Using

Classical Song

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Chart 4.1 The Grouped Distribution of Classical Song Score in the First Test

2) Students’ score by using Modern song

After the researcher calculated the test score, it was found that the total score in the first test using modern song was 1416 with the average score was 94.4. The highest score was 100 and the lowest was 84. (Appendix iv)

To simplify the data, they were grouped by using the steps suggested by Susetyo (2010: 20-21) :

a) Determining range of the data (R) R = highest score – lowest score

= 100 – 84 = 16

b) Determining the number of interval classes (k) K = 1 + 3.3 log (n)

= 1 + 3.3 log 15 = 1 + 3.3 x 1.17 = 5

c) Determining the length of interval classes (P)

P = 𝑅

𝐾= 16

5 = 3

d) Creating the grouped data distribution table

Table 4.2. Group Distribution of Modern Song Score in the First Test

Score Frequency 84 – 86 1 87 – 89 1 90 – 92 6 93 – 95 0 96 – 98 1 99 – 100 6 Total 15

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Chart 4.2 The Grouped Distribution of Modern Song Score in the First Test

b. The students’ score in the second test (Verb form) 1) Students’ score by using Classical song

After the researcher calculated the test score, it was found that the total score in the first test using modern song was 1229 with the average score was 82. The highest score was 100 and the lowest was 33. (Appendix iv)

To simplify the data, they were grouped by using the steps suggested by Susetyo (2010: 20-21) :

a) Determining range of the data (R) R = highest score – lowest score

= 100 – 33 = 67

b) Determining the number of interval classes (k) K = 1 + 3.3 log (n)

= 1 + 3.3 log 15 = 1 + 3.3 x 1.17 = 5

c) Determining the length of interval classes (P)

P = 𝑅

𝐾= 67

5 = 14

d) Creating the grouped data distribution table

1 1 6 0 1 6 0 2 4 6 8 84 – 86 87 – 89 90 – 92 93 – 95 96 – 98 99 – 100 Fr e q u e n cy o f r e spo n d e n ts

Students Score in the First Test Using

Modern Song

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Table 4.3. Group Distribution of Classical Song Score in the Second Test Score Frequency 33 – 46 1 47 – 60 0 61 – 74 2 75 – 88 5 89 – 100 7 Total 15

Chart 4.3 The Grouped Distribution of Classical Song Score in the Second Test

2) Students’ score by using Modern song

After the researcher calculated the test score, it was found that the total score in the first test using modern song was 1453 with the average score was 96.8. The highest score was 100 and the lowest was 88. (Appendix iv)

To simplify the data, they were grouped by using the steps suggested by Susetyo (2010: 20-21) :

a) Determining range of the data (R) R = highest score – lowest score

= 100 – 80 = 20 1 0 2 5 7 0 2 4 6 8 33 – 46 47 – 60 61 – 74 75 – 88 89 – 100 FR EQ UE N CY O F R ES PO N DE N TS

Students Score in the Second

Test Using Classical Song

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b) Determining the number of interval classes (k) K = 1 + 3.3 log (n)

= 1 + 3.3 log 15 = 1 + 3.3 x 1.17 = 5

c) Determining the length of interval classes (P)

P = 𝑅

𝐾= 20

5 = 4

d) Creating the grouped data distribution table

Table 4.4. Group Distribution of Classical Song Score in the Second Test

Score Frequency 77 – 80 1 81 – 84 0 85 – 88 1 89 – 92 0 93 – 96 3 97 – 100 10 Total 15

Chart 4.4 The Grouped Distribution of Modern Song Score in the Second Test

1 0 1 0 3 10 0 5 10 15 77 – 80 81 – 84 85 – 88 89 – 92 93 – 96 97 – 100 FR EQ UE N CY O F R ES PO N DE N TS

Students Score in the Second

Test Using Modern Song

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c. The students’ score in the third test (Translating the meaning) 1) Students’ score by using Classical song

After the researcher calculated the test score, it was found that the total score in the first test using modern song was 1340 with the average score was 89. The highest score was 94 and the lowest was 81. (Appendix iv)

To simplify the data, they were grouped by using the steps suggested by Susetyo (2010: 20-21) :

e) Determining range of the data (R) R = highest score – lowest score

= 95 – 56 = 39

f) Determining the number of interval classes (k) K = 1 + 3.3 log (n)

= 1 + 3.3 log 15 = 1 + 3.3 x 1.17 = 5

g) Determining the length of interval classes (P)

