The Chronicle of Prosper of Aquitaine, The Gallic Chronicle of 452, The Chronicle of Marius of Avenches

Full text

(1)

Such wns

the

life

I

led

from

about

the

time

I

unr

iâ,EntEEn

Ëntil

I

war twenüy.

Finally my

parrnts' senre

of

responsibility eompclled mc, âgainrt my

will,

I

confess,

to

give

up the

allurements

of

the soft

ltib rnd

forced

me

to take

a

wife.

The

ancient

name

of

her

house rves

rnore

impresrive

than

its estate,

which at the

tirre

was burdened

with

problems becausc

of

lack

of

attention

from

its

aged owner.

A

young

grandchild

who

had survived her father succeeded

to

it,

and later yielded

to my

nuptial torches.

Once

I

had decided

to

bear the burden laid upon me,

in

only

a

few

days

I

\Mas content, aided

by

the ardor

of youth

and a zealous

spirit,

to

enjoy

the establishment

I

had

acquired.

Quickly

I

forced myself and

my

people

to exchange seductive idleness

for

unaccustomed activity. Some

of

them

I

chal-lenged

with

the

example

of my own

labor,

but

others

I

compelled against

their

will with

the severity

of

a master.

And

so, actively pursuing the duties

of

my new

situation,

I

immediately

took

action

to

bring

the

fallow

lands under cultivation and

to

renew the exhausted vineyards

with

prompt

attention, once

I

had learned how.

And I

was

first to

pây

my

tax obligations ât the appointed time,

willingly

and

of my

orü/n accord

-

something

that

seems

to

many

â

particulaù bitter

pill to

swallow;

but

thereby

I

quickly

assured myself

of

leisure

to

expend later upon private relaxation. Paulinus describes the luxury of his household.

As

much

as

I

enjoyed pleasing and welcome amenities,

the

great devotion

I

had

for

my

parents was dearer

still

and outweighed

them

all.

It

bound

me

with

a

tie of

overwhelming love, so thât

for

the greâter part

of

a year we kept them company, ân ârrangement

we

all wanted and

found

rewarding.

Would

that this way

of

life

granted

to

us

might

have lasted longer

by

the

bountiful

gift of

Christ

and

that

also

the

earlier

period

of

peace

might

have continued.

In

so many rrr/ays

my youth

could

have

done

with the

constant

attention

of

my

father's experience, and

my

education

could

have been

fur-thered

by

good

models.

But the

completion

of the third

decade

of

life

[a.

4o6] was marked by the unhappy onset

of

wvo afflictions.

In

a

public

câtâstro-phe mourned

by

everyone, enemies were poured

into

the guts

of

the Roman realm.

This

coincided

with

a private misfortune,

the

death and funeral

of my

father. For the last days

of

the end

of

his

life

accorded almost exacdy

with

the

time when the

peace was broken.

But for

me the.destruction

caused

to

my home

by the

ravages

of

the

enemy,

though

in

itself considerable, was

lighter

by far

than

the

immeasurable

grief

caused

by the

death

of

my

father. He made

both

homeland and home itself dear

to

me.

For we

had such genuine mutual respect

for

each other that we lived as

if

there were

no

age difference between us and

our

friendship surpassed that

of

friends

of

the same age.

TER FOUR

TF{

E

ANTIOUE

CHRON

TCLE

TR.ADNTXONI

I

N

TI..NE

FIFTH

AND

SNXTI_N

CENTUR.NES

'llwr

,rrc uo extensiue nanatiue histories Jor the

fifth

century. Coitemporary historians

ild

tlul

tuith euents under the western emperors during this period, but their works,

,0r,,rli,?,(§ o.f eastern provefiance, suruiue as fragments embedded

in

later sources (see

ilt

27,

Jt).

For complete examples oJ western historical writing

in

thefiJth ce,xtu{y

-antl .litr many of that period\ events and much of its chronology

-

we haue to loole to

iltnntilcs.

()hronicles became a signficant

form

oJ historical writing

in

the western empire in

the

.liurth

century under the infiuence of the work l<nown as Eusebius-Jerome. This

ilut ,t ruorld chronicle, setting out

in

tabular Jorm biblical, secular, and ecclesiastical

his-tory.liom Abraham to the present.The original version was

written'in

Greek by the

rc'ldmn'd church historian Eusebius (ca. z6o-i4o), bkhop of Caesarea;

it

suruiues now

uly

in.fïagments and in Armenian and

l-atin

translations. In

j9o,

Saint Jerome (ca.

j1:-4io),adapted an edition of Eusebius\ work. that ended in

A.D.

jz5,

translating

it

Ittto Lrrtin and bringing euents down to the year

j78.

It

was Jerome's

I-atin

uersion

llnl

lrymme infiuential

in

the west, and his

ffirt

to bring the chronicle up to date

b*,ttttc ,r modelJor western practitioners of chronicle historiography.The main chronicles

Itiurslûed here are

all

continuations of Jerome and record people and euents oJ recent

hittory.

'l'lu'y often do so

in

a deliberatefashion that belies their appearance as sterile

com-pctilit

t»f haphazard data. The chronicle Jorm may not immediately invite reflectiue

n'iiliu.q, ltut modern scholarship has shown how the genre

in

its late antiqwe and eaily

nrtlirwl

.form desert,es to be treated as the purytoseful construct of authors with distinct

Itttrttliotts. For this reason, not to mention the intrinsic interest and sometimes unique

tnltr

of' their contents,

I

have included large excerpts from the chronicles and attempted trttnybtcness ouer a substantial range of entries.

I

ltnve also kept some, though not

all,

chronologiul trappings

of

the chronicles.

llrttrttion

oJ contemporary dating conventions

is

often

a

necessity: not

all

chronicle

t'tttriu can be reduced to simple, standard anno

domini

dating. Rcaders should also be

ûu\ut'

(!l

the nwmber of chronological systems available

to

thosc recortling euents;

for

rlrrotrolo.gy was, among other things, an aspect oJ historical scU'-conseiouvrcss and a

refi-trtiott qf the the public face of the Roman state. Finally, sonc undarstdnding of the

nttir'ly ttf systems

in

use

in theffth

and sixth centuie5 and tlu'ir impcrfictions, may

Itrly n'dders understand the practical problems Jaced

by

nwdcrn atrd dildcnt sch()lars

(2)

16.

PROSPER

OF

AQUITAINE

Prosper oJ Aquitaine (or ProsJter Tiro) was d natiue oJ Giaut who tpent nuu'lr

ü'

his

aduh

lfe

in

Rome.

He

may haue held an impofiant position in papal drcles, possibly

dying in 463. Pyosper was deeply inuolued

in

the theological disputes of his rlay in both

Caul and Rome, especially thase concerning grace and free

will.

Hk

ehronicle is

just

one oJhis works,

Itwas

conceiueil as an abbreyiation of thefamous chronicle oJJerome,

with an original continuation by Prosper himselJ that began in

j78;it

was composed in a number of editions between

4y

and 455.

