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(1)REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. 1|Page. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com.

(2) UPCAT Review – English Review 1 Downloadable e-Book TM. Copyright © 2011 Review Masters . REVIEW MASTERS, upcatreview.com, Online UPCAT Review and other related indicia are trademarks of KB Tutorial and Consulting Corp. All rights reserved worldwide This book cannot be redistributed without permission from KB Tutorial and Consulting Corp. More info at: http://www.upcatreview.com. For INFO and UPDATES, check out upcatreview.com, the official website of Review Masters and the Online UPCAT Review® Keep updated about UPCAT materials, reviewers, tips and news TM Copyright © 2011 Review Masters - http://www.upcatreview.com.

(3) PREFACE Believe That You Can Pass the UPCAT! by Leopold Laset. Do you sometimes find it hard to believe that your dream to pass the UPCAT can become a reality? If so, then there is something very important that you need to know. UPCAT is for dreamers like you. Every student who passed the UPCAT began thinking or dreaming of passing the UPCAT. Your near-perfect or perfect score in a quarterly test, your cellphone, PSP, or any gadget, your out-of-town (or out-ofcountry) vacation, your new pair of shoes, and any other stuff that you desired and now possess - are all the result of your ‘dream come true’. What this means is that throughout your lifetime, you have had an idea, you have desired for many things and worked hard for them, overcome problems and ultimately transformed your dream into reality. And if hundreds and thousands of students have been able to pass the UPCAT in the past, by starting with a dream, then it stands to reason, that you can do it too. Often we make the mistake of thinking that UPCAT is for a small number of bright students who have the brains and intelligence that we don’t possess. But this is simply not true. The fact that thousands of average students have brought their dreams of passing the UPCAT to fruition in the past demonstrates that the opportunity to qualify in the UPCAT is something that is available to each UPCAT aspirant – average or bright. Right now, hundreds of UPCAT dreamers are taking the steps necessary to achieve the goals of passing the UPCAT. Some are studying this early, some are joining community of fellow dreamers, and some are attending review classes. What is it that you need to do? In order to achieve your goal of passing the UPCAT, the only things you really need are: (1) A crystal clear picture that you already passed the UPCAT (2) An unshakeable determination to do whatever it takes to make your dream of passing the UPCAT a reality As soon as you take these two steps, passing the UPCAT becomes achievable. If you need a help – you look for it. If you encounter a difficult concept – you find a way to understand it. If you can’t solve a math problem – you try and try and practice more. And gradually, step-by-step, you bring your UPCAT dream into reality to join the dreams of the thousands of UPCAT dreamers who have gone before you. So today I’d like to encourage you to believe in yourself and appreciate the fact that you live in a world where ‘dreams do come true’. Understand that thousands of students have made their UPCAT dream a reality in the past – Thousands more will make their UPCAT dream a reality in the near future and you CAN be one of them..

(4) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY CONTENTS . . . . VOCABULARY . Word Meanings and Synonyms. . Antonyms. . Idioms. VERBAL RELATIONSHIPS . Single-Word Approach. . Paired-Word Approach. GRAMMATICAL UNITS AND PROCESSES . Noun Phrase. . Verb Phrase. . Adjectives and Adverbs. . Prepositions. . Conjunctions. CONFUSING INSTANCES . Shifts in Person, Number and Tense. . Misplaced Modifiers. . Dangling Modifiers. TABLE OF CONTENTS. 2|Page. page. REVIEW TEST. ---------------------. 4. ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS. ---------------------. 15.

(5) PLEASE DETACH ALONG PERFORATION. REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. ANSWER SHEET – LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY Correct Filling. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. Incorrect Filling. Please use No. 2 Pencil. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. 3|Page. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B.

(6) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY REVIEW TEST. In each item from number 1 to 10, select the word or phrase which is similar in meaning to the italicized word in the phrase.. 1.. 2.. 3.. 4.. 5.. 6.. 7.. 8.. 9.. 10.. exemplary services of the journalists A. cautionary B. commendable. C.. prolific. D.. fraudulent. mosaic of ruined buildings A. display B.. architecture. C.. puzzle. D.. picture. hostilities in Iraq A. warfare. convergence. C.. divergence. D.. hostages. plethora of humanitarian aid A. shortage B.. excess. C.. flimsy. D.. devoid. dire humanitarian needs A. urgent B.. petty. C.. persistent. D.. earnest. specious military tactics A. logical B.. misleading. C.. spacious. D.. ingenious. think carefully to avoid qualms A. scruple B.. certainty. C.. mortification. D.. embarrassment. the palace speaks of profuse lifestyle A. lavish B. important. C.. deplete. D.. vigorous. sa manlulupig di ka pasisiil A. mapagsamantala B. mapagkalinga. C. D.. mapagtaksil mapagkupkop. C.. damdamin. D.. poot. alab ng puso A. pighati. 4|Page. B.. B.. sakit.

