The door to door perspective

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WestminsterResearch

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The door to door perspective Delgado, L. and Belkoura, S.

A paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Research in Air Transport (ICRAT), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Castelldefels, Catalonia, Spain, 26 - 29 Jun 2018.

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The door to door perspective

ICRAT

Castelldefels, June 2018 1

Luis Delgado – Seddik Belkoura

University of Westminster

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Overview of presentation

• Introduction • Metrics for flights vs metrics for passengers • The door-to-door context • Passenger profiles • Modelling ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 2

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ICRAT

Castelldefels, June 2018 3

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Stakeholders

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 4z Airspace Users Network Manager Airports ANSPs Environment Passengers

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Stakeholders

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 5 Lord Kelvin (Sir William Thomson) 1824 – 1907 When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind. Peter Drucker 1909 – 2005 what gets measured gets managed what gets measured gets managed

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Stakeholders

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 6 Lord Kelvin (Sir William Thomson) 1824 – 1907 When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind. what gets measured gets managed – even when it's pointless to measure and manage it, and even if it harms the purpose of the organisation to do so Peter Drucker 1909 – 2005

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Single European Sky

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 7 • Key objectives, to: • “restructure European airspace as a function of air traffic flows” • “create additional capacity” • “increase the overall efficiency of the ATM system” • High-level, ambitious goals (“political targets”), aka SES ‘2005 vision’* for 2020:x3 increase in capacity (reducing delays)x10 improvement in safety10% reduction of flights’ impact on environment≥ 50% reduction in costs of ATM services to airspace users

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ICAO Global ATM Operational Concept

(‘Doc 9854’)

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 8 ICAO (2005). Global Air Traffic Management Operational Concept (Doc 9854), Ed. 1, International Civil Aviation Organization, Montréal. (Not updated with second edition.) A key objective Presents ICAO vision of an integrated, harmonised and globally interoperable ATM system – agreed levels of safety, optimum economic ops, environmentally sustainable (horizon: up to and beyond 2025)

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ICRAT

Castelldefels, June 2018 9

KPA Name Meaning

1 Access and equity 2 Capacity 3 Cost effectiveness 4 Efficiency 5 Environment 6 Flexibility 7 Global interoperability 8 Participation 9 Predictability 10 Safety 11 Security

ICAO Global ATM Operational Concept

(‘Doc 9854’) - KPA

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ICRAT

Castelldefels, June 2018 10

KPA Name Meaning

1 Access and equity “all airspace users have right of access to the ATM resources needed to meet their specific operational requirements [...] shared use of airspace by different users”

2 Capacity “meet airspace user demands at peak times and locations while minimizing restrictions on traffic flow [...] resilient to service disruption”

3 Cost effectiveness “cost of service [...] should always be considered when evaluating any proposal to improve ATM”

4 Efficiency “airspace users want to depart and arrive at the times they select and fly the trajectory they determine to be optimum”

5 Environment “contribute to the protection of the environment by considering noise, gaseousemissions and other environmental issues”

6 Flexibility “ability of all airspace users to modify flight trajectories dynamically and adjust dep. & arr. times”

7 Global interoperability “uniform principles [...] non-discriminatory global and regional traffic flows”

8 Participation “ATM community [...] continuous involvement in the planning, implementation and operation”

9 Predictability “ATM service providers to provide consistent & dependable levels of performance”

10 Safety “highest priority [...] uniform safety standards [...] applied systematically”

11 Security “protection against [...] intentional acts (e.g. terrorism) or unintentional acts (e.g. human error, natural disaster) ”

ICAO Global ATM Operational Concept

(‘Doc 9854’) - KPA

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Visibility of KPAs

ICRAT

Castelldefels, June 2018 11

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SESAR European ATM Master Plan

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 12 SESAR (2015): European ATM Master Plan, Edition 2015 https://www.atmmasterplan.eu/ Significant step towards alignment with SES Performance Scheme. Through ‘SESAR Solutions’

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SESAR European ATM Master Plan

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 13 “Operational efficiency” is added to the SESAR Perf. Framework e.g. to be useable by the SES Perf. Scheme under ‘environment’ (as fuel savings)

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Current performance, wider context

Comparing Europe, US and China

ICRAT

Castelldefels, June 2018 14

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Better

ICRAT

Castelldefels, June 2018 15

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Better – Trade offs

ICRAT

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Research in ATM evolution

• Broadening the perspective • Air Traffic Control (separation)Air Traffic Management (throughput, delay)Air Transport Management (AO costs, pax-centric, multimodality) ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 17

