M. Pitkanen- Quantum model of sensory receptor

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Quantum model of sensory receptor

Quantum model of sensory receptor

M. Pitk¨

M. Pitk¨anenanen11, July 2, 2003, July 2, 2003

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1 Department of Physical Sciences, High Energy Physics Division,Department of Physical Sciences, High Energy Physics Division,

PL 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland. PL 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland. matpitka

matpitka@rock.helsinki.fi, @rock.helsinki.fi, http://wwhttp://www.physics.hew.physics.helsinki.fi/lsinki.fi/∼∼matpitka/.matpitka/.

Recen

Recent address: t address: KadermonkKadermonkatu 16,10900, Hanko, atu 16,10900, Hanko, Finland.Finland.

Contents

Contents

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1 IInnttrroodduuccttiioon n 33

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2 CCaappaacciittoor r mmooddeel l ffoor r pphhoottoorreecceeppttoor r 55 2.

2.1 1 CaCapapaccititor or momodedel l fofor r sesensnsorory y rerececeptptor . . . or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2.

2.2 2 CaCapapaccititor or momodedel l apapplpliied ed to to cocololor r vivisision on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 2.3

2.3 The rolThe role of e of claclassissical colcal color gauge fieor gauge fields and the idenlds and the identifitificatcation of ion of  ccoolloorreed d ppaarrttiiccllees s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 22..33..1 1 RRiiggiid d bbooddy y ccoolloorr? ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 2.

2.3.3.2 2 GGluluonons s of of scscalaled ed dodowwn n vveersrsioions ns of of QCQCDD? . . ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 2.

2.3.3.3 3 CoConfinfiguguraratition on spspacace e phphototonons? . . s? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1010 3

3 The strThe structucture of the reture of the retina and sensoina and sensory orgry organs as sites of senans as sites of

sen--ssoorryy qquuaalliiaa 1100

3.1

3.1 MicMicrotrotubuubular lar strstructuctureures s as as phophotortoreceeceptoptors/rs/trantransdusducercers? s? . . . . . . . . . . 1111 3.

3.1.1.1 1 FFinindidingngs s of of AAlblbrerectcth-h-BuBueehlhler er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111 3.

3.1.1.2 2 ThThe re rolole oe of cf colollelectctivive re rototatiationonal al exexcicitattatioions ns of of wwatater er . . . . . . 1111 33..11..3 3 EEvvoolluuttiioon n oof f eeyye e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122 3.

3.2 2 ThThe e ididenentitificficatatioion on of tf the he cocololor r cacapapacicitotor r ststruructcturure . e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1313 33..3 3 BBaacck k pprrojojeeccttiioon n mmeecchhaanniissm m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1144

3.3.1

3.3.1 The inThe invertverted strued structure cture of retiof retina and bana and back prck projection hojection hy- y-p

pootthheessiis s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1144 3.

3.3.3.2 2 BaBacck k prprojeojectctioion n anand d reretitinanal l mamagngnetetic ic bodbody y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1515 3.

3.3.3.3 3 NeNegagatitive ve or or poposisititivve e enenerergy gy MEMEs s or or bobothth? ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1515 3.

3.3.3.4 4 WhWherere te the he cocontntrorol ol of bf bacack pk projerojectctioion mn mecechahaninism sm isis? ? . . . . . . 1717 3.3.5

3.3.5 WhicWhich cellulh cellular struar structurectures are ins are involvvolved wited with the geneh the generationration oof f tthhe e iinnnneer r lliigghhtt? ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1188 3.3.6

3.3.6 Do the cilDo the cilia/mitia/mitochonochondria idria in photoren photoreceptoceptors serrs serve as ve as pre- pre-aammpplliififieerrss? ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1188

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3.4

3.4 Does the bacDoes the back projectiok projection emerge in emerge in the transin the transition frotion from invm inverte- erte-b

brraattees s tto o vveerrtteebbrraatteess? ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1199 3.4.1

3.4.1 GastrGastrulatioulation and the dn and the differeifferences betnces betweeween vern vertebrattebrates andes and iinnvveerrtteebbrraattees s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2200 3.4.2

3.4.2 NeuruNeurulation lation and the and the differdifference betence betweeween ”skin n ”skin sensesenses” ands” and ””bbrraaiin n sseennsseess” ” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2200 3.

3.4.4.3 3 BaBacck k prprojeojectctioion n hhypypotothehesisis as and nd ololfafactctioion n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2222 33..5 5 HHoow w tto o tteesst t tthhe e ggeenneerraal l mmododeell? ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2222

3.5.

3.5.1 1 PhaPhantntom sensom sensatiationsons, , bacback projectk projectionion, , and the notiand the notion of on of  m

maaggnneettiic c bbooddy y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2222 3.

3.5.5.2 2 BaBasisic c teteststs fs for or babacck k prprojeojectctioion n memecchahaninism . sm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2323 3.

3.5.5.3 3 HHyyppnnoossiis s aannd d bbaacck k pprrojojeeccttiioon . n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2244 3.

3.5.5.4 4 ModModelels s fofor r sesensnsorory y ororgagans ns anand d baback ck prprojecojectition on . . . . . . . . . . . . 2525

Abstract Abstract

In TGD

In TGD framewframework ork vavarious qualia correspond to rious qualia correspond to the averagthe average e incre- incre-ments of quantum numbers and of so called zero modes for sequences of  ments of quantum numbers and of so called zero modes for sequences of  quan

quantum jumps. tum jumps. QuanQuantum numbers could be tum numbers could be spin, momentuspin, momentum, m, energenergyy,, eletromagnetic charge, color quantum numbers (isospin and hypercharge eletromagnetic charge, color quantum numbers (isospin and hypercharge in a

in a constconstant proportioant proportion), various partin), various particle numbers, etc... cle numbers, etc... In the In the senssensoryory receptors the gradient of some physical quantity is transformed to receptors the gradient of some physical quantity is transformed to aver-age increments of appropriate quantum numbers responsible for the quale age increments of appropriate quantum numbers responsible for the quale repres

representienting the ng the gradigradient of ent of the physical quantitthe physical quantityy. . SpatiaSpatial l gradigradients areents are transformed first to temporal gradients by a process, which is essentially transformed first to temporal gradients by a process, which is essentially scanning (say saccadic motion). Temporal gradients are then transformed scanning (say saccadic motion). Temporal gradients are then transformed to non-vanishing average increments of appropriate charges per quantum to non-vanishing average increments of appropriate charges per quantum  jump in a long sequence of quantum jump

 jump in a long sequence of quantum jumps. s. The problem is to understandThe problem is to understand how this process is realiz

how this process is realized at ed at the level of sensory recepthe level of sensory receptors. tors. In this arti-In this arti-cle a model of visual receptor is constructed in order to clarify the issues cle a model of visual receptor is constructed in order to clarify the issues involved.

involved. Sen

Sensorsory y percpercepteption ion is is vevery ry actactive procesive process, s, mumuch ch liklike e buibuildilding ng of of anan artwork, and involves a continual selection between alternative percepts. artwork, and involves a continual selection between alternative percepts. If sensory representations are at the level of magnetic bodies of the sensory If sensory representations are at the level of magnetic bodies of the sensory organs, this requires the presence of backprojection from magnetic body organs, this requires the presence of backprojection from magnetic body to brain to

to brain to sensensorsory y orgorgansans. . BacBackprojkprojectection woulion would d be be a a parparticuticular kindlar kind of

of motmotor or actaction ion whiwhich ch coucould ld be be basbased ed on on claclassssicaical l comcommumunicnicatiations ons oror quan

quantum metabolistum metabolism m by a by a feed of feed of negatnegative energy to ive energy to some part of some part of sensosensoryry organ which in turn feeds negative energy to higher levels of CNS. organ which in turn feeds negative energy to higher levels of CNS.