(7) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. In each item from number 11 to 20, choose the word or phrase which is opposite in meaning to the italicized word in the phrase.. 11.. 12.. 13.. 14.. 15.. 16.. 17.. 18.. 19.. 20.. benign acts of charity A. compassionate. B.. sympathy. C.. apathy. D.. antipathy. defiled by his opponents A. respected B.. tarnished. C.. maligned. D.. criticized. clandestine meeting A. open. secret. C.. romantic. D.. passionate. awakened by pandemonium of bombs A. uproar B. noise. C.. silence. D.. anger. intrepid suicide bombers A. bold B.. brave. C.. timorous. D.. arrogant. hail the peace lovers A. chide. B.. salute. C.. respect. D.. applaud. succinct speech A. vague. B.. extensive. C.. epigrammatic. D.. convincing. oppugns the decision of the court A. gratifies B. accepts. C.. respects. D.. questions. mayuming dalaga A. mahinhin. B.. maharot. C.. madaldal. D.. makyeme. tugatog ng tagumpay A. rurok. B.. katuparan. C.. ilalim. D.. nakalalasing. B.. In each of the items from number 21 to 25, select the idiom that best fits the sentence from the choices under each sentence.. 21.. 22.. The terrorists were not _____ the crimes they committed. A. absolve in B. absolve of C. absolve from. D.. absolve about. The cashier _____ me ___ the groceries I bought. A. charged/with B. charged/for C.. D.. charged/from. 5|Page. charged/of.

(8) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011 23.. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. It is difficult to _____ people of different beliefs. A. contend for B. contend at. C.. contend with. D.. contend over. 24.. Justice Undersecretary Merciditas Gutierrez _____ the truthfulness of Gracia Burnham’s statement that she heard Abu Sabaya talking to President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo using a satellite phone. A. inquired of B. inquired about C. inquired from D. inquired into. 25.. You will get up to 57 percent discount if you _____ Newsweek than buy it from the newsstand. A. subscribe to B. subscribe for C. subscribe of D. subscribe by. In Numbers 26 to 30, each item is composed of three words. The first pair of words shows a verbal analogy. Select the fourth word from the options provided following the same verbal analogy as the original pair of words.. 26.. 27.. 28.. 29.. 30.. Able : Disabled : : Arrange : _____ A. Rearrange B. Anarrange. C.. Disarrange. D.. Unarrange. Gills: Fish : : Lungs : _____ A. Arteries B.. Blood. C.. Veins. D.. Man. Brother : Sister : : Warlock : _____ A. Widow B. Witch. C.. Warlady. D.. Widower. Mahabharata: India : : Iliad : _____ A. Rome B. Greece. C.. Troy. D.. Russia. Thread : Cloth : : Wire : _____ A. Current B.. C.. Cage. D.. Metal. Mesh. In Numbers 31 to 35, each pair of words exhibits a form of association. Under each pair are two sets of words. Select the pair of words that shows the same relation as the original pair of words.. 31.. 32.. Egypt: Desert: : __________ A. Philippines: Tropics B. Alaska: Snow. C. D.. Cactus: Desert Philippines: Islands. Car: Garage: : __________ A. Dog: Cage B. Bird: Cage. C. D.. Airplane: Ramp Airplane: Hangar. 6|Page.

(9) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011 33.. 34.. 35.. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. Kid: Goat: : __________ A. Pony: Horse B. Colt: Horse. C. D.. Lion: Lioness Ponytail: Pigtail. Water: H2O: : __________ A. Carbon Dioxide: CO B. Gold: Au. C. D.. Liquid: Li Centimeter: Cm. Sum: Addition: : __________ A. Quotient: Division B. Minuend: Subtrahend. C. D.. Plus: Minus Positive: Negative. In Numbers 36 to 40, choose the determiner or predeterminer that best fits in the sentence.. 36.. Easy glider, _____ anaconda can cruise like a submarine and, with its eyes and nostrils strategically positioned atop its small, flat head, peer above water like a periscope. A. the B. an. 37.. _____ peso you pay for in a National Geographic, goes to the research project on wildlife, like the research on anacondas. A. Every B. Each. 38.. _____ estimates suggest that there is nearly 200 billion barrels, roughly as much as the proven reserves of Iran and Iraq combined. A. Every B. Some. 39.. _____ of the Caspian’s sturgeon are being decimated by poaching and pollution. A. Many B. All. 40.. _____ fishermen set about half a mile from shore, pulled their nets with sturgeons for caviar to sell in the black market. A. These B. Those Adopted from. Cullen, Robert. “The Rise and Fall of the Caspian Sea” National Geographic. Vol. 195, No. 5 (May 1999) Rivas, Jesus. “Tracking the Anaconda” National Geographic.Vol. 195, No. 1 (January 1999).. In Numbers 41 to 45, choose the correct noun derivation from the options.. 41.. In choosing music for your wedding ceremony, your first _____ is to keep it true to the purpose of the liturgy or service being said. A. responsibility B. responsible. 7|Page.