P = 𝑅

𝐾= 39

5 = 8

h) Creating the grouped data distribution table

Table 4.5. Group Distribution of Classical Song Score in the third Test

Score Frequency 56 – 63 1 64 – 71 0 72 – 79 1 80 – 87 5 88 – 95 8 Total 15

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Chart 4.5 The Grouped Distribution of Classical Song Score in the Third Test

2) Students’ score by using Modern song

After the researcher calculated the test score, it was found that the total score in the first test using modern song was 1376 with the average score was 91.7. The highest score was 99 and the lowest was 84. (Appendix iv)

To simplify the data, they were grouped by using the steps suggested by Susetyo (2010: 20-21) :

e) Determining range of the data (R) R = highest score – lowest score

= 99 – 85 = 14

f) Determining the number of interval classes (k) K = 1 + 3.3 log (n)

= 1 + 3.3 log 15 = 1 + 3.3 x 1.17 = 5

g) Determining the length of interval classes (P)

P = 𝑅

𝐾= 14

5 = 3

h) Creating the grouped data distribution table

1 0 1 5 8 0 2 4 6 8 10 56 – 63 64 – 71 72 – 79 80 – 87 88 – 95 Fre q u en cy o f re sp o n d en ts

Students Score in the Third Test Using

Classical Song

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Table 4.6. Group Distribution of Classical Song Score in the third Test Score Frequency 85 – 87 4 88 – 90 1 91 – 93 2 94 – 96 6 97 – 99 2 Total 15

Chart 4.6 The Grouped Distribution of Modern Song Score in the Third Test

2. The Sum Score of Classical Songs and Modern Songs

The data of students’ vocabulary mastery such the scores of both types of song have been presented above. The objective of this research is to find out whether there is a significant difference or not on students vocabulary mastery between using classical songs and modern songs. Therefore, the researcher summed the scores of both types of song to answer the question. In order to make the clear understanding, the data is presented below:

1 0 1 0 3 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 77 – 80 81 – 84 85 – 88 89 – 92 93 – 96 97 – 100 Fre q u en cy o f re sp o n d en ts

Students Score in the Third Test Using

Modern Song

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a. Students’ Score in Classical Song

Table 4.7. Group Distribution of Students Score Using Classical Song

No Students Score Frequency Mean Frequency Sum Score

1 53 – 60 1 53 53 2 61 – 68 1 62 62 3 69 – 76 2 75 150 4 77 – 84 6 82 492 5 85 – 92 4 87.75 351 6 93 – 100 1 94 94 Total 15 1202 Mean 80

Based on the data above, there were 6 numbers of class interval. The table shows that the lowest score was in interval 53-60 that earned by one student and the highest score was in interval 93-100 that achieved by one students. Meanwhile, the most achieved score by students was in the interval 77-84 which earned by 6 students. In addition, the total scores reached by students were 1202 with the average 80. For the calculating of statistical description, it can be seen in appendix.

b. Students’ Score in Modern Song

Table 4.8. Group Distribution of Students Score Using Modern Song

No Students Score Frequency Mean Frequency Sum Score

1 90 – 91 5 90 452 2 92 – 93 0 0 0 3 94 – 95 3 94 283 4 96 – 97 5 97 483 5 98 – 99 1 98 98 6 100 1 100 100 Total 15 1416 Mean 94

Based on the data above, there were 6 numbers of class interval. The table shows that the lowest score was in interval 90-91 that earned by 5 students and the

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was one student achieved the highest score that is 100. Meanwhile, the most achieved score by students was in the interval 90-91 and 96-97 which earned by 5 students for each interval. In addition, the total scores reached by students were 1416 with the average 94. For the calculating of statistical description, it can be seen in appendix xviii.

c. Mean score, Variance, and Standard Deviation

The tests were presented in frequency distribution of experimental and controlled class (post-test) table which consist of maximum score, minimum score, mean, variance and standard deviation from the table below.

Table 4.9. Frequency distribution of Classical song and Modern Song

Data Classical Song Modern Song

Minimum score 53 90

Maximum Score 94 100

Mean 80 94

Variance 104 12

Standard Deviation 10.20 3.46

Chart 4.7 Frequency distribution of Classical song and Modern Song

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

MIN SCORE MAX SCORE MEAN VARIANCE SD

53 94 80 104 10.2 90 100 94 12 3.46

Frequency Distribution of Classical and Modern song

Figure

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