The assumption that sensory qualia are realized at the level of The assumption that sensory qualia are realized at the level of sen-sory receptors

sory receptors, , when combined with when combined with the requirementhe requirement t that the that the avaverageerage increme

increments of nts of quanquantum numbers are tum numbers are non-vnon-vanishanishing, and ing, and perhaps even re-perhaps even re-main same for subsequent quantum jumps, poses strong constraints on main same for subsequent quantum jumps, poses strong constraints on the model of the sensory receptor. These constraints suggest what might the model of the sensory receptor. These constraints suggest what might be called the

be called the capaccapacitor model of itor model of the sensory recepthe sensory receptor. tor. There are two reser-There are two reser-voirs of quantum charges having total charges of equal magnitude but of  voirs of quantum charges having total charges of equal magnitude but of  opposit

opposite sign. e sign. The net The net chacharges are macroscorges are macroscopic in pic in order to guarantorder to guarantee ro-ee ro-bustne

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second one corresponds to the sensory experienced quale unless both the second one corresponds to the sensory experienced quale unless both the quale and its conjugate are experienced simultaneously. Capacitors plates quale and its conjugate are experienced simultaneously. Capacitors plates can carry severa

can carry several charges. l charges. When the sensory quale is generatedWhen the sensory quale is generated, , there is athere is a flow of

flow of charcharge quanta between the quantum capacige quanta between the quantum capacitor plates. tor plates. The chargeThe charge quan

quanta are more ta are more or less constanor less constant. t. This requiremeThis requirement could be relaxed tont could be relaxed to the condition that only the average increment is constant.

the condition that only the average increment is constant.

The capacitor model is applied to develop a model of photoreceptors The capacitor model is applied to develop a model of photoreceptors and retina and a special consideration is given to the problem how back and retina and a special consideration is given to the problem how back projectio

projection might be n might be realizrealized. ed. An argumenAn argument relying on some simple find-t relying on some simple find-ings about

ings about the early the early develdevelopmenopment t of embryo leads to of embryo leads to the working hypoth-the working hypoth-esis that the backprojection from brain is classical for ”skin senses” and esis that the backprojection from brain is classical for ”skin senses” and quantal for ”brain senses”. ”Skin sense” receptors could however entangle quantal for ”brain senses”. ”Skin sense” receptors could however entangle with environment, which could explain why galvanic skin response (GSR) with environment, which could explain why galvanic skin response (GSR) acts as a

acts as a correlcorrelate for ate for sublisubliminal remote mental interminal remote mental interactioactions. ns. This remoteThis remote mental interaction usually unconscious to us would be the analog of the mental interaction usually unconscious to us would be the analog of the primary percepti

primary perception exhibited by plants and even by biomoleculon exhibited by plants and even by biomolecules. es. BothBoth the notion of backprojection and the not so fundamental hypothesis about the notion of backprojection and the not so fundamental hypothesis about division to skin and brain senses are detailed enough to be testable and division to skin and brain senses are detailed enough to be testable and seve

several tests ral tests are proposed.are proposed.

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One basic difference between TGD inspired theory of consciousness and One basic difference between TGD inspired theory of consciousness and stan-dard neuroscience is that TGD supports strongly the view that sensory organs dard neuroscience is that TGD supports strongly the view that sensory organs are seats of sensory qualia whereas brain constructs symbolic and cognitive are seats of sensory qualia whereas brain constructs symbolic and cognitive rep-resentations. The many objections against this view [C1] will not be discussed resentations. The many objections against this view [C1] will not be discussed in this

in this articlarticle: e: deserdeserve it to ve it to say that the say that the notionnotions of s of manymany-shee-sheeted space-tted space-timeime and macroscopic quantum coherence allow to circumvent all the objections I and macroscopic quantum coherence allow to circumvent all the objections I am aware of. At the same time it is possible to get rid of the assumption that am aware of. At the same time it is possible to get rid of the assumption that the neural pathways associated with different sensory modalities and having no the neural pathways associated with different sensory modalities and having no obvious neurophysiological differences, manage in some mysterious manner to obvious neurophysiological differences, manage in some mysterious manner to give rise

give rise to to differdifferent qualia ent qualia not continunot continuously transformously transformable to able to eaceach h otherother.. Second fundamental difference from neuroscience is that magnetic body Second fundamental difference from neuroscience is that magnetic body hav-ing an astrophysical size serves as a kind of computer screen to which sensory, ing an astrophysical size serves as a kind of computer screen to which sensory, symbolic and cognitive representations are projected by either classical or symbolic and cognitive representations are projected by either classical or quan-tum communi

tum communicationcations [5]. s [5]. In fact, In fact, there is a there is a hierarhierarchchy of y of magnemagnetic bodies, tic bodies, eveevenn sensory organs are accompanied by magnetic bodies realizing the primary sensory organs are accompanied by magnetic bodies realizing the primary sen-sory representations. The magnetic body is not only a passive computer screen sory representations. The magnetic body is not only a passive computer screen but also

but also realizrealizes motor actions which proceed from es motor actions which proceed from long length scales to long length scales to shorteshorterr length scale

length scales in s in the directiothe direction of n of geometgeometric past. ric past. NegatNegative and positive energyive and positive energy topological light rays (MEs) are fundamental element of the model and Libet’s topological light rays (MEs) are fundamental element of the model and Libet’s classical experiments about time delays of consciousness [6, 7, 8] give support classical experiments about time delays of consciousness [6, 7, 8] give support for the identification of ”me” as magnetic body.

for the identification of ”me” as magnetic body.

The third departure from neuroscience framework is that no separate The third departure from neuroscience framework is that no separate

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repre-sentations for memories is needed [5, C2]. Memory recall involves sharing of the sentations for memories is needed [5, C2]. Memory recall involves sharing of the men

mental image tal image reprerepresentsenting the ing the desirdesire e to to rememremember ber with the with the geomegeometric past tric past andand memory is either shared quantally or communicated classically to the geometric memory is either shared quantally or communicated classically to the geometric now.

now. The simpleThe simplest possibilitst possibility is y is that negativthat negative energy ME from the magnetice energy ME from the magnetic body representing the desire to remember suffers a timelike reflection in brain body representing the desire to remember suffers a timelike reflection in brain and transforms to a positive energy ME representing a declarative memory. and transforms to a positive energy ME representing a declarative memory.