Prosper\ chronicle was infiuenced .by another Jorm of contemporary historical

recoril-keeping, consulay annals. Sinæ Republican times, the year in Roman practice had been

named'after the two consuls who took

ffice

on t January;by late imperial conuention, one consul was named from the West and one

ÿom

the East. Lists of these consuls cir-culated, often with octasional and brieJ annotations that might be used by chroniclers or historians; suruiving examples of annals sometimes contain ytrecise dates

for

important public euents. Proslter adopted consular chronology

for

his chronicle, combining

it

with a

system of his own deuising that numbered years

from Christ\

crucifixion.

In

the excerpts below, a selection of the years Jor the eailier portions of Prosper\ continuation is giuen. From the year 4og the chronicle is complete; the years

»ith

con-suls but no euents giuen

in

Mommsen's edition haue been omitted.

No

attempt has

been made to distinguish uarious recensions, but

in

a couple of cases

I

haue giuen

vari-ants.

I

haue combined the dating schemes into one line: the number oJ the years from

Chrbt\

passion, followed by the names (usually two) of the consuls

for

the year in question. Prosper\ dating can readily be incorporated

into

the later anno

domini

scheme of dating, which has been placed

in

the margin.

Source: Prosperi Tironis epitoma chronicon, ed. Th. Mommsen, Clronlca Mitora r, MGH

AA

9

(r892), pp. 385-485.Translation by A.C. Murray.

a.37e Year 352

[from

Christh passion].Âusonius and

Olybrius

[consuls].

-

...In

this period,

Priscillian,

bishop

of

Gallaecia, established

from

the dogma

of

the Manichees and Gnostics the heresy bearing his name.

a.

i8r

Year 354. Syagrius and Eucherius.

Martin,

bishop

of the,city

of Tours

in

Gaul, was famous

for

many exam-ples

o[

miracles...

a. 382 Year 355.Antonius and Syagrius.

Athanaric,

king of

the Goths, was

killed

at Constantinople

on

the

fifteenth

day after he had been received thcre...

a. 384 Year 357.

Richomer

and C)learclrus.

Honorius, the son ofTheod«rsius wrs born.

§iriciur'pr$ided

over thê

Romen

church Efter Drnnnrut

ü

tha

thirry*ixth

buhop'

In Britein

Maximus

wâs medc empercr

by

a mudny

of

the

loldiers, He ;6Etl crïri3ed ov€r

to

Gaul. Gratian was dcfcatcd at

Parii through the

treach-Ë{

of

thc

mester

of

the

soldiers, Merobaudes, end f,eeing was captured and lÉlled at Lyons. Maximus mâde his

sonVictor

his colleague

in

power.

Valentinian

[l],

forty-second emperor, reigned

for

I

years

with

Theodo-liur,

Ye.r

ish.

nt

adius and Bauto,

,,,Priscillian,

knowing

he

would

be condemned at the Synod of Bordeaux,

rpperled

to the

emperor [Maximus].

He

was

tried

at

Trier

and, along

with

Ettcltnltia,

wife of

Delfidius

the

teacher

of

rhetoric,

Latroniânus,

and

other Psrtners

in

his

error,

wâs

put

to

death

by

Euvodius, Maximus's praetorian pref'ect,At Bordeaux

a

cefiatî

disciple

of

Priscillian called

Urbica

was stoned.

to

dcatl'r

on

account

of

her pbstinate

impiety by

an

unruly

mob.

Yelr

3fir.Theodosius

for

the second

time

and Cynegius.

'l'he

usurper

Maximus,

despoiled

of

his royal

garments, appeared before

Vele tttinian and Theodosius at the

third

milestone from Aquilea and was

con-deurned

to

death. His

sonVictor

was

killed

in

Gaul

by

Count Arbogàst

in

the mnlc yeâr.

Yclr

36z.Timasius and Promotlls.

llishops Itacius and lJrsacius,

on

account

of

the

destruction

of

Priscillian, wlrose accusers they were, were deprived

of the

communion

of

the church. Yeur 365.Arcadius

for

the second

time

and Rufinus.

'l'he

extreme severiry of Arbogast, master

of

the soldiers, droveValentinian

tnt()

committing suicide

at

Vienne

by

hanging himself.

On

the

death

of

Valcntinian, Arbogast,

who

was burdened

with

the

way

the

emperor died, as

corrrrnander

of

the army, made Eugenius emperor

in

Gaul'

'I'heodosius,

forry+hird

emperor, already

in

power

for

14 years, reigned

for

I

yclrs

with

his sons Arcadius and Honorius.

Yclr

367.Arcadius

for

the

third

time

and

Honorius

for

the second.

.fohn

the

hermit monk

was renowned.

He

had been granted

the gift of

prophecy and

predicted that

Theodosius,

who

was consulting

him

on

the outcome

of

the campaign he was

mounting

against Eugenius,

would

be

(3)

â.3ej

Year 368.

Olybrius

end

Prrbinur,

Theodosius defeated and

killed

Eugcnius,

Augustine,

the

disciplc

of

the blessed Ambrose and eminent

ln

eloquence and learning, was made bishop at

Hippo

in Africa'

At

this time, Claudian,

the

distinguished poet, became

well

known. Theodosius died at

Milan.

Arcadius,

forty-fourth

emperor, already

in

power

fot

tz

yeats, reigned 13

years

with

his brother Honorius...

a.4o6 Year 379.Arcadius

for

the sixth

time

and Probus.

vandals and Alans crossed the

Rhine

and entered Gaul

on

December 3r.

a.4o7

Year 38o.

Honorius

ôr

the seventh

time

andTheodosius

for

the second.

Constanline arose

in

Britain

as a usurper and crossed

to

Gaul.

a.

4o8

Year 38r. Bassus and Philippus. Arcadius died

in

ConstantinoPle.

Honorius,

forthy-fifth

emperor, reigned

for

r5

years

with

Theodosius

[II],

the son

of

Honorius's brother.

a.4oe year 3gz.

Honorius for

the eighth

time

andTheodosius

for

the third. TheVandals

took

Spain.

Attalus was made emperor at

Rome. He

was soon deprived

of

power but remained connected

with

the

Goths.

a.4ro

Year 383. SenatorVaranes.

Rome

was captured

by

the

Goths under

the

command of

Alaric'

and

for

this reason there was on-try a consul

for

the

east, a practice

followed the

next year as well.

Year 384. Augustus Theodosius

ôr

the

fourth

time'

constantine

was defeated and captured

by

Honorius's generals,

constan-tius and

Ulfila,

at the

town ofArles. Count

Gerontius

killed

Constantine's son Oonstans,

who

had begun

his

rule

in

Spain, passing

the

usurper's

role

to

a

ecftilirl

Maximus.

ar

*g

YÉêt 3t5.

Hçnorius for

the

ninth

time

and Theodosius

for

the

fifth.

In

§prin

Maxiurlrs

was removed

from power

and was

granted

his

life ill-v/i11

lfeUæ

€he mOdereti.u and insignificance

of

the man did

not

merit

§}d

hir

effêctltiort of ltrthoriry.

