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THE MUSICAL TIMES.

VOCAL

RUDIMENTS

COMPILED BY J. DOBSON COLLET.

PREFACE.-The object of this paper is to convey in the smallest possible space the Musical instruction necessary to an Amateur Chorus Singer. It is calculated for the use of Elementary Classes, and should be explained in full

by a master, and afterwards used as a hand-book by the pupil.

CHAPTER I.-LENGTH OF THE NOTES.

Sounds in music are of different lengths. We distinguish the length of the sounds, and of the silences between them, by the shape of the notes or rests which represent them.

I semibreve, or whole note, rrr

r r r r

is equal to 2 minims, or halves; or, 4 crotchets, or quarters; or, 8 quavers, or eighths;

r

r

r

r

't 1 '! 1 '1 I '1 '

aB F aC ^ CT M* \\[\ _n 16 emiluver>?or,

316 semiquavers, or sixteenths. ltii 1

A dot placed after a note increases its value by one-half, thus:-

o

.

=

r

_

?

=

r

ri

r

1

p I

Music is divided into equal portions by strokes:-

When I Britain first at I Heaven's command, a [ rose from out the | azure main,

these strokes are called bars; the music between two strokes is also called a bar.

r

CHAPTER II.-TIME.

There are three sorts of time-Dual, Triple, and Compound.

Dual time contains in each bar a number of notes which may be divided by to 1; as 4 crotchets, 4 quavers.

2 till reduced

Examples of Dual (or Common) Time.

/

2

3

4

marked C Two minims in a bar.

/ 4 8 76 marked

2

Two crotchets in a bar.

Triple time contains in each bar a number of notes which may be divided by 3 till reduced to 1; as 3 minims, 3 crotchets, 3 quavers.

Examples of Triple Time. 2 Three minims in a bar. 4 Three crotchets in a bar.

Compound time is compounded of two or more bars

6 quavers, 9 quavers, 12 quavers.

Six crotchets in a bar. Six quavers in a bar.

Examples of Compound Time.

6

8

8

8 Three quavers in a bar. of triple time; as 6 crotchets,

Nine quavers in a bar. Twelve quavers in a bar.

6

8

ITO

(3)

THE MUSICAL TIMES.

VOCAL RUDIMENTS, Continued.

CHAPTER III.-OF PITCH.

Musical sounds differ in pitch, gradually ascending from low to high. The notes are named from the seven letters of the alphabet, C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C, &c. Every note bears a resem- blance to its 8th, which is therefore called by the same letter; thus, C is the octave of C, D of D, and so on.

There are in the human voice about three octaves, or 22 notes, which -are represented by the 11 lines and 11 spaces of

THE GAMUT.

CHAPTER IV.-THE CLEFS.

Three of these notes have special marks to represent them, called clefs:

theFn t the thh e lie th ine. on h the G on the 8th line.

But as no one voice has to sing all these notes, each voice has a part of the gamut allotted to it, occupying a staff of five lines, and distinguished by the clef on its left hand.

There are four sorts of staff in common use; Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass.

The Pianoforte staff requires all the eleven lines-five in the treble, five in the bass, and one between the two, which is understood, but only incidentally expressed, by what is called

a ledger line.

I

A Score includes several staves for voices or instruments, or both.

SOPRANO. ALTO. Se 9 _R.., TENOR. 9| BASS.

Q

PIANOFORTE.

The same note (clef C) will be represented as above in the different staves of the score.

(4)

VOCAL RUDIMENTS, Continued.

CHAPTER V.-THE TETRACHORD.

A Tetrachord is a succession of four notes, the interval between the third and fourth being a semitone, and the other two intervals whole tones. From C to F is a Tetrachord; from G to C is also a tetrachord.

CHAPTER VI.-THE DIATONIC SCALE.