The fourth departure from neuroscience is that motor action, sensory The fourth departure from neuroscience is that motor action, sensory per-ception, and memory are all basically same kind of intentional processes ception, and memory are all basically same kind of intentional processes pro-ceedi

ceeding from ng from long to long to short length and time short length and time scalescales. s. This structurThis structure involve involves thees the generation of a p-adic ME representing intention by a magnetic body at some generation of a p-adic ME representing intention by a magnetic body at some level of the hierarchy, the transformation of the p-adic ME to negative energy level of the hierarchy, the transformation of the p-adic ME to negative energy MEs propagating to the geometric past and representing the desire to achieve MEs propagating to the geometric past and representing the desire to achieve something communicated to the body and forcing a cascade of similar something communicated to the body and forcing a cascade of similar commu-nications inducing ultimately a generation of classical signals (positive energy nications inducing ultimately a generation of classical signals (positive energy MEs and various neural signals) progating towards geometric future and MEs and various neural signals) progating towards geometric future and real-izing the intention. An idea, which I have given up with frustration and found izing the intention. An idea, which I have given up with frustration and found again with entusiasm several times, is that

again with entusiasm several times, is that Z Z 00 MEs, which do not involve anyMEs, which do not involve any

massless quanta, are specialized to the realization of various aspects of motor massless quanta, are specialized to the realization of various aspects of motor action wher

action whereas em MEs are eas em MEs are specialspecialized to sensory perceptized to sensory perception. ion. If photons areIf photons are one universal step in the transformation of the sensory input to sensory qualia, one universal step in the transformation of the sensory input to sensory qualia, this dichotomy might be understood. The fact that classical

this dichotomy might be understood. The fact that classical Z Z 00 force seems toforce seems to

be crucial for the understanding of enzyme action (kind of motor action too), be crucial for the understanding of enzyme action (kind of motor action too), supports also this vision.

supports also this vision.

The fifth basic distinction between TGD approach and neuroscience is that The fifth basic distinction between TGD approach and neuroscience is that conscious experience is always about changes (quantum jumps) whereas conscious experience is always about changes (quantum jumps) whereas mate-rialism based neuroscience assumes that the state of brain dictates the contents rialism based neuroscience assumes that the state of brain dictates the contents of conscious

of consciousness. ness. This serves as an This serves as an invinvaluablaluable guideline in the e guideline in the constconstructioruction of n of  the general theory of qualia and sensory receptors.

the general theory of qualia and sensory receptors.

In the sequel this general picture is applied to build a model of sensory In the sequel this general picture is applied to build a model of sensory receptor and sensory organ.

receptor and sensory organ.

a) Various qualia correspond to the average increments of quantum numbers a) Various qualia correspond to the average increments of quantum numbers and so called zero modes

and so called zero modes for quite long sequences of quantufor quite long sequences of quantum jumps. m jumps. QuanQuantumtum numbers could be spin, momentum, energy, eletromagnetic charge, color numbers could be spin, momentum, energy, eletromagnetic charge, color quan-tum numbers (isospin and hypercharge in a constant proportion), various tum numbers (isospin and hypercharge in a constant proportion), various par-ticle num

ticle numbers, etc... bers, etc... What happens in What happens in the sensory recethe sensory receptors is that ptors is that the gradienthe gradientt of some physical quantity is transformed to average increments of appropriate of some physical quantity is transformed to average increments of appropriate quantum numbers responsible for the quale representing the gradient of the quantum numbers responsible for the quale representing the gradient of the physical quantity. Spatial gradients are transformed first to temporal gradients physical quantity. Spatial gradients are transformed first to temporal gradients by a process, which is essentially scanning (say saccadic motion). Temporal by a process, which is essentially scanning (say saccadic motion). Temporal gra-dients are then transformed to non-vanishing average increments of appropriate dients are then transformed to non-vanishing average increments of appropriate charges per quantum jump in a long sequence of quantum jumps. The problem charges per quantum jump in a long sequence of quantum jumps. The problem is to understand how this process is realized at the level of sensory receptors. is to understand how this process is realized at the level of sensory receptors. In the sequel a model of visual receptor is constructed in order to clarify the In the sequel a model of visual receptor is constructed in order to clarify the issues involved.

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b) Sensory perception is very active process, much like building of an b) Sensory perception is very active process, much like building of an art-work, and involves a continual selection between alternative percepts. If sensory work, and involves a continual selection between alternative percepts. If sensory representations are at the level of magnetic bodies of the sensory organs, this representations are at the level of magnetic bodies of the sensory organs, this requi

requires the res the presepresence of nce of backbackprojection from magnetprojection from magnetic boic body to dy to brain to brain to sensosensoryry organs. Backprojection would be a particular kind of motor action which could organs. Backprojection would be a particular kind of motor action which could be

be based on classical commbased on classical communicatunications or ions or quanquantum metabolism by a tum metabolism by a feed of feed of neg- neg-ative energy to some part of sensory organ which in turn feeds negneg-ative energy ative energy to some part of sensory organ which in turn feeds negative energy to higher levels of CNS.

to higher levels of CNS.

c) An argument relying on some simple findings about the early development c) An argument relying on some simple findings about the early development of embryo leads to the working hypothesis that the backprojection from brain is of embryo leads to the working hypothesis that the backprojection from brain is classical for ”skin senses” and quantal for ”brain senses”. ”Skin sense” receptors classical for ”skin senses” and quantal for ”brain senses”. ”Skin sense” receptors could however entangle with environment, which could explain why galvanic skin could however entangle with environment, which could explain why galvanic skin response (GSR) acts as a correlate for subliminal remote mental interactions. response (GSR) acts as a correlate for subliminal remote mental interactions. This remote mental interaction usually unconscious to us would be the analog This remote mental interaction usually unconscious to us would be the analog of the primary perception exhibited by plants and even by biomolecules [9]. of the primary perception exhibited by plants and even by biomolecules [9].

d) Both the notion of backprojection and the not so fundamental hypothesis d) Both the notion of backprojection and the not so fundamental hypothesis about division to skin and brain senses are detailed enough to be testable and about division to skin and brain senses are detailed enough to be testable and seve

several tests ral tests are are proposeproposed.d. The reade

The reader r can intecan interesrested in ted in detdetailails s of of the still the still devdeveloelopinping g and far and far frofromm final theory is encouraged to consult the chapters ”Quantum Model for final theory is encouraged to consult the chapters ”Quantum Model for Sen-sory Representations” of [3] and the chapters ”General Theory of Qualia” and sory Representations” of [3] and the chapters ”General Theory of Qualia” and ”Spectr

”Spectroscoposcopy of y of ConscConsciousneiousness” of [4]. ss” of [4]. The articleThe articles ”Time, Space-times ”Time, Space-time, , andand Consciousness” and ”Quantum model of nervepulse, EEG, and ZEG” in this Consciousness” and ”Quantum model of nervepulse, EEG, and ZEG” in this issue of JNLRMI provide and updated and rather thorough discussion of the issue of JNLRMI provide and updated and rather thorough discussion of the basic notions involved.

basic notions involved.

