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STS Syllabus


Academic year: 2021

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College of Science, U.P. Diliman



The analysis from historical and futuristic perspectives of the

nature and role of science and technology in society and of the

socio-cultural and politico-economic factors affecting the development of

science and technology with emphasis on the Philippine setting.

Credit: 3 units


1. To enable the student to understand the character and functions

of science and technology and their inter-relationships with

society from a historical perspective;

2. To enable the student to anticipate and comprehend the impacts,

implications, and limitations of the new developments in science

and technology;

3. To familiarize the student with the sociological, cultural, ethical,

environmental, economic, ideological, political, and gender

aspects of science and technology; and

4. To enable the student to appreciate the key role of science and

technology in national development and the important policy

issues involved in the scientific and technological development of

the Philippines.




1. Readings for the Course

The readings for the course may be purchased from the

Office of the Science and Society Program, College of

Science. Alternatively, there will be a CD for sale that will

contain most of the readings.

2. Organization of Recitation Groups

The class will be organized into recitation groups, each

consisting of at least six (6) and at most ten (10) students. The

members of each recitation group will elect from among

themselves the group leader who shall be responsible for

coordinating the group’s study sessions outside the classroom,

the group’s participation in class recitations and the preparation

of the group’s term paper.

3. Conduct of the Course

Each topic of the course will be allocated 75 minutes with

the first fifteen minutes being allotted to a summary lecture of

the topic of the day by the professor (or a special guest lecturer),

the next forty (40) minutes, to a group report or presentation on

the topic by a pre-assigned group, and the last twenty (20)

minutes or so, to a general discussion involving the entire class.

The topic to be discussed will be assigned to the recitation

groups beforehand in accordance with the course outline. The

individual members of the assigned group as well as other

students who participate in the recitation will be graded by the

professor on the basis of the clarity and soundness of their

opinion. A student’s final grade for the class recitations will be

based on the points/scores in group reports and class recitations

during the entire semester. Thus, a more active participation in

class recitations can guarantee a higher score; a less active

participation will result in a lower score. Moreover, unexcused

absences from class will result in demerits (negative points) in

the final accumulated score for the class recitations.

4. Class Attendance

The following University rule on class attendance (Article

346 of the University Code) shall be strictly enforced in the



When the number of hours lost by absence of a student reaches 20 percent of the hours of recitation, lecture, laboratory or any other scheduled work in one subject he shall be dropped from the subject; Provided, That a faculty may prescribe a longer attendance requirement to meet their special needs. If the majority of the absences are excused, the student shall not be given a grade of “5” upon being thus dropped; but if the majority of the absences are not excused, he shall be given a grade of “5” upon being thus dropped. Time lost by late enrolment shall be considered as time lost by absence.

5. Examinations in the Course

Depending on the instructor, there will be anywhere

from two (2) to four (4) examinations in the course. A student

who fails to take any examination will get a score of “0%” for that

examination unless he/she can present a valid certificate from the

U.P. Health Service that he/she was seriously ill during the time of

the examination. A student who fails to take any two (2)

examinations shall either be dropped from the course or

given a grade of “5.0”, regardless of whether the

absences were excused or not. There will be no final

examination in the course.

6. Term Paper Requirement of the Course

Each recitation group will be required to submit a group

term paper on a specific topic chosen by the group from the

attached list of topics or other topics that may be authorized by

the professor. The term paper should consist of a



FIGURES/TABLES). The grade of each group member will be

based on the student’s actual contribution to the preparation of

the paper as rated by the other group members.

7. Grading System for the Course

The final grade of a student will be computed on the basis

of the following percentage weights:

Average Grade for the Examinations . . .


Average Grade for Class Recitations . . .


Individual Grade for the Essay . . .




The student’s final weighted average score shall have the

following grade equivalents:

90 - 100%

--- 1.0

85 - 89% --- 1.25

80 - 84% --- 1.5

75 - 79% --- 1.75

70 - 74% --- 2.0

65 - 69% --- 2.25

60 - 64% --- 2.5

55 - 59% --- 2.75

50 - 54% --- 3.0

45 - 49% --- 4.0

0 - 44% --- 5.0






Distribution of the Course Syllabus


Explanation of the Organization and Conduct of the



Explanation of the Course Requirements and Policies


Organization of the Class into Recitation Groups


(a) John Ziman, “Science as a Social Institution” (b) Nawaz Sharif, “Technology and Society”

(c) Roger Posadas, “Introduction to Scientific and Technological Activities” 1. THE INTERACTION OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY

1.1 Science, Technology, and Society in Ancient Times


(a) R.J. Forbes, ‘Technology and Society in the Stone Age” (b) R.J. Forbes, “Technology and Society in the Bronze Age”


(c) J.D. Bernal, “Science, Technology, and Society in the Iron Age”

1.2 Science and Technology in Pre-Colonial Asian Societies


(a) Susantha Goonatilake, “Pre-Colonial Science and Technology in the Third World” (b) Joseph Needham, “Poverty and Triumphs of Chinese Science and Technology” (c) Donald R. Hill, “Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Middle East”