Do C ju Si B La A Sol G Fa F Mi E Re D 1,1 Do C bd >- CM m

The scale of the octave, called the Diatonic scale, is com- posed of two Tetrachords, separated by an interval of a whole tone, called the tone of disjunction. For the convenience of singing, the Italian names of the notes are better than the English ones; thus, for C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C, sing Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si, Do.

CHAPTER VII.-THE CHROMATIC SCALE.

Do---- Si -Do Si -

-si

b

-Lc.--

La --La b- -Sot $ t oSol .-Sol b- -Fa Fa QMi

$

Fa

b

Mi -Mi b- -Re b-

The Diatonic scale is so called because it consists chiefly of whole tones. Each of the five tones in the Diatonic scale may be divided into two semitones. The scale of semitones is called the Chromatic scale. When we wish to raise a note a semitone, we prefix to it a sharp ($), as

Do Do sharp

When we wish to lower a note a semitone, we prefix to it a flat (),

Do Do flat

W

r

br

When we wish to restore a note to its original meaning, we prefix to it a natural (#),

Do flat Do sharp Do natural

i

bF:

-

r-

td 11v w R .? -Re $- -Do $- I I)Do 4 1- 3 - E- 2 D I - -c 100

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VOCAL RUDIMENTS, Continued.

CHAPTER VIII.-MAJOR SCALES AND THEIR SIGNATURES.

Fa 6 sharps

it

^h-,

The scale in Chapter VI. is called a Major scale, because its third is major. Any note may be the first of a scale. Take the scale of Do, and divide it into two tetrachords:-

Lower. Upper.

-J^jL

Ij

t

-r

Now take the upper tetrachord as the basis of a new scale:-

i

L4j-i

i

rrfrT

The second interval in the upper tetrachord, viz., from Mi to Fa ;, is a half instead of a whole tone, and must therefore be sharpened.

Make out all the six sharp keys according to this process.

For the flat keys, take the lower tetrachord of Do, and make it the upper tetrachord of the first flat key:

<

r7-

r7r

I-

LL

-4

From Do to Si # is only half a tone, but as the tone of disjunction must be a whole tone, the

Si must be flattened.

Make out the six flat keys in this manner.

Si 5 sharps s V Mi 4 sharps La 3 sharps Re 2 sharps Sol 1 sharp .$ 6L.(~ Do Fa 1 flat Si > 2 flats --b Mib 3 flats La 4 flats Re b5 flats Sol

b

6 flats -b

t

V V) VoOb" b t7, b b-

THE MUSICAL TIMES. 103

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VOCAL RUDIMENTS, Continued.

CHAPTER IX.-MINOR SCALES.

Re $ is the relative minor_ _ ^ _ of Fa $, sig. 6 sharp s

A scale is called Minor when its third is minor; thus, the scale of Do is minor if Mi is flattened. With the exception of the third, the ascending minor scale is the same as the ascending major scale; but in descending, the seventh and sixth are flattened; thus, Do minor has three flats--Mi b, Si b, and La b. The signature of Do minor is the same as that of Mi b major, which is therefore called its relative major. Scale of Do major. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 . * Scale of Do minor. -8 8 4 4 7 7- 5 6- 5 4 3 2 or,

:bjJJJJ^ft^J^L

Sol

$

Do Fa$ Si .. Si 5 sharps "_ . Mi 4 sharps I#$ .. La 3 sharps } .. Be 2 sharps L., wV Mi .. Sol 1 sharp $ La .. Do Re .. Fa flat Sol .. Si 2 flats J b Do .. Mib 3flats bbb V Fa .. La b 4 flats ~ bbki v

Si b

.. Reb 5flats )bbbb tV Mi b .. Solb 6 flats V - : t b b

London.-Printed by J. ALFRED NOVELLO, at his Printing Office, Dean's Yard, Dean Street, in the Parish of St. Anne's, Soho, in the

County of Middlesex, and Published by him at 69, Dean Street, Soho, and 24, Poultry, in the said County.

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