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In the sequel a general model of sensory receptor is proposed and applied to build In the sequel a general model of sensory receptor is proposed and applied to build a model of

a model of photorphotorecepeceptors in retina. tors in retina. The new physiThe new physics predictcs predicted by TGD is ined by TGD is in a key role.

a key role. The notion of quark color was originallThe notion of quark color was originally introducy introduced with a ed with a tonguetongue in cheek with the motivation coming from the fact that the algebra of color in cheek with the motivation coming from the fact that the algebra of color quantum numbers based on the unitary group

quantum numbers based on the unitary group SU SU (3) resembles strongly that of (3) resembles strongly that of  visual colors. In TGD framework this joke ceases to be joke: space-time sheets visual colors. In TGD framework this joke ceases to be joke: space-time sheets have color rotational degrees of freedom and classical color fields are not only have color rotational degrees of freedom and classical color fields are not only possible but unavoidable in all length scales. One ends up to the identification possible but unavoidable in all length scales. One ends up to the identification of primary colors in terms of increments of color quantum numbers, and one can of primary colors in terms of increments of color quantum numbers, and one can fix the imbedding space

fix the imbedding space H H  == M M 44 +

+ ××CP CP 22 and thus entire TGD Universe fromand thus entire TGD Universe from

the fact that there are just 3 primary colors! This perhaps gives a grasp about the fact that there are just 3 primary colors! This perhaps gives a grasp about the amazing predictive power of symmetries in quantum theory.

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Capaci

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tor model fo

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sory rec

y recep

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tor

The assumption that sensory qualia are realized at the level of sensory receptors, The assumption that sensory qualia are realized at the level of sensory receptors, when combined with the requirement that the average increments of quantum when combined with the requirement that the average increments of quantum numbers are non-vanishing, and perhaps even remain same for subsequent numbers are non-vanishing, and perhaps even remain same for subsequent quan-tum jumps, poses strong constraints on the model of the sensory receptor. tum jumps, poses strong constraints on the model of the sensory receptor.

These constraints suggest what might be called the capacitor model of the These constraints suggest what might be called the capacitor model of the sensory receptor.

sensory receptor.

a) There are two reservoirs of quantum charges having total charges of equal a) There are two reservoirs of quantum charges having total charges of equal magnit

magnitude but of ude but of oppositopposite sign. e sign. The net charges are macThe net charges are macroscoproscopic in order toic in order to guaran

guarantee robustnetee robustness. ss. These reservThese reservoirs are oirs are analoganalogous to ous to capacicapacitor plates, andtor plates, and only the second one corresponds to the sensory experienced quale unless both only the second one corresponds to the sensory experienced quale unless both the

the quale and quale and its conjugate are its conjugate are experiexperienced simultenced simultaneouaneouslysly. . CapaciCapacitors platestors plates can carry several charges.

can carry several charges.

b) When the sensory quale is generated, there is a flow of charge quanta b) When the sensory quale is generated, there is a flow of charge quanta bet

betweween en the quanthe quantum capactum capacitoitor r plaplatestes. . The charThe charge quange quanta ta are more or are more or leslesss con

constastantnt. . ThiThis s reqrequiruiremeement could be nt could be relrelaxeaxed d to to the condithe conditiotion n thathat t onlonly y thethe average increment is constant.

average increment is constant.

Cell membrane, or rather the pair formed by cell interior and exterior, and Cell membrane, or rather the pair formed by cell interior and exterior, and synaptic junction are excellent candidates for quantum capacitors.

synaptic junction are excellent candidates for quantum capacitors.

a) During nerve pulse various ions flow between cell interior and exterior, a) During nerve pulse various ions flow between cell interior and exterior, which suggests that sub-neuronal sensory qualia are generated in a time scale which suggests that sub-neuronal sensory qualia are generated in a time scale of a

of a millimilliseconsecond. d. Also memAlso membrane oscilbrane oscillationlations might give rise to some kind of s might give rise to some kind of  senso

sensory qualia. ry qualia. In particularIn particular, superconduc, superconducting Cooper pairs and ting Cooper pairs and bosonic ionsbosonic ions enter or lea

enter or leave the Bose-Einstein (BEve the Bose-Einstein (BE) condensates) condensates at the magnetic flux tubes andat the magnetic flux tubes and this should give rise to a chemical experience defined by the quantum numbers this should give rise to a chemical experience defined by the quantum numbers of the

of the carricarrier particleer particle. . Not only Not only the incrementhe increment t of electric chargof electric charge but e but increincrementmentss of

of magmagnetnetic ic quaquantntum um nunumbembers rs chcharacaracterterize the ize the quaqualia lia in in quequestistion. on. VVariariousous information molecules transferred through the cell membrane could also give information molecules transferred through the cell membrane could also give rise to sensory qualia.

rise to sensory qualia.

b) In the synaptic contact the vesicles containing neurotransmitter are b) In the synaptic contact the vesicles containing neurotransmitter are trans-mitted, and the net quantum numbers for the vesicles should determine the mitted, and the net quantum numbers for the vesicles should determine the neuro

neuronal nal chechemical qualia associated with mical qualia associated with the the processprocess..

This model does not apply to all qualia. Qualia can be also associated with This model does not apply to all qualia. Qualia can be also associated with the quantu

the quantum phase transitions at magnetic flux quanta. m phase transitions at magnetic flux quanta. A typical examplA typical example ise is a coherently occurring cyclotron transition for a macroscopic phase of Cooper a coherently occurring cyclotron transition for a macroscopic phase of Cooper pairs. It would seem that quantum phase transitions at the magnetic flux quanta pairs. It would seem that quantum phase transitions at the magnetic flux quanta and particle flows between the quantum electrodes associated with electret type and particle flows between the quantum electrodes associated with electret type struc

structures could define two basic types of tures could define two basic types of qualiqualia. a. Note that electret structNote that electret structuresures are dual to

are dual to magmagnetnetic flux ic flux quaquantnta a as solutias solutions of ons of fielfield d equequatiationsons. . VisVision andion and hearing would be basic examples of these two types of qualia.