At

thic time, Hetos,

r

holy

nan

and dieeiple

of

blomcd

Mrtda'

wru driræn

out

of

Arles

by iB

people

while

he preBided over

the eity

nl

bbhopi

he wao

S,itrtu*

end

ntt

*uUjo.t

to

âny ehârgÇ,

In

his place $,e! od.in_ed Patttelus, Érieud and acquâintence

of

Constantius, master

of

the

soldie*,

whose fevor he prucured,

This

affair wâs a subject

of

great disagrccments âmong the bishops

of thc

region,

l,

4?,

Yeer'.11i6. Senator Lucius.

His

colleague

in

the

consulship was Heraclian'

who

was responsible

for

Fvolution in Africa

and deprived

of

his

honor

and his life'

The

tsurgundians acquired part

of

Gaul near the

Rhine'

The

brothers Jovinus and Sebastian seized power

in

Gaul and were

killed'

At

that

time

the

Briton

Pelagius set

forth

the doctrine

bearing

his

name egainst the grace

of

Christ; Caelestius and

Julian

[of Eclanum] were his assis. trnts,

He

attracted many people

to

his erroneous views'

He

proclaimed that enclt person is guided

to

righteousness

by

his

own

will

and receives as much

grâ(:eashedeserves,sinceÀdam'ssininjuredonlyhimselfanddidnotalso

iriuct his descendants. For this reason

it

would

be possible

for

those so wishing to bt: completely

without

sin and

for

all

little

children

to

be

born

as innocent

àr wâs

the first

man before transgression;

nor

are

children

to

be baptized so

tlteycanbedivestedofsinbutsotheycanbehonoredwiththesacramentof

ndoPtion.

i.4ir

Yerrr 387. Constantius and Constans'

Attalus

on the

advice

of

the

Goths and

with their

help

resumed

the

role

ol

ttsurper

in

Gaul.

,

']

i'

Yclrr388.HonoriusforthetenthtimeandTheodosiusforthesixth.

AttaluswasabandonedbytheGoths,whoremovedthemselvestoSpain,

,rtrrl, deprived

of their

support, was captured and presented alive

to

Constan-tirts the patrician.

Athaulf,woundedbyoneofhisownmen'died'and'Walliaseizedhis

kirrgdomafterdestroyingthosewhowerethoughttowantthesamething.

l":,1

Y...':Ag.th.odosius for

the seventh

time

and Palladius'

s".ti.rg

peace

with

Honorius,

wallia

restored the daughter

of

the emperor 'l'hcodosius

[I],

Placidia,

whom the

Goths

had

captured and

whom

Athaulf

Itacl married, and Constantius

won

her hand

in

marriage'

Zosimus

took up

the

episcopal

ofiice

of

the Roman

church'

He

was the

llrirry-ninth

bishoP.

At

this

time the

Pelagians, already condemned

by

Pope

Innocent'

v/ere

(4)

resisted

by

the

diligence

of

the

Africanr

and especirlly

§

the

knowledge

of

Bishop Augustine.

a.

4t7

Year 39o.

Honorius for the

eleventh time, Constantius

for

the second.

Honorius

enrered

Rome

in

a

triumph

with

Attalus

walking

ahead

of

his chariot.

Honorius

ordered

him

to

live

in

exile

on

the island

of

Lipara.

â.4r8

Year 39r.

Honorius for

the

twelfth time

andTheodosius

for

the eighth.

At

this

time

Constantius, a servant

of

Christ,

and

former

vicar,

living

at

Rome, most

devoutly resisted

the

Pelagians

on

behalf

of

the

grace

of

God.

The

many things he endured at the hands

of their

faction placed

him

among the

holy

confessors.

A

council

was

held

at Carthage and the synodal decrees

of

the

two

hun-dred and

fourteen bishops

\^/ere conveyed

to

Pope

Zosimus.

They

were approved

and

the

Pelagian heresy was condemned

throughout

the

whole

world.

Valentinian, the son

of

Constantius and Placidia, was

born

on

z July.

,r.

4r9

Year 3gz. Monaxius and Plinta.

At

Rome

Boniface

took

up

the

episcopal oflice, the

fortieth

bishop

of

the

Roman

church.

Constantius

the

patrician made

peace

with Wallia and

gave

him

the

province

of

Aquitania

secunda

to

live

in

and certain

cities

of

neighboring provinces.

t

4zo Year 3g3.Theodosius

for

the

ninth

time

and Constantius

for

the third. Constantius was taken as a colleague

in

power

by

Honorius. Jerome the priest died at the age

of

ninery-one

on

3o September.

^.4zt

Year 3g4.Agricola and Eustathius. Emperor Constantius died.

t-

4zz

Year 395.

Honorius

for

the

thirteenth time

and rheodosius

for

the tenth.

At

this

time

an ârmy wâs sent

to

Spain against theVandals under the

com-mand

of

Castinus.

By

a

senseless and

wrongful

order,

he

made Boniface, a

man quite famous

in

the arts

of

war, averse

to

participating

in

his expedition.

And

Boniface, reckoning

thât

ro follow

Castinus,

whom he

had

found

dis-agreeable and proud,

would

be

dangerous

to

himself

and degrading, rushed

off

to

Portus and

from

there to Africa.

That

was the beginning

of

many

difii-culties and subsequent evils

for

the stâte.

[Cf.

18, Hydatius, s.a. 4zz.)

Yeer Jgo, Mariniarrur rnd

Ârehpiodotur,

,{ugusta lllacidie,

dtiven

rwry by

her

bnrther

Honodul,

wËtlt

the

east

with

her children

Honorir

gndVelentiniatt,

Cclcstiue wâs set over the

Roman

church as its

forry-flrrt

bishop,

Horrorius

died

and

John

took

his

imperial

authority,

It

was

thought

that

Cartilus,

who

commanded

the army

es master

of

the

soldier§, pretended to

look thc

other way,

Theodosius

[l]

held the

Roman

empire as

forty-sixth

emperor. Ycar 397. Castinus andVictor.

Exuperantius

of

Poitiers, praetorian prefect

for

Gaul, was

killed

in

the ciry ot'Arles

by

a

mutiny of

the soldiers, and this deed was

not

avenged

byJohn.

'Iheodosius made

his

cousin Valentinian

[II!

Caesar and sent

him

along

witl,

the Augusta, his mother,

to

take back

the

western empire.

At

the

time,

.folrn',s defenses were made weaker because he

tried to

recapture

Africa,

over

wlrich Boniface wâs maintaining his hold.

Ycirr jg8.Theodosus,

for

the eleventh time, and CaesarValentinian'

Augusta Placidia

and

Caesar Valentinian

with

astonishing

good

fortune crushed

the

usurper

John

and as

victors

regained royal power' Pardon was

given,to Aêtius, because the Huns he had brought

in

on

behalf

ofJohn

were

lrr1ed

back home

by

his

efforts. Castinus,

on

the other

hand, was sent

into

cxile, because

it

seemed as

ifJohn

would not

have been able

to

take over the kirrgdom

without

his connivance.