1.3 Science, Technology, and Society from the Middle Ages to the Scientific Revolution


(a) J.D. Bernal, “Science, Technology, and Society in the Middle Ages” (b) Lynn White, Jr., “Technology in the Middle Ages”

(c) J. D. Bernal, “The Scientific Revolution”

1.4 Science, Technology, and the Industrial Revolution READINGS:

(a) J.D. Bernal, “Science and the Industrial Revolution” (b) Melvin Kranzberg, “Prerequisites for Industrialization”

(c) Ian Inkster, “Science and Technology in the British Industrial Revolution”

1.5 Science, Technology, and Industrialization in the 19th Century


(a) G.N. von Tunzelmann, “The Industrialization of Europe” (b) G.N. von Tunzelmann, “The Industrialization of the USA” (c) G.N. von Tunzelmann, “The Industrialization of Japan”

1.6 The Imperialist Diffusion of Science and Technology


(a) George Basalla, “The Spread of Western Science”

(b) Ian Inkster, “Science, Technology, and Imperialism: The Case of India” (c) Ian Inkster, “Science, Technology, and Imperialism: China and Beyond”


1.7 Science, Technology, and Society in the 20th Century


(a) Peter Drucker, “Technology and Society in the 20th Century”

(b) G.N. von Tunzelmann, “Industrialization in the West: 1930s to the 1970s” (c) Alvin Toffler, “From the Second Wave to the Third Wave”



(a) Richard Golob and Eric Brus, “Microelectronic Technology” (b) Juan P. Rada, “Microelectronics from a Third World Perspective” (c) Allen A. Boraiko, “Lasers and Microlasers”

(d) Les C. Gunderson and Donald B. Keck , “Fiber-Optic Technology”

2.2 Computers and Information Technology


(a) Richard Brennan, “Computer Literacy: Babbage to Artificial Intelligence” (b) Christopher Barnatt, “Recent Developments in Computer Technology” (c) Mark Weiser, “The Computer for the 21st Century”

2.3 Internet and Other Advanced Telecommunication Technologies


(a) Peter Otte, “Internet and Beyond: Multimedia Online Services” (b) Philip Elmer-Dewitt, “Welcome to Cyberspace”

(c) Reid Goldsborough, “Working and Learning via the Information Superhighway” (d) Peter Otte, “Interactive Television and Video on Demand”

2.4 Automation, Robotics, and Other Advanced Manufacturing Technologies



(b) Peter Scott, “Introduction to Robotics”

(c) Paul Kennedy, “Robotics, Automation, and a New Industrial Revolution” (d) Oliver Morton, “Advanced Manufacturing Technology”

2.5 Advanced Energy Technologies


(a) Richard Brennan, “Energy Alternatives” (b) Michael Zey, “Future Prospects in Energy” (c) Scientific American, “Efficient Uses of Energy” (d) Charles Harper, “Energy and Society”

(e) H. Ramos, “Prospects of Fusion Energy”

2.6 Advanced Materials, Micromachines, and Nanotechnology


(a) Thomas Canby, “Reshaping Our Lives: Advanced Materials”

(b) Scientific American, “Nanotech, The Science of the Small Goes Down to Business”, Sept. 2001

2.7 Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology


(a) Richard Brennan, “Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering” (b) Edward Yoxen, “Biotechnology and the Life Industry”

(c) Oliver Morton, “A Survey of Biotechnology and Genetics”

(d) Articles on the “Human Genome Project” in Nature (February 2001) and Science (February 2001).

2.8 Advances in Medical and Agricultural Technologies


(a) Richard Brennan, “High Technology Medicine” (b) Alexandra Wyke, “The Future of Medicine” (c) Michael Zey, “Future Fields of Plenty”


(d) Paul Kennedy, “Biotech Agriculture”

2.9 Advances in Construction, Transportation, and Space Technologies


(a) Michael Zey, “Future Prospects in Construction and Transportation” (b) Richard Brennan, “Advanced Transportation Technologies”

(c) Michael Zey, “Our Future in Space”

3. THE SOCIETAL ASPECTS AND IMPACTS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 3.1 The Sociological Aspects of Science and Technology


(a) J. Mulkay, “Sociology of the Scientific Research Community” (b) James Adams, “The Complexity of Engineering”

(c) James Adams, “Design and Invention”

(d) Sanford Lakoff, “Scientists, Technologists, and Political Power”

3.2 The Dynamics of Scientific and Technological Changes


(a) Gernot Bohme, “Models for the Development of Science” (b) Susantha Goonatilake, “The Social Context of Science” (c) Nawaz Sharif, “Technological Change”

(d) Everett M. Rogers, “The Generation of Innovations”

3.3 The Economic Aspects of Science and Technology


(a) Christopher Freeman, “The Economics of R&D and Technological Change” (b) G.N. von Tunzelmann, “Classical Theories of Economic Growth and Structure” (c) Norman Clark, “Modern Views of Technological Change”