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2.2

2.2 Cap

Capaci

acitor m

tor model ap

odel appli

plied to c

ed to colo

olor vis

r vision

ion

Capacitor model allows to attack the problem of how color qualia are generated Capacitor model allows to attack the problem of how color qualia are generated physically.

physically.

a) Color sensation results from a spatial gradient of illumination at a given a) Color sensation results from a spatial gradient of illumination at a given wa

wavelevelength transformngth transformed first ed first to to a a subjecto-tsubjecto-temporal gradienemporal gradient: t: presupresumably bymably by a

a sacsaccadcadic motiic motion. on. ThiThis s expexplailains color consns color constantancy naturcy naturallallyy. . The subjeThe subjecto cto--temporal gradient of illumination in turn induces a quantum jump sequence for temporal gradient of illumination in turn induces a quantum jump sequence for which average increments of color isospin and hypercharge per quantum jump which average increments of color isospin and hypercharge per quantum jump are non-vanishing and characterizes the color in question.

are non-vanishing and characterizes the color in question.

b) What is needed are two color capacitor plates with opposite color charges. b) What is needed are two color capacitor plates with opposite color charges. Since color confinement implies the vanishing total color charges below certain Since color confinement implies the vanishing total color charges below certain len

length scalgth scale, e, the notithe notion of on of colcolor capacor capacitoitor is r is vevery naturry natural. al. The fact that aThe fact that a region of a given visual color has at its boundaries a narrow stripe with the region of a given visual color has at its boundaries a narrow stripe with the compl

complemenementary color could relate closely to tary color could relate closely to color confinecolor confinementment. . Also the Also the afterafter images with varying colors could relate to the back-flow of the color charges images with varying colors could relate to the back-flow of the color charges establishing the equilibrium situation between the plates of color capacitor. The establishing the equilibrium situation between the plates of color capacitor. The color black experienced when eyes are closed could be interpreted as being due color black experienced when eyes are closed could be interpreted as being due to a background flow occurring even in the absence of the visual stimulus (this to a background flow occurring even in the absence of the visual stimulus (this sensa

sensation disappears and visual consciousntion disappears and visual consciousness is ess is lost if lost if saccasaccadic motions are dic motions are notnot allowed to occur).

allowed to occur).

c) The temporal gradient of illumination induces a flow of color charges c) The temporal gradient of illumination induces a flow of color charges be-tw

tween the een the plaplates of tes of the the colcolor capacior capacitortor. . The codinThe coding g of of phophoton frequton frequencencies toies to colors results if the quanta transferred between the plates are colored (in the colors results if the quanta transferred between the plates are colored (in the sense of QCD color!) particles with the isospin-hypercharge ratio characterizing sense of QCD color!) particles with the isospin-hypercharge ratio characterizing the visual recept

the visual receptor in or in questquestion. ion. The simplesThe simplest and t and the most natural possibilitthe most natural possibilityy highly suggested by the general structure of color gauge interactions is that color highly suggested by the general structure of color gauge interactions is that color octet particle

octet particles are s are in in questquestion so ion so that three primary colors and their conjugatethat three primary colors and their conjugatess define the basic colors. A BE condensate of colored bosons is the most elegant define the basic colors. A BE condensate of colored bosons is the most elegant manner to realize the capacitor. This mechanism requires only that the receptor manner to realize the capacitor. This mechanism requires only that the receptor is frequency sensitive, and that the quantum numbers of the colored particles is frequency sensitive, and that the quantum numbers of the colored particles ass

associaociated with the ted with the capcapaciacitor platetor plates s depedepend nd on on the type the type of of the recepthe receptortor. . De- De-pending on the direction of the color charge flow a given receptor contributes pending on the direction of the color charge flow a given receptor contributes color or its

color or its conjuconjugate color to gate color to the experiencthe experience, which is e, which is an an avaverage overage over some seter some set of receptors and thus a composite color.

of receptors and thus a composite color.

There are actually two manners to ”mix”: the receptors correspond to There are actually two manners to ”mix”: the receptors correspond to sep-arate subselves in which kind of statistical mixing results or subselves fuse to arate subselves in which kind of statistical mixing results or subselves fuse to single subself represen

single subself representing single ting single mentmental al image represenimage representing kind ting kind of of sterestereo o con- con-sciou

sciousness. sness. The fact that The fact that color recepcolor receptors are connectetors are connected by d by gap junctiongap junctions s sup- sup-ports the latter option.

ports the latter option.

d) 3+3 primary colors (black and white are counted as conjugate colors) d) 3+3 primary colors (black and white are counted as conjugate colors) corre

correspond naturally to the spond naturally to the charcharged ”gluons” in ged ”gluons” in the octet the octet reprerepresentsentation. ation. FForor higher color representations a more refined color palette results. For white-black higher color representations a more refined color palette results. For white-black vision the increment of the color hypercharge would be vanishing on the average. vision the increment of the color hypercharge would be vanishing on the average.

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It could be also vanishing for the quanta involved (charged ”gluons” belonging It could be also vanishing for the quanta involved (charged ”gluons” belonging to

to SU SU (2) tripl(2) triplet of et of glugluonsons). ). If If the classthe classicaical l colcolor gauge field associor gauge field associateated d witwithh the plates of the color capacitor reduces to

the plates of the color capacitor reduces to SU SU (2) one could indeed expect that(2) one could indeed expect that black-white vision results.

black-white vision results.

2.3

2.3 The ro

The role of cla

le of classi

ssical col

cal color ga

or gauge fie

uge fields an

lds and the ide

d the iden

nti-

ti-fication of colored particles

fication of colored particles

The classical color gauge fields associated with

The classical color gauge fields associated with the receptor plates could favourthe receptor plates could favour BE condensate with particul

BE condensate with particular color quantum numbear color quantum numbers. rs. ClassiClassical color gaugecal color gauge fields in general give rise to vacuum color currents, and these could generate fields in general give rise to vacuum color currents, and these could generate coherent states of some gluon like particles giving in turn rise to BE condensates. coherent states of some gluon like particles giving in turn rise to BE condensates.

Since classical color fields are proportional to the induced K¨

Since classical color fields are proportional to the induced K¨ahler field, oneahler field, one expe

expects cts thathat t strstrong ong colcolor or gaugauge ge fielfields ds are are assassociaociated to ted to solsolutiutions ons whiwhich ch areare far from vacuum extrem

far from vacuum extremals. als. Other sensory receOther sensory receptors mighptors might t differ from visualdiffer from visual receptors in that they correspond to almost vacuum space-time sheets with very receptors in that they correspond to almost vacuum space-time sheets with very wea

weak classical color gauge fields. k classical color gauge fields. A A weaweaker condiker condition is tion is that the that the classclassical colorical color gauge fields are so random that only weak coherent state and BE condensate gauge fields are so random that only weak coherent state and BE condensate results. MEs are excellent candidates for the carriers of colored BE condensates results. MEs are excellent candidates for the carriers of colored BE condensates since their

since their CP CP 22 projections are 2-dimensional and the classical color gauge fieldprojections are 2-dimensional and the classical color gauge field

is Abelian and thus corresponds to a fixed

is Abelian and thus corresponds to a fixed U U (1) (1) sub-grsub-group.oup.

The model leaves a lot of room for the identification of the colored particles. The model leaves a lot of room for the identification of the colored particles. The color could be in color rotational degrees of freedom of the space-time The color could be in color rotational degrees of freedom of the space-time sheets; it could be gluonic color for an asymptotically non-free QCD realized in sheets; it could be gluonic color for an asymptotically non-free QCD realized in cellular length scale; or it cold correspond superconformal color associated with cellular length scale; or it cold correspond superconformal color associated with what might be called configuration space photons, which carry no energy nor what might be called configuration space photons, which carry no energy nor momentum and are thus very ”mind-like”.

momentum and are thus very ”mind-like”.