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 18 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Air Traffic Managment Air Transport Management Air Traffic Control

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT

Castelldefels, June 2018 24

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Passenger Network Analysis Flight Network Analysis

Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 25

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT

Castelldefels, June 2018 27

Hi Hi

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 28 So, what do you do? I’m doing my PhD on ATM research

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 30 Interesting, I didn’t know you could research on cash machines No, Air Traffic Management (with planes)

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 31 No, that’s Air Traffic Control NATS Ah, with the tower and the controllers

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 32 I deal with air traffic flow and delay management Bruno Sanchez

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 33 Ah! So, it is your fault my flight is delayed

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Research in ATM evolution

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 34 Next time I should say improving passenger mobility

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Door-to-door context

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 35 • Flightpath 2050 (ACARE, 2011) • “highly ambitious goals” (x5) • “90% of travellers within Europe are able to complete their journey, door-to-door within 4 hours”

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Door-to-door context

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 36 • Open questions • How measure progress without the right metrics? (Currently G2G) • New metrics needed – new trade-offs apparent • Impacts of intermodal factors (e.g. regulated ticketing; HSR; airport access), on, e.g.: • Essential Operational Changes, such as UDPP • ATM Technology Changes, such as A-CDM • Is faster better? What should we measure? – ‘slow’ & ‘green’ travel paradigms

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ICRAT

Castelldefels, June 2018 37

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ICRAT

Castelldefels, June 2018 38

• Flight-centric → pax-centric metrics

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CASSIOPEIA – Hub optimisation

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Castelldefels, June 2018 39

L. Delgado, J. Martin, A. Blanch and S. Cristobal, Hub operations delay recovery based on cost optimisation, SESAR Innovation Days 2016

EIBT0 EOBT0 MCT connecting buffer delay departing delay CImin CImax CImin CImax MCT à missed connection outbound arrival delay

Dynamic

cost indexing

Wait for

passengers

Airline costs reduced by around 0.7%

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CASSIOPEIA – Hub optimisation

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Castelldefels, June 2018 40

L. Delgado, J. Martin, A. Blanch and S. Cristobal, Hub operations delay recovery based on cost optimisation, SESAR Innovation Days 2016

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CASSIOPEIA – Hub optimisation

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Castelldefels, June 2018 41

L. Delgado, J. Martin, A. Blanch and S. Cristobal, Hub operations delay recovery based on cost optimisation, SESAR Innovation Days 2016

Gate-to-gate trip time (min)

Non-connecting passengers Connecting passengers Increases by around 1.1% Decreases by around 0.6-0.8% Increases by around 0.4%

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Arrival manager optimisation

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Castelldefels, June 2018 42

Montlaur, L. Delgado, Flight and passenger delay assignment optimization strategies, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies Volume 81, August 2017, Pages 99-117

Tactical traffic management

Pre-tactical traffic management

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Arrival manager optimisation

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 43 Origin Destination 50 km 500 km Tactical optimisation E-AMAN Pre-tactical optimisation Tactical uncertainty • Slot window between 1 to 3 minutes • Re-optimised every time a flight enters the outer radius • Maximum 35 minutes of delay assigned • Slot window between 10 to 15 minutes • Delay realised on-ground at origin

Montlaur, L. Delgado, Flight and passenger delay assignment optimization strategies, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies Volume 81, August 2017, Pages 99-117

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Arrival manager optimisation

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Castelldefels, June 2018 44

Montlaur, L. Delgado, Flight and passenger delay assignment optimization strategies, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies Volume 81, August 2017, Pages 99-117

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Arrival manager optimisation

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Castelldefels, June 2018 45

A. Montlaur, L. Delgado, Trade-off on arrival optimization (Current work)

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POEM – Delay propagation networks

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Castelldefels, June 2018 46

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POEM – Delay propagation networks

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Castelldefels, June 2018 47

D6.2 – POEM Final Technical Report

S0 A1

Flight arrival delay 13.8 14.3

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Delay propagation networks

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Castelldefels, June 2018 48

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Delay propagation networks

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Castelldefels, June 2018 49

Seddik Belkoura and Samuel Cristobal, New Insights on Nonlinear Delay Causation Network for Passengers and Flights in Europe, ICRAT 2018

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From gate-to-gate to total travel

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From gate-to-gate to total travel

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 52 18% 17% 21% 29% 8% 7% Airport access Airport processes Waiting Flight Airport processes Airport egress

- London – Castelldefels (via Gatwick)

• Access to airport • Egress airport • Airport processes departure • Airport processes arrival • Flight • Waiting

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From gate-to-gate to total travel

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 53 18% 17% 21% 29% 8% 7% Airport access Airport processes Waiting Flight Airport processes Airport egress 125 35 30 75 70 90

- London – Castelldefels (via Gatwick)

From 2h05 to 6h27!