'fhe manuscripts

oler

two slightly dffirent uersions oJ the next entry: r.Valentinian was hailed asÂugustus

by

a decree ofTheodosius'

z. Valentinian was hailed as Àugustus

by

the army.

Arles,

noble ciry

of

Gaul, was assailed

by the

Goths

with

great violence, until, threatened by Àëtius, they

withdrew not

without

losses.

1-rn Ycar 399. Theodosius

for

the

twelfth time

and Valentinian Augustus

for

the sccond.

Patroclus,

bishop

of

Arles, was wounded

many

times

and killed

by

a

tribune,

a

certain Barnabus.

This

crime

was blamed

on

the

orders

of

Felix, nraster

of

the soldiers, at whose instigation

the

deacon Titus, a

holy

man

dis-tributing

money

to

the

poor

at Rome, was also killed.

{,,

Yc'ar 4oo.

Hierius

and Ardabur.

Due to

the decision

of

Felix, war wâs waged against Boniface

in

the name

of

the state

by

the generals Mavortius, Gallio, and Sanoeces.

Bonifacet

power ;rnd fame were

growing

in

Africa

and

he

had refused

to

come

to

Italy. The

(5)

generâls beseiging IJorriface were

killed,

betrayed

by

srnoecer, end soon he

who

had betrayed

them

was himself killed. Thereafter accesr

to

the

sea wât gained

by

peoples

who

were unacquainred

with

ships

until

they were called

in

by

the

rival

sides

to

give

assistance.

The

conduct

of

the war

undertaken against Boniface \Mas transferred

to

Count

Sigisvult.

The Vandal people crossed

from

Spain to Africa.

d.

428

Year

4or.

Felix and Taurus.

Nestorius, bishop

of

Constantinople,

tried to

introduce

a

new

error into

the churches.

He

proclaimed that Christ was

born

of

Mary

as a man only,

not

also as God, and

divinity

was conferred

upon

him

because

of

his merit. The

diligence

of

Bishop

Cyril

of

Alexandria

in

particular and

the authority

of

Pope Caelestinus opposed this impiery.

Part

of

Gaul

near

the

Rhine

seized

by the

Franks was recovered

by

the forces

of

Count Aëtius.

rr.4:9

Ycar 4oz. Florentius and Dionysius.

Felix was promoted

to

the oflice of

patrician

andAëtius

was made master

of

the soldiers.

Agricola the

Pelagian,

the

son

of

Bishop

Severianus

the

Pelagian,

cor-rupted the churches

of Britain by introducing

his

own

doctrine.

On

the rec= ommendation

of

the deacon Palladius, Pope Celestine sent Germanus, bishop of Auxerre, as his representative, and

when the

heretics had been cast down, he guided the

Britons

to

the

Catholic faith.

a.43o Year 4o3.Theodosius

for

the

thirteenth time

andValentinian

for

the third. Aëtius

killed

Felix

and his

wife

Padusia and

the

deacon Grun-itus, sensing that they were

plotting

against him.

Aurelius Augustine,

a

bishop most

olttstanding

in

evey respect,

died

z8 August.

In

his very

last days

he

was responding

to

the

books

ofJulian [of

Eclanum] amidst

the

âttâcks

of

besieging Vandals and persevering gloriously

in

deflense

of

Christian grace. a.

43r

Year 4o4.Bassus and Ântiochus.

A

synod

of

more

than

rwo

hundred bishops gathered at Ephesus. Nesto-rius was condemned along

with

the heresy bearing his name and many Pela-gians

who

supported

it

because the doctrine was related

to

their

own.

Palladius, having

been

ordained

by

Pope Celestine, was

rhe

first

bishop sent

to

the Scots believing

in

Christ.

a.

432

Year 4o5.Âëtius andValerius.

Sixtus was set over

the

Roman

church

as

the

thirty-second

bishop. The

Tàole

eiry rÈmêlned

pcâcêfuIin

urcnderful hrrmony,

Bonifeee 'recêived

thc

ofüce

of

mâtter

of

the roldlËil

rad

came

fnrm

to

ltaly by

wey

of

Rome,

-{lthough

hc

fought

r

battle

wlth

Aëtius, war opposing

him,

rnd

defeated

him, he died

r

few

dnye later

from

ill-Aëtius,

who

had surrendercd po$rcr, residcd

on

his

country

cstates and

lome

of

his enemies

tricd to

crush

him

in

a sudden attack. Fleeing to and

from

there

to

Dalmatia, he

thererfter

rcachcd

the Huns

through ia,

He

used

their

friendship and assistance

to

obtain

the peace

of

the

Itipcnrrs

and get his power restored.

l,

'/,

j'

Yesr 4o6.Theodosius

for

the fourteenth

time

and Maximus.

Âll

the years calculated up

to

the fourteenth consulship

of

Theodosius and ibat

of

Maximus:

From the fifteenth year

ofTiberius

and the passion

of

the

Lord,4o6

years.

From the restoration

of

the temple under Darius, ro54 years.

r-rcm the

first Olympiad

and Isaia the prophet,

r2ro

years. Fr<rm Solomon and the

first building of

the temple, 1466 years.

lirom

Moses and Cecrops,

king

of

Attica,

1965

years.

; From Abraham and the

rule of Ninus,

2450 years.

Now

from the

flood

to

Abraham there are g42 yeàrs, and

from Adam

to tlre

llood

2242 years.Thus from Âdam

to

the time

of

the

consuls mentioned

âhove, the years amount

to

5634.

.-

rl.

Yc;rr 4oS.fheodosius

for

the

fifteenth time

andValentinian

for

the

fourth.

l)eace made

with

the Vandals by

Trigetius ât

Hippo

on

r

r

February. The Vrrrdals were given a part

ofAfrica

to

live in.

At

the same time Aëtius crushed Gundichar,-who was

king of

the

Burgun-rli;rns and

living

in

Gaul.

In

response

to

his

entreary Aêtius gave

him

peace,

which

the

king did

not

enjoy

for

long. For the Huns

destroyed

him

and his llcople

root

and branch.

fi r I t:,:

Yt'ar 4o9. lsidorus and Senator.

The

Goths

conôunded the

peace agreements and seized many towns

in

tlrc

vicinity of

their

settlements, attacking

the

city of

Narbonne

most

of

all.

When

it

had sufered

for

some

time from

siege

and

hunger,

the

city

was

s;tved

from

both

dangers

by

Count Litorius. For

he

put

the

enemy

to

flight

,rrrd

filled the city

with

grain,

having

each

of

his

troopers

bring

along

two

nleasures

of

wheat.

Year 4ro. Aëtius

for

the second

time

and Sigisvult.

'War was waged against

the

Goths

with

the help

of

the Huns.

(6)

undo the Catholic faith

within

the regions where he redded,

He

persecuted some

of

our

bishops,

of whom

the most famous were Posidius, Novatus, and Severianus,

to

the extent that

he

deprived

them

of

their

right

to

their

churches and even drove

them from their

cities,

for

their

steadfastness

would

not yield

to

the terrors

of

that most proud king.

The

Augustus Valentinian

went

to

the

emperor Theodosius

at

Constan-tinople

and married his daughter.