(10) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. 42.. Many churches are quite strict about the _____and religiosity of the music played during the ceremony. A. sacredly B. sacredness. 43.. The list was compiled through the _____ of the parish priest. A. kind B. kindness. 44.. This list has been arranged to accommodate a purely instrumental music selection, a selection just for voices, or a combination of the two programs, by which you may choose to have _____ and singers perform your ceremony music. A. musician B. musical. 45.. For general purposes, we shall assume that the music alluded to shall be applicable to _____ weddings. A. Philippine B. Filipino Adopted from: Neri, Rita M. “Music” The Essential Wedding Workbook for the Filipina. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc. , 1998. In Numbers 46 to 50, choose the correct noun derivation from the options.. 46.. The women’s choir competition gave a special prize to the most outstanding _____ performer. A. alto B. countertenor. 47.. Filipina _____ looks charming in their Filipiniana costumes. A. stewardess B. steward. 48.. The _____ of the story is portrayed by Angel Locsin. A. hero B.. heroine. In the show “Mel and Joey,” Joey (de Leon) is the _____. A. anchorwoman B.. anchorman. My luggage were taken by a _____ at the port. A. chambermaid. stevedore. 49.. 50.. B.. In Numbers 51 to 55, complete each of the following sentences accurately by choosing the correct noun plural.. 51.. 52.. That accounting firm employs two _____ for five CPAs. A. secretaries B.. secretarys. Both my _____ agreed to the settlement. A. sister-in-laws. sisters-in-law. 8|Page. B..

(11) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011 53.. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. Two major _____ will participate in arms negotiation. A. countries B.. country. 54.. Nearly all _____ demand observance of the standard punctuation. A. editor in chiefs B. editors in chief. 55.. The office is unusually quiets on _____. A. Sundays. B.. Sunday’s. In Numbers 56 to 60, for each sentence, choose the correct pronoun from the options.. 56.. Jashmid wore a thin sport shirt, Reebok warm-up pants, and shower clogs when I visited _____, unannounced. A. he B. him. 57.. Jamshid shares his room with two other people. _____ sleep on iron cots with creaking springs. A. Them B. They. 58.. In the Soviet era students bore _____ responsibility for their futures. A. few B. little. 59.. The state determined _____ to send to evict in Baku. A. whom B.. 60.. who. Jamshid _____ perseverance is unwavering, has a bright future ahead of him. A. which B. whose Adopted from Cullen, Robert. “The Rise and Fall of the Caspian Sea” National Geographic.Vol. 195, No. 5 (May 1999). In Numbers 61 to 65, for each sentence, choose the correct pronoun from the options.. 61.. Apparently, one of the female applicants forgot to sign _____ application. A. her B. their. 62.. Everyone has completed the reports except Marc and _____. A. he B. him. 63.. Lack of work disturbs Roy as much as _____. A. I. 64.. B.. me. A number of inquiries were addressed to Vicky and _____. A. myself B. me. 9|Page.

(12) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011 65.. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. On her return from Australia, Ms. Aquino, along with many other passengers, had to open _____ luggage for inspection. A. her B. their. In Numbers 66 to 70, for each sentence, choose the correct verb from the options.. 66.. Yesterday, Ms. Co _____ a new dress for the awards night. A. choose B. chose. 67.. Across from our school _____ the food stalls. A. is. B.. are. 68.. Neither the faculty nor the students _____ rehearsing for the Intramurals. A. has been B. have been. 69.. Have you _____ to your parents about the trip to Boracay? A. spoke B. spoken. 70.. Anton _____ his new bicycle. A. lost. B.. losed. In Number 71, choose the one that illustrates consistency in use of subject, voice, and mood. Choose either A or B.. 71.. A. B.. She was an enthusiastic teacher who always had a smile for everyone. She was an enthusiastic teacher who always has a smile for everyone.. In Numbers 72 to 74, for each sentence, choose the correct adjective or adverb from the options.. 72.. 73.. 74.. Darren completed the employment test _____. A. satisfactorily. B.. satisfactory. New owners will receive a _____ trial period. A. 60-day. B.. 60 day. You must check the document _____. A. page by page. B.. page-by-page. 10 | P a g e.