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From gate-to-gate to total travel

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Castelldefels, June 2018 54

- London – Castelldefels (via Gatwick)

18% 10% 13% 41% 8% 10% Airport access Airport dept processes Waiting Flight Airport arrv processes Airport egress 125 (125) 25 (35) 30 (30) (75)55 30 (70) 40 (90) From 2h05 to 6h27 to 5h35

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From gate-to-gate to total travel

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Castelldefels, June 2018 55

- London – Castelldefels (via Heathrow)

28% 13% 21% 27% 5% 6% Airport access Airport processes Waiting Flight Airport processes Airport egress 125 (125) 25 (35) 30 (30) 130 (75) 60 (70) 100 (90) From 2h05 to 7h50

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From gate-to-gate to total travel

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From gate-to-gate to total travel

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Castelldefels, June 2018 57

- Belgrade – Castelldefels (via Munich)

7% 7% 13% 20% 15% 26% 5% 7% Airport access Airport processes dept Waiting Fligh1 Connection Flight2 Airport processes arr. Airport egress 90 From 4h40 to 7h30 120 70 30 30 30 25 60

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From gate-to-gate to total travel

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Castelldefels, June 2018 58

- Belgrade – Castelldefels (via Munich)

7% 7% 13% 61% 5% 7% Airport access Airport processes dept Waiting gate-to-gate Airport processes arr. Airport egress 280 30 30 30 25 60 From 4h40 to 7h30

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From gate-to-gate to total travel

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 59 30 walking train tram check in security

boarding flight baggage car internal

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From gate-to-gate to total travel

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 60 30 walking train tram check in security

boarding flight baggage car internal

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From gate-to-gate to total travel

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 61 30 walking train tram check in security boarding

flight baggage car internal

train

passport Waiting!!!

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From gate-to-gate to total travel

ICRAT Castelldefels, June 2018 62 30 walking train tram check in security boarding

flight baggage car internal train passport Buffers New technological solution (e.g. new arrival manager) New regulatory change Need of platform to test changes on these

phases that are not gate-to-gate

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ICRAT

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1

Goal 2. 90% of travellers within

Europe are able to complete their

journey, door-to-door within 4

hours. Passengers and freight are

able to transfer seamlessly

between transport modes to reach

the final destination smoothly,

predictably and on-time.

2050

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ICRAT

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2

EFTA: European Free Trade Association countries

S: Schengen Agreement countries

How can we assess door-to-door times?

Analyzing Door to Door Travel Times Through

Mobile Phone Data. Pedro García-Albertos, Oliva G. Cantú Ros and

Ricardo Herranz.

Fri.

2:40 pm

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4

How many passengers?

PaxIS (IATA ticket) pax data

+

Individual flights (PRISME traffic

data)

200 airports

30.000 flights

2.5 million pax

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On what depend our door-to-door travels?

Access/Egress

Times

Actual

Flying time

Kerb-Gate

Segment

Passengers

+

City

Passengers

+

Airport

Air Transport

System (delays,

regulations,

airline strategies, etc.)

5

INDEPENDENT PROCESSES

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Access/Egress

Times

7

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What profiles for our travellers?

Business class

Economy class

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Factors influencing passenger characteristics?

Profiles are based on available European data and forecasts only

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ICRAT

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Kluge, U., Paul, A., Urban, M., Ureta, H. (2017). Assessment of Passenger Requirements along the D2D Air Travel Chain. In: Towards user-centric transport in Europe. Challenges, solutions and collaborations. Munich. Manuscript submitted and accepted. Kluge, U., Paul, A., Ureta, H., &

Ploetner, K.O. (2018). Profiling Future Air Transport Passengers in Europe. Vienna: 7th Transport Research Arena 2018.

Kluge, U., Paul, A., Cook, A., & Cristóbal, S. (2017). Factors

influencing European passenger

demand for air transport. Antwerpen: 21st Air Transport Research Society World Conference. 10

10

Demographical aspects

Population

Age structure

Gender

Geographical aspects

Country size

Population density

Urbanisation

Behavioural aspects

Information and

communications technology

Environmental awareness

Safety and security

Socio-economic aspects

Gross domestic product and ease

of doing business

Household structure

Education level

Mobility aspects

Overall mobility behaviour

Investigation of air journey

Passenger luggage

Value of travel time

Causal Loop Diagram

Extract r

elationships

between factors

Identify behaviour of the

system

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ICRAT

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D2K

k

= T

m

k

+ B

k,m

1

k

m

k

Generalized Bernoulli Distribution with

p(m

i

) = p

i

T

m

2

i= 1

LogN(μ, σ

2

)

T

m

∼ LogN(μ, σ

2

)

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μ?σ?