In

the same period,

four

Spaniards, Arcadius, Paschasius, Probus, and

Euÿ-chianus were

formerly

considered

by

Gaiseric

to

be valued and distinguished

by virtue

of

their

wisdom and

faithful

service.

To

make

them

even more esteemed,

he

commanded

them

to

convert

to

the

Arian

heresy.

But

as they most steadfasdy rejected this wickedness, the barbarian was roused

to

a most

furious

anger. First

their

property was confiscated,

next

they were driven

into

exile,

then tortured

severely, and, finally, suffering death

in

various ways, they succumbed

wonderfully

to

â most glorious martydom.

A

boy

called Paulillus,

the brother

of

Eurychianus

and

Paschasius, was

very

dear

to

the king

on account

ofhis

fine body

and refined nâture; since he

could not

be separated

by

threats

from

his

acknowledgment and

love

of the

Catholic faith, he

was beaten

for

some time

with

rods and condemned

to

the meânest serütude.

He

wâs

not

killed,

it

seems, so

that

youth

should

not

also take g1ory

in

over-throwing

the savagery

of

an impious man.

In

the same year barbarian deserters

of

the federates

took to

pirâcy.

â.

438

Year

4rr.Theodosius for

the sixteenth

time

and Faustus.

In

this year

too

the same pirates plundered many islands, especially Sicily. Measures against the Goths

in

Gaul went well.

a.

439

Year 4rz.Theodosius

for

the seventeenth

time

and Festus.

Litorius,

who

led

Hun

auxiliaries, second

in

command after Aëtius, rashly

joined

battle

with

the Goths,

striving to

surpâss the

glory ofAëtius

and

trust-ing

in

the oracles

of

diviners and the portents

of

demons.

He

made us under-stand

the

success the band that perished

with him

might

have achieved, had

he

chosen

to follow

â course better than his

own

foolhardiness;

for

he

infli-cted

such losses

on the

enemy that,

if

he

had

not

fallen

into

captiviry

by

fighting

heedlessly,

it

would

have been

doubtful

to

what

side

victory

should properly have been ascribed.

At

this

time, Julian

of

Eclanum, a most boastful defender

of

the

Pelagian error was aroused by an immoderate

longing for

a

former§

lost bishopric.

By

the varied art

of

deceiving, and

exhibiting the

pretence

of

having amended

lril

wayr,

lte

ettrleavrlrccl

to

insinuate

himself

into

the

communion

of

the church,

llut

l'ope

Sixtus,

with

the urging

of

Leo the

deacon, opposed these

triekr

rnd

allowed no appnxrclr

to lie

open

to

these pestilential efforts, and he

eaffied

all Càtholiel

reJoiې

|n

threwing

beek

the

dceeitful bealt, ar

if

the apostolic Br,ÿord thËn

for

the

firrt

time beheaded the

molt

Pmud herêry'

ln

the

same

period,

vlterlcur wffi

comidered

loyd

to

our

itête

and renowned

for

the frequent demonstrstion

of

his

skill

in

war'

Peacc made

with the

Coths,

for

thcy

sought

it

more humbly than

ever lrefore after the lamentable

trial of

an inconclusive war'

SinceAëtiuswasconcernedwithmettersthatwerebeingsettledinGaul,

Gaiseric had

nothing

to

fear

from

losing

his

friendship'

On

r9

October'

he

took

advantage

of

the peace and seized carthage.

He put

its citizens

to

vari-ous

kinds

of

torture

and

took all

of

their

wealth

as

his

own'

Nor

did

he refrain

from

despoiling

the

churches'

Euryrying them

of their

sacred vessels'

lncldeprivingthemoftheattentionoftheirpriests,heorderedthattheyno

l,r,rg.,

b.

places

of

divine worship

but

quarters

for

his people'

He

was harsh towards

the

entire captive population

but

particular§

hostile

to

the nobility

and clergy so that

no

one could

tell

whether he was waging war more against

lllln

or

God.

Carthage suffered

this captivity

in

the

585th year after

it

had become Roman.

Year 4I3.Valentinian Augustus

for

the

fifth

time

and Anatolius'

WhenBishopSixtusdied,theRomanchurchwaswithoutabishopfor

. nlore than

forty

days, awaiting

with

wondrous

peacefulness and forbearance the arrival of Deacon Leo,

who

was detained

in

Gaul restoring the friendship between Aëtius and

Albinus.

It

was as

if

he

had been removed

quite a

dis-tgrce so

that both the merit

of

him

chosen

and the

judgment

of

those clroosing

might be

tested.

Then

Deacon Leo, summoned

by

a

civic

legation

lrrcl

delivered

to

his rejoicing home ciry

was

consecrâted

the forty-third

hishop

of

the

Roman

church.

!ÿhile

Gaiseric was

inflicring

serious damage

on

Sicily,

he

received

word

tlr;tt sebastian [the

son-in-law of

Boniface] was crossing

from

Spain to

Africa

rnd quickly

returned

to

carthage. Gaiseric

thought

it

would

be dangerous to lrirrrself

and

his

people

if

a man

skilled

in

\

/âr

was

bent upon

retaking

( )rrrthage.

But

Sebastian,

wishing

to

be regarded as a

friend

râther than as an

crrcmy,

found

everything

in

the

mind of

the

barbarian contrary

to

what

he

lncl

supposed.

That

hope wâs

to him

a cause

of

the

greatest calamiry and an trrrluppy death.-[Cf.

r8,

Hydatius, s'a' 444,445, 449'1

r

Yt'rtr 414. Cyrus.

.l.heodosiusopenedhostilitieswiththeVandalsbysendingthegenerals

Ariobindus, Ànsila, and Germanus

with

a large fleet.

They

deferred the

busi-rrcss

with long

delays and proved

to

be more

of

a burden

to

Sicily than a help

to Africa.

(7)

t.442

Year 4r5. Dioscorus and Eudoxius.

As the Huns were laying waste to Thrace and

Illyrlcum tvith

ravage

plun-dering,

the army

that \Mas delayrng

in

sicily

returned

for

the

defence

of

thc eâstern proünces.

The

Augustus

valentinian

made

peace

with

Gaiseric and

Africa

was

diüded

between the

two

inro

disfincr rerrirories.

Some

of

Gaiseric's magnâtes conspired against

him

because he was proud, even among tris

own

people, due

to

the

successful

outcome

of

events.

But

when the

undertaking was discovered, they were subjected

to

many tortures and

killed by

him.'Whenever

others seemed

to

venture rhe same

thing,

the king's mistrust served

to

destroy so many that he lost more men

by

this

anxi.

ety

of

his than

if

he had been overthrown

in

war.

à. 443 Year 4r6.Maximus

for

the second

time

and Paterius.

At

this time

it

became clear

to

the diligent

perception

of

pope

Leo

that

many

Manichees

were taking

refuge

in

the

city.

He

rooted them

out

frorn

their

hiding

places and revealed

rhem

ro the

eyes

of

the

whole

church; he caused

them

to

censure and

report all the

deformities

of their

doctrine

and had great piles

of

books

that

had been seized burned.