(d) G.N. von Tunzelmann, “Modern Analyses of Growth and Structural Change”



(a) Joseph P. Cory, “A Business Architecture for Technology Management” (b) Theodore W. Schlie, “The Contribution of Technology to Competitive Advantage”

(c) William G. Howard, Jr. And Bruce R. Guile, “Profiting from Innovation” (d) Michael Hobday, “Technological Learning in Latecomer Firms”

3.5 Impacts of Science and Technology on the Environment


(a) Richard Brennan, “Environmental Penalties of High Technology”

(b) Charles Harper, “Alternative Futures: Sustainability and Social Change” (c) Paul Smith, “Industrialization and Environment”

(d) Scientific American, “Towards Environment-Friendly Technologies”

3.6 Impacts of Science and Technology on the Arts


(a) Jean Ladriere, “The Impact of Science and Technology on Aesthetics” (b) O.B. Hardison, Jr., “Computers and Arts”

(c) O.B. Hardison, Jr., “Computer Music”

(d) O.B. Hardison, Jr., “Computers and Literary Arts”

3.7 Impacts of Science and Technology on War


(a) Harvey Sapolsky, “Science, Technology, and Military Policy” (b) Alvin Toffler, “First Wave War and Second Wave War” (c) Alvin Toffler, “Third Wave War”

(d) Alvin Toffler, “Futuristic Wars”


(a) Robert Cohen, “Ethics and Science”

(b) Enzo Russo and David Cove, “Science, Technology, and Ethics” (c) Charles E. Harris, Jr. et al., “Introduction to Engineering Ethics” (d) Charles E. Harris, Jr. et. al., “On Becoming a Responsible Engineer”

3.9 Ideological Aspects of Science and Technology


(a) John Ziman, “Scientism and Its Manifestations” (b) Helen Longino, “Science and Ideology”

(c) David Dickson, “The Case Against Contemporary Technology” (d) Andrew Feenberg. “Critical Theory of Technology”

4. THE ROLE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 4.1 The International Political Economy of Science and Technology


(a) Chris Farrands, “Interpretations of the Diffusion and Absorption of Technology” (b) Robert Gilpin, “Dependency and Economic Development”

(c) Ross Singleton, “The International Political Economy of Knowledge and Technology”

(d) Margaret Sharp, “Technology, Globalization, and Industrial Policy”

4.2 Science and Technology Policies of National Development


(a) Francisco Sagasti, “Underdevelopment ,Science, and Technology (b) Normal Clark, “Science, Technology, and Development”

(c) Roger Posadas, “Framework for Science and Technology Policies” (d) Francisco Sagasti, “Technology Policies”

4.3 National Development Issues in the Selection and Acquisition of Technologies


(a) Nawaz Sharif, “Technology Transfer and Appropriate Technologies” (b) David Dickson, “Intermediate Technology and the Third World” (c) Tom Hewitt and David Wield, “Technology and Industrialization” (d) Alvin Toffler, “Gandhi With Satellite” and “The Fast and the Slow”

4.4 The National Innovation Systems of Three Advanced Industrialized Countries: the U.S.A., Japan, and Germany”


(a) David Mowery and Nathan Rosenberg, “The U.S. National Innovation System” (b) Hiroyuki Odagiri and Akira Goto, “The Japanese System of Innovation” (c) Otto Keck, “The National System for Technical Innovation in Germany” (d) Lester Thurow, “Head to Head: A New Economic Game”

4.5 The National Innovation Systems of Two East Asian NICs: South Korea and Taiwan.


(a) G.N. von Tunzelmann, “The Newly Industrializing Countries”

(b) Michael Hobday, “Innovation in the Republic of Korea: Catching up in Large Corporations”

(c) Chi-Ming Hou and San Gee, “The National Innovation System of Taiwan”

4.6 The National Science and Technology Systems and Strategies of ASEAN Countries


(a) Poh-Kam Wong, “Singapore’s Technology Strategy”

(b) Hamzah Kassim, “Building a Workable S&T Infrastructure in Malaysia” (c) Chatri Sripaipan, “Technology Upgrading in Thailand: A Strategic Perspective” (d) Dipo Alam, “Building a Strong S&T System in Indonesia”

4.7 Science and Technology in the Philippines: Present Conditions and Future Options


(a) Celso Roque and Roger Posadas, “Philippine Technological Dependence and Backwardness”


(c) Roger Posadas, “Technological Leapfrogging as a Strategic Option for the Philippines”

(d) William Padolina, “Preparing the Ground for Sustainable Development in Science and Technology”

(e) Henry J. Ramos, “Philippine Science and Technology vis-à-vis the NICs and HDCs”

---DEADLINE FOR THE SUBMISSION OF GROUP TERM PAPER: First hour of the last class meeting.

“Any form of cheating in examinations or any act of dishonesty in relation to studies, such as plagiarism, shall be subject to disciplinary action.”


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