Even color magnetic polarization of nuclei at the magnetic flux tubes of the Even color magnetic polarization of nuclei at the magnetic flux tubes of the Earth’s magnetic field might give rise to some kind of qualia but presumably Earth’s magnetic field might give rise to some kind of qualia but presumably phase transi

phase transition type qualia woultion type qualia would be d be in question nowin question now. . The reason is that theThe reason is that the nuclear physics at these space-time sheets differs from the standard one since nuclear physics at these space-time sheets differs from the standard one since quarks feed in this case both electromagnetic and

quarks feed in this case both electromagnetic and Z Z 00 charges to the same space-charges to the same

space-time sheet (

time sheet (kk = 169).= 169). 2.

2.3.3.1 1 RiRigid gid body body cocololor?r?

The identification of the color as a degree of freedom analogous to rigid body The identification of the color as a degree of freedom analogous to rigid body rotati

rotational degrees of onal degrees of freedfreedom om is is rather attractirather attractive because ve because of of its its simplsimpliciticityy.. a) Every space-time sheet has color-rotational rigid body degrees of freedom. a) Every space-time sheet has color-rotational rigid body degrees of freedom. For these degrees of freedom the rotation group

For these degrees of freedom the rotation group SOSO(3) is replaced by the unitary(3) is replaced by the unitary group

group SU SU (3). Since the space-time sheet is topologically condensed at a larger(3). Since the space-time sheet is topologically condensed at a larger time sheet and connected by join along boundaries bonds to other time sheet and connected by join along boundaries bonds to other space-time sheets, these degrees of freedom are partially frozen

time sheets, these degrees of freedom are partially frozen. . This means breakingThis means breaking of color symmetry to a subgroup of color group.

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U (1), and(1), and U U (1) are the options besides complete breaking of color symmetry.(1) are the options besides complete breaking of color symmetry. This could explain why color capacitor mechanism is not involved with all cell This could explain why color capacitor mechanism is not involved with all cell membranes but requires special receptors.

membranes but requires special receptors.

b) The gluing operation for two space-time sheets occurs along 3-dimensional b) The gluing operation for two space-time sheets occurs along 3-dimensional surfac

surface for be for both wormholoth wormhole contacte contacts and join s and join along boundaralong boundaries bonds. ies bonds. The re-The re-quirement that gluing is possible implies that this portion of surface is a fixed quirement that gluing is possible implies that this portion of surface is a fixed point with respect to the subgroup of color group, which remains unbroken. If  point with respect to the subgroup of color group, which remains unbroken. If  the region in question corresponds to a single point of 

the region in question corresponds to a single point of  CP CP 22, the isotropy group, the isotropy group

is maximal and equal to

is maximal and equal to U U (2). This means that quantum states correspond to a(2). This means that quantum states correspond to a rigid body motion in

rigid body motion in U U (2). For(2). For U U (1)(1)××U (1) the states are also characterized by(1) the states are also characterized by

isospin and hypercharge. For

isospin and hypercharge. For U U (1) only isospin labels the states and this would(1) only isospin labels the states and this would correspond to black-white vision.

correspond to black-white vision.

c) The simplest states correspond to the restriction of color representations c) The simplest states correspond to the restriction of color representations in

in SU SU (3) realized as matrix elements of color representations to(3) realized as matrix elements of color representations to U U (2(2). ). ThThee restriction means that certain states drop off. To get some grasp on the sitution, restriction means that certain states drop off. To get some grasp on the sitution, con

considsider a er a simsimple example example firsple first. t. In the In the cascase of e of  SOSO(3)(3) CP CP 22 is replaced by theis replaced by the

sphere

sphere S S 22 and the restriction to the groupand the restriction to the group U U (1) drops away all matrix elements(1) drops away all matrix elements

whi

which vach vanisnish h at the at the equequatorator. . FForor J J  = 1 triplet only the states having spin= 1 triplet only the states having spin J 

J zz == ±±1 1 reremamainin. . PrProbobabably alsly also in o in ththe e cacase of se of  SU SU (3) only charged gluons(3) only charged gluons

survive in the octet representation restricted to

survive in the octet representation restricted to U U (2). (2). Since also colSince also color neutror neutralal states must be possible, the restrictions of higher representations must contain states must be possible, the restrictions of higher representations must contain also color

also color neutrneutral al statesstates..

d) The freezing of color degrees of freedom means that the remaining degrees d) The freezing of color degrees of freedom means that the remaining degrees of freedom for the space-time sheet are zero mode like degrees of freedom. These of freedom for the space-time sheet are zero mode like degrees of freedom. These deg

degreerees s of freedof freedom define what is om define what is knoknown as wn as a a flag maniflag manifolfold. d. FForor U U (2) these(2) these degrees of freedom correspond to

degrees of freedom correspond to CP CP 22 == SU SU (3)(3)/U /U (2), for(2), for U U (1)(1)××U U (1) the flag(1) the flag

manifold is six-dimensional

manifold is six-dimensional SU SU (3)(3)/U /U (1)(1)××U (1). (1). SinSince the pointce the points s of these flagof these flag

manifold correspond to particular representatives for color rotations, and since manifold correspond to particular representatives for color rotations, and since color rotations transform pure electromagnetic fields to superpositions of em color rotations transform pure electromagnetic fields to superpositions of em and

and Z Z 00 fields, it is clear that the change of the flag manifold coordinates affectsfields, it is clear that the change of the flag manifold coordinates affects

mem

membrane potentbrane potential and has ial and has signifisignificant consecant consequencquences. es. Flag manifoFlag manifold qualiald qualia would correspond to sequences of constant changes for flag manifold coordinates. would correspond to sequences of constant changes for flag manifold coordinates. In the simplest case, sequences of steps along one parameter subgroup of 

In the simplest case, sequences of steps along one parameter subgroup of  SU SU (3).(3). The connection between the dance of the honeybee and color group made by The connection between the dance of the honeybee and color group made by Barbara Shipman [10] supports the view that the increments of flag manifold Barbara Shipman [10] supports the view that the increments of flag manifold coordinates define fundamental geometric qualia and are responsible, not only coordinates define fundamental geometric qualia and are responsible, not only for the geometric aspects of vision, but of also other sensory modalities.

for the geometric aspects of vision, but of also other sensory modalities. 2.3

2.3.2 .2 GluGluons of scons of scalealed dowd down vern versiosions of QCDns of QCD??