This

concern,

inspired

,

in

the

holy

man,

it

seems,

by

God, was

of

the greatest benefit

not only

to

the

city of Rome but

also

to

the whole world,

inasmuch as

the

confessions

of

those arrested

in

Rome might

reveal the

identity of their

teachers, bishops

or

priests, and the proünces

or

cities

in

which they

lived.

Many

bishops

in

the

east imitated the energy

of the

apostolic governor.

a. 444 Year 4r7. Theodosius

for

the eighteenth

time

and Albinus.

In

this year Easter was celebrated

on

4

April.This

was

not

an error,

ôr

the day

of

the passion was

on

zr April.

out

of

respect,the anniversary

of

the

City

[on

zr April]

passed

without

circuses.

Attila king of

the Huns killed

Bteda, his

brother

and co-ruler, and forced his people

to

submit

to

him.

a. 448 Yeat 4zt.Postumianus and Zeno.

At

this

time

the

Euÿchian

heresy arose.

Ir

was created

by

Eutyches a

cer-tain

priest

who

presided over a renotÿvned monastery

in

Constantinople. He proclaimed that Jesus

Christ,

our Lord

and son

of

the

blessed

Virgin Mary

had

no

maternal substance,

but only

the nature

of

God's

word

was

in him in

the

likeness

of

a human.

on

account

of

this

impiety

he was condemned by Flavian, bishop

of

the

same

ciry for

he

would not

be

corrected.

But reÿing

on

royal friendship and the favor

of

courtiers, he asked

to

be heard

by

a

uni-versal synod. Thçodosius gave

his

consent

and

ordered

all the

bishops

to

gremble ât'EphêBur

in

otdæ to

ndthdtaw

thir

eondenrnrtion,

In

this eouncil, Eutyehes wes absolvcd

rnd

DicrcUrur, bishop sf

Nexlndria,

clainring

primrcy

t'or himself, proposed â 3ÊntÊneê

of

condemnation against Flavian, bishop

of

C)orrstautinople.This was done

oÿer.thc

objections

of

Hilarus, deacon

of

the ehurch

of

Rome,

who

had been sent

fiorn

the apostolic see along

with

Julius

the

bishop

to

Pozzuoli

to

represent

the

holy

Pope Leo.

For all the

bishops

who

rnade

up

the council

were compelled

to

render consent

to

this

heresy try force and fear

of

counts and soldiers

whom

the

emperor had assigned to l)ioscorus, bishop of Alexandria;,but

the

aforesaid deacon, amid serious dan-ger

to

his

life,

called

out

his

objection

although

the

fury

this

caused threat-encd

to

destroy him. Leaving

,1

6

6wn-people there, he secretly departed so

lrc might lay

beôre

the aforesaid pope and other Italian bishops an accusâtion of

how

the Catholic faith was

üolated

at the council.

The holy

Flavian passed

op

to

Christ, ending his

life

in

a most glorious fashion,

while

in

the hands

of

those

who

led

him

into

exile.

l-

îô

Ycar 433.Valentinian

for

the seventh

time

and Avienus.

When

Theodosius

had died

and

the

chamberlain Chrysaphius.

who

had rnisused the friendship

of the

emperor, had been killed, Marcian received the kingdom

with

the

agreement

of

the whole

army.

He

wâs a most impressive rnan, indispensible

to not

only

the state

but

also the church'

By

his edicts,

which

complied

with

the authority of the

apostolic see, the

synod

of

Ephesus

was

condemned,

and

it

was decided

that an

episcopal

council should

be held

at

chalcedon,

so

rhat

forgiveness

might

heal

the reformed aqd the intransigent

might

be

driven out

with

their

heresy'

tl.4t ' l1

,., t ..1 I

Year 434. Augustus Marcian and Adelphius'

After killing

his brother,

Attila

was strengthened

by

the

resources

of

the deceased and forced many thousands

of

neighboring peoples

into

a war. This war,

he

announced as guardian

of

Roman

friendship,

he

would

wage only against the Goths.

But when

he had crossed the

Rhine

and many Gallic cities experienced his savage attâcks,

both

our people and the Goths soon agreed to oppose

with

allied forces

the fury of their

proud

enemies.

Ând

Aëtius

had such great foresight that,

when fighting men

were

hurriedly

collected from everywhere, a

not

unequal

force met the

opposing multitude.

Although

the slaughter

of

alt ihose

who

died rhere was incalculable

-

for

neither side gave way

-

it

appears

that the

Fluns

were

defeated

in

this

battle because those âmong them that survived lost

their

tâste

for fighting

and turned back home.

[, r,;/

Yeir'

az§. Senator Herculanus and Sporacius.

(8)

l'atrtteitlia,

()ttr

t:onrtnattcler Aëtitrs rnadc rro provision

following

the exertions

of

the

previous

war

and failed

to

rnake use

of

the

barrieru

of'thc

Alps

by

which

the enerry could have been checked.

He

believed his

o,ly

hope lay

in

a

full

retreat

from Italy

along

with

the emperor.

But

since this course seemed disgraceful and fraught

with

danger, a sense

of

shame restrâined fear and the widespread overthrow

of

so many

of

the noble provinces was used

to

sâtiate the savagery and greed

of

the

enemy.

of

all the plans

of the

emperor, senare,

and people

of

Rome,

none

seemed sounder

than

to

send envoys

to

seek peace

from

this most fierce

of

kings.

The

blessed pope Leo, supported

by

the help

of

God,

whom

he

knew

never neglects the labors

of

the devout,

took

up this matter along

with

Avienus, a man

of

consurar rank, and

rrygetius,

a man

with

the rank

of

prefect.

Nor

was the result other than

what faith

had taken

for

granted. For

when the

entire delegation was honorably received, the

king

was so delighted

with

the

presence

of

the chief

bishop

that he

ordered the war

to

be halted and, having promised peace, retired beyond the Danube.

a.4j3

Year 426. Senator

Opilio

andVincomalus.

The

synod

of

chalcedon

ended. Euryches

and

Dioscorus

were

con-demned.

All

who

disassociated themserves

from them were

received

into

communion. [Jniversally confirmed

was

the faith that

was proclaimed by

holy

Pope Leo

with

respect

to

the incarnation

of

the

word,

according

to

the evangelic and apostolic doctrine.

Attila

died

in

his

own

territory.

At

first

great struggles over succession ro the kingship broke

out

among his sons; then a few

of

the peoples that used to obey

the Huns

tried

to

revolt

and created conditions and opportunities

for

wars.

In

these

the

fiercest peoples

were

corlsulned

by

attacks

upon

one another.

Among the

Goths residing

in

Gaul, dissersic»T xrose among

the

sons

of

KingTheodoric,

the eldest of

which,Thorisnrund,

succeeded his father.'when

the

king tried to

act

against

both the llourarr

pcace and

the

repose

of

the Goths,

he

was

killed by

his

brothers, fcrr

he

lrrcssecl

on

uncontrollably

with

harmful measures.

a.

454

Year 427. Aétius and Studius.