AIRPORT/CITY

DEPENDANT

16

16

(80)

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Greater London - airport access time duration by private car

Greater London - airport access time duration by public transport

Access-egress times using public transport (trains, trams etc)

Access-egress times by car

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D2K

k

= T

m

k

+ B

k,m

1

k

Unavailable information!

Access/Egress

Times

18

18

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Kerb-Gate

Segment

19

19

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PROCESS

BUFFER

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PROCESSING

TIMES

UK Department for Transport

process times at Frankfurt (EUROCONTROL 2007)

Walking time (google maps)

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PROCESSING

TIMES

K2G

k,a

= ∑

i

k

i

. P

a

i

) + B

k,a

2

G2K

k,a

= ∑

i

k

i

. P

a

i

)

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PROCESSING

TIMES

Queuing processes

∼ λe

λ.x

Other processes

ϕ(

x − μ

σ

)

σ(ϕ(

b − μ

σ

) − ϕ(

a − μ

σ

))

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PROCESSING

TIMES

K2G

k,a

= ∑

i

k

i

. P

a

i

) + B

k,a

2

G2K

k,a

= ∑

i

k

i

. P

a

i

)

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(88)

BUFFER

TIMES

B

k,a

2

= B

a,k

process

+ B

a,k

travel

= B

k,m

1

k

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ICRAT

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Actual

Flying time

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ICRAT

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BLOCK STRUCTURE

Access/Egress

Times

Actual

Flying time

Kerb-Gate

Segment

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(91)

PARALLEL SPEED-UP

15 min

28

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2 Millions Passengers simulated

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Avg. times

Segment

D2K

K2G

G2G

G2K

K2D

D2D

33 minutes

1 hour 54 minutes

2 hours 30 minutes

31 minutes

28 minutes

6 hours

70-80% of

K2G is buf

fer

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http://visual.innaxis.org/dataset2050/d2d-time-distribution

http://visual.innaxis.org/dataset2050/d2d-time-map

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what gets measured gets managed –

even when it's pointless to measure and

manage it, and even if it harms the purpose of

the organisation to do so

Peter Drucker 1909 – 2005

(97)

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KPIs

1. Time of Travel

2. Passenger confort level

http://visual.innaxis.org/dataset2050/d2d-price-map

3. Affordability:

Other important KPIs

pax-oriented?

(98)

Validation?

35

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EUROCONTROL or CODA's statistics

Sensitive internal statistics from a top-10 airport against

which the results of our simulator matched with a 5% error

Validations done

Other possible validations

Internal airport/airline pax-data statistics

Cross-reference with other projects:

1. BigData4ATM

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What would you do to reduce D2D times?

Access

Times

Actual

Flying time

Kerb-Gate

Segment

38

Egress

Times

Gate-Kerb

Segment

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AREAS OF INTEREST

Access/Egress

Times

Actual

Flying time

Kerb-Gate

Segment

39

3 groups of brainstorming

Kerb-Gate

Process

Buffer/Waiting

times

4 GROUPS

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AREAS OF INTEREST

40

How do we reduce the access/egress time to airport?

e.g. smart airports? Unique travel ticket? Insurance?

Are process in airports efficient?

e.g. over all airports? Necessity of all steps? Queue management?

Can we reduce G2G duration?

e.g. speed of aircraft? Higher traffic = higher delays?

What about buffers?

e.g. conservative vs. risky behaviours/persons, shopping willingness, space to work?

GROUP A

GROUP B

GROUP C

(104)

How to assess the validity/effects of our ideas?

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Vista close out, 19 June 2018

Vista model

42

What happens if I do something in the system?

And not:

What will happen in 2035 or 2050?

Vista model is a ‘what-if’ simulator

current system indicators current ATM system ATM system 2035 factor x high ATM system 2035 factor x low 2035 factors 2035 factors factor x = high factor x = low 2035 factor x high system indicators 2035 factor x low system indicators

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Vista close out, 19 June 2018

Multi-layered architecture of Vista

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Tested solutions

44

Futuristic version

Average

expectations

Low development

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If we don’t measure something,

we don’t consider it.

Pax need to be included

What do we measure?

How do we measure it?

Which trade-offs?

Which optimisations?

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Thank you

Luis Delgado & Seddik Belkoura

Figure

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