TGD allows a hierarchy of QCD:s which are not asymptotically free. This TGD allows a hierarchy of QCD:s which are not asymptotically free. This prop-erty allows to circumvent the experimental bounds on the number of elementary erty allows to circumvent the experimental bounds on the number of elementary partic

particles. les. GivGiven QCD would exist only in en QCD would exist only in a certain range of p-adic length scalesa certain range of p-adic length scales and thus in a

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consider the possibility that QCD:s could exist even in cellular length scales, consider the possibility that QCD:s could exist even in cellular length scales, and that BE condensates of gluons give rise to the opposite color charges of  and that BE condensates of gluons give rise to the opposite color charges of  color capacitors. The topological condensation of gluons forces the breaking of  color capacitors. The topological condensation of gluons forces the breaking of  the color symmetry for all colored particles, even gluons.

the color symmetry for all colored particles, even gluons. 2.3

2.3.3 .3 ConConfigufiguratration sion spacpace phoe photontons?s?

TGD predicts also configuration space color degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, TGD predicts also configuration space color degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, the understanding the relationship of these new physics degrees of freedom to the understanding the relationship of these new physics degrees of freedom to conscious experience is still a virtually unexplored territory. What is however conscious experience is still a virtually unexplored territory. What is however re-markable is that these states do not carry any energy and momentum. Actually markable is that these states do not carry any energy and momentum. Actually infinite-dimensional super canonical representations decomposing into infinite-dimensional super canonical representations decomposing into represen-tat

tationions s of of colcolor group are or group are in in quequestistion. on. RigRigid body id body colcolor would repror would represeesent thent the low

lowest states of est states of these represethese representatntations. ions. MEs are MEs are especiespecially good ally good candidcandidates forates for carrying this kind of color.

carrying this kind of color.

If MEs with sizes below cell membrane thickness are involved with the If MEs with sizes below cell membrane thickness are involved with the trans-fer of color between the color capacitor plates, the energies of the particles fer of color between the color capacitor plates, the energies of the particles in-volv

volved must be ed must be in ultraviolin ultraviolet range by Uncertaiet range by Uncertainty Princnty Principle. iple. If the If the transftransferer occurs between cells, the length scale could be of order micrometer and thus occurs between cells, the length scale could be of order micrometer and thus vis

visiblible e wawavevelenlengthgths s wowould be uld be in in quequestistion on as is as is indindeed natureed natural. al. PePerharhaps theps the structures formed by cell layers are involved with our color qualia.

structures formed by cell layers are involved with our color qualia.

3

3 The

The str

struct

ucture

ure of t

of the r

he reti

etina a

na and s

nd sens

ensory

ory org

organs

ans

as sites of sensory qualia

as sites of sensory qualia

The assumption that sensory organs are carriers of the sensory representations The assumption that sensory organs are carriers of the sensory representations entangling with symbolic representations realized at the level of cortex [C1, D3] entangling with symbolic representations realized at the level of cortex [C1, D3] does not mean any revolution of neuroscience, just adding something what is does not mean any revolution of neuroscience, just adding something what is perhaps lacking.

perhaps lacking.

Neuronal/symbolic level would do its best to symbolically represent what Neuronal/symbolic level would do its best to symbolically represent what occu

occurs rs natnaturaurally at lly at the levethe level l of of quaqualialia. . ColColor constaor constancy coulncy could d be be undunderserstoodtood as a

as a basic charbasic characteriacteric of c of color qualia re-reacolor qualia re-realized at the lized at the neuronneuronal level. al level. CenCenter- ter-surround opponency for the conjugate colors is the neural counterpart for the surround opponency for the conjugate colors is the neural counterpart for the contrast phenomenon in which the boundary for a region of the perceptive field contrast phenomenon in which the boundary for a region of the perceptive field with a given color carries the conjugate color (black-white opponency associated with a given color carries the conjugate color (black-white opponency associated with the luminan

with the luminance is only a ce is only a special casspecial case of e of this). this). The conThe contrast phenotrast phenomenonmenon at the level of visual qualia could derive from the vanishing of the net color at the level of visual qualia could derive from the vanishing of the net color quantum numbers for the electrodes of the retinal color capacitors.

quantum numbers for the electrodes of the retinal color capacitors.

The basic prediction is the presence of the back projection at least in the The basic prediction is the presence of the back projection at least in the sen-sory modalities in which hallucinations are possible. MEs with MEs mechanism sory modalities in which hallucinations are possible. MEs with MEs mechanism is the most natural candidate for realizing the back projection, negative/positive is the most natural candidate for realizing the back projection, negative/positive energy MEs would realize the back projection based on quantum/classical energy MEs would realize the back projection based on quantum/classical com-munications, and the capacitor model of the sensory receptor can be applied to munications, and the capacitor model of the sensory receptor can be applied to

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model photoreceptors and retina. This picture integrates nicely with the various model photoreceptors and retina. This picture integrates nicely with the various specula

speculations about the role of tions about the role of the ciliary micrthe ciliary microtubuotubules in les in visiovision. n. The obviouThe obviouss question is how the presence and character of the back projection reflects question is how the presence and character of the back projection reflects it-self in the

self in the structstructure of the ure of the sensorsensory pathwy pathways and sensorays and sensory organs. y organs. Basic factBasic factss about how gastrulation and neurulation proceed during the development of the about how gastrulation and neurulation proceed during the development of the embryo, lead to testable predictions about the character of the back projection embryo, lead to testable predictions about the character of the back projection for various sensory modalities, and one can speak about ”brain senses” and for various sensory modalities, and one can speak about ”brain senses” and ”skin senses” according to whether the back projection is based on quantum or ”skin senses” according to whether the back projection is based on quantum or classical communications.

classical communications.

3.1

3.1 Micro

Microtubul

tubular s

ar struct

tructures

ures as p

as photor

hotorecep

eceptors/t

tors/trans

ransduce

ducers?

rs?

The

There re is is a a defidefinitnite e evievidendence ce supsupportporting the ing the ideidea a that microthat microtubtubuli might beuli might be in

invovolvlved with ed with a a priprimitmitive visioive vision. n. The informThe informatiation on belobelow w is is frofrom m the the leclecturturee ”Quantum Vitalism” of Stuart Hameroff during an online course about ”Quantum Vitalism” of Stuart Hameroff during an online course about quan-tum consciousness held in Arizona University 1999.

tum consciousness held in Arizona University 1999. 3.1

3.1.1 .1 FindFindingings of As of Albrlbrectecth-Buh-Buehlehlerer Albrech

Albrecht-Buehler [11t-Buehler [11] has ] has shownshown that single that single fibroblastfibroblast cells mocells move ve towardtoward red/infra- red/infra-red light (maximum absorpti

red light (maximum absorption is on is around .1 around .1 eV) by eV) by utilizutilizing their ing their microtmicrotubule ubule--based centrioles for directional detection and guidance; he also points out that based centrioles for directional detection and guidance; he also points out that centrioles

centrioles are are ideally ideally designeddesigned photodetectors. Photoreception/phototransductionphotodetectors. Photoreception/phototransduction mechanisms at all stages of evolution involve the nine microtubule doublet or mechanisms at all stages of evolution involve the nine microtubule doublet or triplet structures found in centrioles, cilia, flagella and axonemes. The centriole triplet structures found in centrioles, cilia, flagella and axonemes. The centriole is a pair of microtubule-based mega-cylinders arrayed in T shape [12]. is a pair of microtubule-based mega-cylinders arrayed in T shape [12]. Albrecht-Buehler has identifie