Ominous

enmities

grew

stronger tretwecrr

tlre

Augustus Valentinian and

the

patrician Aëtius, even after

oathl

lrmruirirrg

rrruttral

loyalty

and

after

an âgreement to

join

their

childrert

in

tnarriuge,Wlrcrc the kindness

of

affection

ought

to

have been streugthctred,

thert

the tirrrler

of

hatred burst

into

flame

at the

instigation, so

it

was believed,

of

Herhclius

tl)c

eunuch.

By

insincere devotion, he gained such inflttencÉ

wer

the errrper«rrls

thinking

that he could easily push

him

into

doing whetever he wirlrcrl,

The manusdltls runlaln tuto tænlane

$

rubsequent even$:

t,

Sincc Hereclius peruurded the enrpcxrr

of

all

manner

of

wickedness on Aëtius' pârt, there wes

thought

to

be

just

one

course

of

action

available to

Éâve

the

cmpcror:

get his

eReRly béfore

he

got

him, As a

result

Aëtius

was

cruelly

put

to

the sword

within

the recesses

of

the palace at the hands

of

the ernperor and his entourage.

z, And

so

while

Aëtius more

vehemently

sought

agreements

and

more frgssiollâtely pressed

the

case

of

his

son,

he

was

cruelly

put

to

the

sword

witlrin

the

recesses

of

the

palace

at

the

hands

of

the

emperor

and

his entourage.

lJoethius, the praetorian prefect, wa§

killed

at the same time; he wâs con-nccted to Aëtius

by

great friendship.

I,

,,,

,,,

Yeirr 4ztt.Valentinian

for

the eighth

time

andAnthemius.

Thc

death

ofValentinian followed

not long

after

the

death

ofAëtius.

So

iurpludently

was

it

not

avoided

that the

killer

of

Aëtius associated

with

the tttanis friends and retainers.

They found the

right time for their

crime

and, recrctly stalking the prince when he

left

the

city

and was awaiting a display

of

lrttts, stabbed

him

unexpectedly. Heraclius was

killed

at

the

same time, as he wâs

llext to

the

emperor, and

no

one

of

that

royal host was

incited

to

take rcvcnge

for

so great a crime.

As

this

murder was

carried out,

moreover, Maximus, t'urice possessor

of

tltc

consulship

and

holder

of

the

patrician

dig"iry

took

up

the

imperial powcr.

Although

people believed he

would

be

in

every way beneficial

to

the erttlungered state,

it

did

not

take

long

for him

to

show

by

example

the kind

nl'rtrirrd

he had.

Not

only did

he

not

punish the killers of Valentinian,

but

he feceivqd

them

as friends; and

he

forbade the Augusta, Valentinian's

wife,

to

nlouru

the

loss

of

her

husband and

within

a

few

days forced

her

to

mârry hirrr.

llut

he was

not to

indulge

this

lack

of

restraint

for

long.

After

another

nlolrtll

he

got

news

of

the arrival

of

Gaiseric

from Africa,

and many nobles arrtl cornmoners fled

the city.When

he gave permission

for

everyone

to

leave attrl wished himself

to

get away

in

haste,

on

the seventy-seventh day after his

reiu urc

of

power, he was

torn to

pieces

by the

royal slaves;

thrown

in

pieces

Ittto

thc Tiber, he wâs even deprived

of

burial.

After

this end

to

Maximus, a

Itonrln

câptivity, deserving

of

many tears, immediately followed, and Gaiseric ohtlinc'cl the

ciry

devoid

of

â11 protection.

Holy

Bishop Leo

met

him

outside

tlte

glters and

his

supplication

mollified him

through the power

of

God

to rur'lr urr

cxtent

that,

when

everything was given

into

his hands, he was held lrack rrcvcrtheless

from burning,

killing,

and torture.

Then

for

fourteen

days,

thnrugh

àr1

untrâmmeled and

open

search,

l\otne

was

emptied

of

all

its wr,rltlr,

lnd

many thousands

of

captives,

all

that wcre satisfactory âs

to

age

or

(9)

occupatioll, along

wlth the

queen

rnd

her

ehlldrcn,

were

raken

àway

to Carthage.

In

rhe same year Easter wer celebnted

on

:4

April,

according

to

the

stub-born

assertion

of

the

bishop

of

Alcxandria,

with

whom

all the

easterncrg

think

they

should âgree, even

when

holy

Pope

Leo

proresred

that

it

should rather be observed

on r7'April.

on

that day there was

no

error

in

the

calcu,

lation of

the

firll

moon

or in

the demarcation

of

the

first

month.

There

exist letters

of

the same pope

sent.to

the most

merciful prince

Marcian,

in

which

the

calculation

of the true

date is

laid out

carefully and

plainly

and

in

which

the

catholic

church can be instructed.

Though

the

opinion

of

easterners was

tolerated

out

ofa

desire

for unity

and peace rather than approved,

it

must by

no

means go on being imitated, since an

opinion

that has brought destructivè of[ense should forever lose authority.

TT.T}JE

GALLIC

CHRONICLE

OF

452

This chronicle is the work. oJ an anonymous Caul, writing uery close to the year 452; Itlothing is known of the awthor but what

un

be inferred of his uiews

ÿom

the

con-tents of his chronicle. His perspectiue is sfficently clear to suggest interesting points oJ

contrast

with

that

of his

contemporary Proslter.

Like

Prosper\ work,

the

Gallic

chronicle

of

452 was a continuation of an epitome of Jerome's translation of

Euse-bius, and begins where Jerome left off

in

j7s. I

gbe

the continuation

in

its entiretyi from 379.

The chronicler's treatment of years anil dates contains a number of errors, traceable

in part to the sources he used, which are only reasonably detectable

in

the earlier

Ttor-tions oJ the chroniele, Not only did the chronicler work with incorrect regnal year cotlnts

for

the reigns

of

Gratian, Theodosius

I,

and Honoius, but his relatiue placement oJ

events

is

not

always acturdte. Following Mommsen's edition,

I

haye added anno

domini

dates sparingly

ryt

to the end of Honorius's reign. After 424 the number

of

regnal years is correct, and

it

is possible to equate these with anno

domini

dates, but

readers shoulil be aware that doing so does not preclude misilating, intentional or

other-wise,by the chronicler.The

Cltorucle

is eorreet

in

the lastfew years after 447.Where

the

chronicle

shows 'double

dating'-

that is the sprcad of what might be construed

as one entry oÿer nlore than a single year

-

I

havc grouped the years together rather

than assuming a blank. year. Finally,

it

should bc noted that,followingJerome, not only

does the chronieler date euents by the regnal years of emperors, but he also introduces

olympiads eueryfour years and the years of Abraham euery decade;

I

haue omitted the

laîïer two modes of dating.

In

the translation, anno

domini

datcs ara placcd

in

the left margin. The year

numbers oJ the emperor's reign are

in

boltllo«' Arabic numerals set

fiext to

the'first entry oJ the year, and the number

in

hrtrûals

û

tltc cnd of each entry conesltonds to

*t

nunheil4q oJ Monmsenl edhlon'The headlngt Ne thotê of the ehrcakle'

: Ohnwka (irllint A, (:C:C:e:Ltl, crl,Tlt, Mottttttscrr, (lltrottirn Mhktftt t, M(iH AA u (tlluz),

6+ô-ôtrri arrd ef, Stc'vctt Muhlbergcr, 'l'h? ttl.litt"(ilttttty Ohruûilerc: l\ttptr, llyrlttiltt,

uil

rht

(lhrriller rl'45t (Leccls, I99o), pp, t37-15:,Trrnslation by A.o, Mtrrtry'

,

Gratian rcigned

for

6 years

[a.

IZC-f8S]

n, since he had

quite

a young

brother

as a royal colleague, admitted a

t of

suitable age,Theodosius;'into partnership

in

the kingdom.[z]

(iratiau

was

much inclined

to

religion and

well

disposed

toward

the hes

in

all matters.[3]

Martirr, bishop ofTours, was regarded as outstanding

for

his apostolic

pow-4l

lelosius restored

the

exhausted state

in

the regions

of

the East.[5]

In ltritrrin

Maximus wâs set

up

âs llsurper

by

the soldiers.[6], Mtxirtrus vigorously overcâme invading Picts and Scots.[7]

Altrhrosius

wrote

most splendid books against

the

faithlessness

of

the Anans tltc Augustus Gratian.[8]

Maxiirrus crossed

the

channel

and, after

a

clash

with

Gratian,

killed

the §lttperor as he fled

to

Lyons.[g]

Theodosius reigned

for rr

years

[a.384-395]

Maxintus,

out of

fear

of

the leader

of the

eastern empire,Theodosius, entered

intu

l

treaty

withValentinian

[II].

[tt]

At'l'rier,

Manichees were detected and destroyed

owing to

the utmost zeâl

of

Mrximus.

Irz]

Jultirrl, the mother

of

Valentinian, favored

the

Arians and

heaped various types

of

injustices upon Ambrose and the entire church of

Milan.

[r3]

l(clics of

the martyrs Gervasius and Protasius

first

discovered by Ambrose

el

Milrrn.Ir4]

Arpbrosei hymns composed; they

wele

sung

in

a

form

never before heard

Itt

l,ltin

churches.

[r5]

M,rxirrrus, saying that an

unworthy

action had been taken against the position

(10)

a. 388 4

à- 392 tO

II

8-9

valentinian. valentinian, fearing

the

usurper,

who

wnc

dnrdy

*

threat

to

his life,

fled

to Theodosius,[r6l

Augustine,

while

at

first

teaching rheroric at

Milan,

geve

up

the crassroom and converted

to

the

true

faith,

for

previously he was a Manichee.

[r7]

Theodosius came over

to

Italy with

an

army,

killed

Maximus, and restored Valentinian

to

his

kingdom. [r8]

Justina,

who

had

africted the

churches, \Mas prevented

by

death

from

get-ting

back the

kingdom

with

her son.[r9]

The

devout

emperor expunged

the

monstrous

act committed

in

Thessa-lonica

by

an extrâordinary example

of

repentence

for

the

people

he

massa-cred.Izo]

Heresy

of

the Apollinarians begun by Apollinaris.

[zr]

The Arians,

who

polluted

almost

the

entire East and West, were,

by

an edict

of the

devout emperor, despoiled

of their

churches,

which

were assigned to Catholics.[zz]

John, an Egyptian

monk,

was regarded as famous because

he

earned

the gift

of prophecy

from

the

Lord owing

to

the

puriry of

his life.[23]

After

Damasus, Siricius was the

thirty-sixth

bishop

to

take up direction

of

the

Roman

church.

At

Alexandria,

on the

death

of

Peter, Timotheus, and after him, Theophilus were made bishops.

At

Jerusalem, after Cyril,

John

received the church.

At

Antioch, on the death

of

Miletius, Flavianus

took his

place.[24]

A

huge dispute ârose among us.

The

bishops

who

had been driven

out

by heretics wanted none

but

themselves

to

fill

the priestly office

now

that

the, heretics had been removed

by

the emperor.[25]

A

terrible

portent, resembling

in

every respect a column, appeared

in

the sky.[26]

Temples

were

destroyed

in

Alexandria,

among

thcm the very

ancient

and famous

temple

of

Serapis,

which, like

some

colurn,,

was keeping

idolatry

from

falling.[28]

valentinian

was eliminated at

vienne

by

Arbogast,

his

own

counr. Eugenius

took

the emperorh place, seizing power âs a ururper,lagl

To

revenge valentinian's death and

erurh the

usurpation

of

Eugenius,

Theo.

dosius crossed over

into

ltaly; the frrrcr

of

tlod

wls

rcvealed

when the

ele-ments conspired

to

assist that

very

endgar;nr,l,tol

7ât

t;

After

Eugeniur hsd been Orcrۑmc,

Theodoriur

rcached

t[e

end

of

his

lifc

ln

the seventeenth yeât

of hil rclgn'l3tl

Arcadiur and

Honorlur

reigned

for

3a years

[Arcadlur,

i.

395-408'

Honorius,

a.395'44]

t r

L.-/

€iorrsturtirrople,

in

fear

of

God's anger revealed

in

fire- flashing dreadfully âbove the clouds, escaped

by turning to

Penânce

with

its

whole

heart.[33]

stilicho killed Rufinus

of

the

Bosphorus

region

after overcoming

the gftarcl

of

Huns that

supported

him,

because

Rufinus

reached

the summit

of

irrrperial service

but

could

not

abide that

Stilirho

was preferred

to

him.[34]

(llludian

the poet was considered

worthy of

admiration.[35]

(iildo

stirred

Africa

into

rebellion and

withdrew

the

usual taxes

from

the l(omans.[36]

Prudentius,

our

[i.e.

christian]

lyric

poet,

a

spaniard

by his

illustrious birth, developed the strength

of

his talents.[37]

1

Stilicho, master

of

the soldiers,

killed Gildo

in

Mâuretânia and restored

Africa

t('

its

former

status.[38]

Innocent wâs

the

thirty-seventh bishop

to

occupy

the throne

of

the

Itornan

church. [39]

'll'rnples

of

the

ancient

superstition

destroyed

over

the

whole

Roman world.[4o]

Paulinus

of

Nola, later a bishop' sold everything as an admirable example,

lirr

he was the master

of

innumerable estates, and unimpeded chose

the

reli-gious

life.[4r]

.f«rhn [Chrysostom], bishop

of

Constantinople, shone

in

word

and deed'[42]

Martin,

after

living

an extraordinary life,

put

aside his [mortal] body.[a3]

'fhe

insane Pelagius

qied to

soil the churches

with

his

purulent

doctrine.[44]

A

synod at Alexandria was convened

to

deal

with

a dispute arising

from

the cloctrine

of

Origen.

This

decision emerged

from it:

that whoever approved

of

the works

of

the

above

mentioned

Origen

should

be

placed

outside

the church. [45]

There was an eclipse

of

the sun.[46]

Figure

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References

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