Buehler has identified centrioles as the photorecd centrioles as the photoreceptors/phototransducerseptors/phototransducers in pho-in pho-tosensitive eukaryotic cells. Flagellar axonemes are the phopho-tosensitive structures tosensitive eukaryotic cells. Flagellar axonemes are the photosensitive structures in protozoa suc

in protozoa such as h as EugleEuglena gracilisna gracilis. . Cilia in rod Cilia in rod and cone retinal cells in ver-and cone retinal cells in ver-tebrate eyes (including humans) bridge two parts of the cells and have length tebrate eyes (including humans) bridge two parts of the cells and have length distribution covering visible wa

distribution covering visible wavelengths. velengths. Photosensitive pigments (rhodopsin)Photosensitive pigments (rhodopsin) is contained in the outer segment while cell nucleus, mitochondria and synaptic is contained in the outer segment while cell nucleus, mitochondria and synaptic conne

connection are containction are contained in ed in the cell bothe cell bodydy. . LighLight t enteenters the rs the eye and traveeye and traversesrses the cell body and cilium to reach the rhodopsin-containing outer segment. the cell body and cilium to reach the rhodopsin-containing outer segment. 3.1.2

3.1.2 The role oThe role of collecf collectivtive rotate rotational excional excitatioitations of wans of waterter

Mari Jibu, Kunio Yasue and colleagues [13] have proposed that super-radiance Mari Jibu, Kunio Yasue and colleagues [13] have proposed that super-radiance in a microtubule could be involved with the photo-reception.

in a microtubule could be involved with the photo-reception.

a) The energy gain due to the thermal fluctuations of tubulins is assumed a) The energy gain due to the thermal fluctuations of tubulins is assumed to increase the number of water molecules in the first excited rotational energy to increase the number of water molecules in the first excited rotational energy state.

state.

b) A collective mode of the system of water molecules in rotationally excited b) A collective mode of the system of water molecules in rotationally excited states is excited

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means of spontaneou

means of spontaneous symmetry breakins symmetry breaking. g. The collectiThe collective mode ve mode of the of the systemsystem of water molecules in rotationally excited states loses its energy collectively, of water molecules in rotationally excited states loses its energy collectively, and creates coherent photons in the quantized electromagnetic field inside a and creates coherent photons in the quantized electromagnetic field inside a microtubule.

microtubule. c)

c) WWater moleculesater molecules, , havihaving ng lost their lost their first excited rotational energiefirst excited rotational energies s byby super-radiance, start again to gain energy from the thermal fluctuation of super-radiance, start again to gain energy from the thermal fluctuation of tubu-lins, and the system of water molecules ends up to the initial state.

lins, and the system of water molecules ends up to the initial state.

Jibu and collaborators have predicted that cellular vision depends on a Jibu and collaborators have predicted that cellular vision depends on a quan-tum state of ordered water in microtubular inner cores. The authors postulate a tum state of ordered water in microtubular inner cores. The authors postulate a nonlinear quantum optical effect termed ”super-radiance” conveying evanescent nonlinear quantum optical effect termed ”super-radiance” conveying evanescent photons by a process of ”self-induced transparency” (the optical analogue of  photons by a process of ”self-induced transparency” (the optical analogue of  superconductivity) involving formation of BE condensate of photons.

superconductivity) involving formation of BE condensate of photons.

Interestingly, the energy scale of the rotational excitations of water is that Interestingly, the energy scale of the rotational excitations of water is that of microwave photons, and microwave MEs play a key role in the TGD based of microwave photons, and microwave MEs play a key role in the TGD based model of bio-control of living matter discussed in [D1]. The key idea is that the model of bio-control of living matter discussed in [D1]. The key idea is that the clusters of water molecules can mimick the rotational and vibrational spectra clusters of water molecules can mimick the rotational and vibrational spectra of various molecules. For instance, homepathy might be based on the mimickry of various molecules. For instance, homepathy might be based on the mimickry of

of the molethe moleculcules of es of the drug. the drug. PePerharhaps the ps the mecmechanhanism propoism proposed by Jibu sed by Jibu andand collaborators could have a variant realized in terms of TGD based physics and collaborators could have a variant realized in terms of TGD based physics and involving microwave-, visible-, and very low frequency MEs.

involving microwave-, visible-, and very low frequency MEs.

In particular, the collective excitation of the water inside microtubule could In particular, the collective excitation of the water inside microtubule could be generated by coherent radiation of microwave photons accompanying be generated by coherent radiation of microwave photons accompanying mi-cro

crowawave MEs ratheve MEs rather r thathan n thethermarmallylly. . On On basbasis is of of the seconthe second d law one couldlaw one could indeed argue that thermal excitations cannot lead to the generation of indeed argue that thermal excitations cannot lead to the generation of macro-scopic quantum coherent states. In light of latest advances in understanding the scopic quantum coherent states. In light of latest advances in understanding the fractal many-sheeted metabolism [5], it seems however plausible that the fractal many-sheeted metabolism [5], it seems however plausible that the quan-tum phase transitions associated with many-sheeted lasers are involved with the tum phase transitions associated with many-sheeted lasers are involved with the gener

generation of ation of collecollectivctive e excitexcitationsations. . The The cohercoherent photons generated by ent photons generated by many many--sheeted lasers might excite the rotational excitations of water collectively. The sheeted lasers might excite the rotational excitations of water collectively. The test for this hypothesis is that these excitations should occur only for a discrete test for this hypothesis is that these excitations should occur only for a discrete set of wavelengths corresponding to the differences of zero point kinetic energies set of wavelengths corresponding to the differences of zero point kinetic energies for var

for variouious s paipairs rs of of spaspace-ce-timtime e shesheetsets. . The infarThe infared frequed frequencency y of of abouabout t .1 .1 eVeV associated with the maximum absorption of infrared light by cells [11] indeed associated with the maximum absorption of infrared light by cells [11] indeed correspond to this kind of frequency

correspond to this kind of frequency 3.1

3.1.3 .3 EvEvolutolution ion of of eyeyee

In simple multicellular organisms, eyes and visual systems began with groups In simple multicellular organisms, eyes and visual systems began with groups of differentiated light-sensitive ciliated cells which formed primitive ”eye cups” of differentiated light-sensitive ciliated cells which formed primitive ”eye cups” (up

(up to to 100 100 phophotortoreceeceptoptor r celcells) ls) in in manmany y phphyla yla incincludluding ing flatflatwowormsrms, , annannelielidd worms, molluscs, crustacea, echinoderms and chordates (our original worms, molluscs, crustacea, echinoderms and chordates (our original evolution-ary bran

ary branchch). ). The retiThe retinas in nas in huhuman eyeman eyes s incincludlude e ovover 4er 4 ××101088 rod and conerod and cone

photoreceptors each comprised of an inner and outer segment connected by a photoreceptors each comprised of an inner and outer segment connected by a cil

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