(13) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. In Numbers 75 to 77, select the preposition that best fits the sentence from the choices under each sentence.. 75.. Masked for protection _____ stinging jellyfish, Philippine divers squirt illegal and deadly cyanide to stun and net the fish. A. toward B. for C. with D. against. 76.. The bus that leaves for Baguio leaves the station at _____ five o’clock in the morning. A. in B. on C. at D. about. 77.. Larger live specimens from the reefs began going to places ___ Hong Kong so fashionable diners could pick them out of a restaurant tank to eat, paying hundreds of dollars for the privilege. A. as B. toward C. like D. inside Adopted from Chadwick, Douglas H. “Coral in Peril” National Geographic. Vol 195 No. 1 (January 1999).. In Numbers 78 to 80, select the conjunction that best fits the sentence from the choices under each sentence.. 78.. Results of the study show that Filipinos are more aware of immediate problems that affect urban lives such as waste/garbage management (83%), air pollution (75%), floods (48%) and water pollution (37%). It _____ shows that environmental problems that are personally observed and experienced create the most impact on awareness. A. however B. further C. actually D. so. 79.. Respondents have very low systemic understanding of the cause and effect of environmental issues _____ possess a superficial grasp of problems makes matters worse. A. or B. but C. and D. while. 80.. The findings of this study are disconcerting. _____so many years of painstaking hard work and hard-nose advocacy, environmentalists are apparently still on the losing end in their battle to save the country’s vital resources. A. After B. During C. In the period D. Besides Adopted from “How much do Filipinos know about their environment?” Haring Ibon. 1st Quarter 2002.. In Numbers 81 to 90, choose the letter that corresponds to the word/phrase that makes the sentence inconsistent and confusing.. 81.. If you write a page in your diary everyday, you will discover that one learn from practice. A B C D. 82.. He went into his room, closed the door, opened the window and goes to bed. A B C D. 83.. Inserting the letter in the envelope and seal it. A B C D. 11 | P a g e.

(14) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. 84.. When you pass the UPCAT, one should be proud. A B C D. 85.. We blocked the road, stopped the vehicles and had the traffic will be rerouted. A B C D. 86.. The hallways are deserted, the parking lot is isolated, and the canteen abandon. A B C D. 87.. They are sincere when you fulfill your promise. A B C D. 88.. The experimental apparatus was set up and the laboratory assistant cleans up after the experiment was completed. A B C D. 89.. The mother wraps the baby in a towel before the baby took a bath. A B C D. 90.. First, splice the wire. Next, the soldering iron should be taken. A B C D. In Numbers 91 to 100, each number has an ungrammatical sentence. Below it are sentences related to the original sentence. Choose the letter that would correspond to the best and clearest sentence from the options.. 91.. Driving across Metro Manila, our gas ran out. A. we ran out of gas. B. our gas ran.. C. D.. our gas went running. we ran with the gas.. 92.. Enclosed are your contracts on Charice concert in triplicate. A. Enclosed are your Charice concert triplicate contracts. B. Your contracts enclosed are Charice concert triplicate. C. Your triplicate contracts of the Charice concert are enclosed. D. Charice concert triplicate contracts are enclosed for you.. 93.. The president’s Independence Day speech will be followed by the firing squad. A. After the president’s Independence Day speech, the firing squad will follow. B. The firing squad will follow the president’s Independence Day speech. C. The president’s firing squad will follow the Independence Day speech. D. Following the president’s Independence Day speech is the firing squad.. 94.. Next Monday, we will see a program about mothers who gave birth to babies who are alcoholic. A. Next Monday, we will see a program about mothers who gave birth to alcoholic babies. B. Next Monday, we will see a program on alcoholic mothers who gave birth. C. Next Monday, we will see an alcoholic program about mothers who gave birth to babies. D. Next Monday, we will see a program on alcoholic mothers and babies.. 95.. Your letter regarding your order of 10 trucks arrived by airmail this morning. A. Your morning letter regarding your order of 10 trucks arrived by airmail. B. Your airmail letter regarding your order of 10 trucks arrived this morning. C. This morning, your airmail letter regarding your order of 10 trucks arrived. D. Ten trucks arrived this morning by airmail with your letter.. 12 | P a g e.

(15) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011 96.. When only one year old, this customer’s mother died. A. This customer’s mother died when they were only one year old. B. This customer’s mother died at one year old only. C. This mother died when the customer was only one year old. D. The customer was one year old when his/her mother died.. 97.. Wearing an orange dress, the prayers were offered by the monk. A. Wearing a dress, the orange monk offered prayers. B. Wearing an orange dress, the monk offered prayers. C. The monk who was wearing an orange dress offered a prayer. D. The prayers were offered by the orange monk who was dressed.. 98.. The mother took the gift and gave it to the child from the bag. A. and gave the bag to the child. B. from the bag and gave it to the child. C. and gave it to the child from the bag. D. and gives the bag to the child.. 99.. Mr. Macapagal ate sugpo for dinner after returning from the trip. A. Mr. Macapagal ate sugpo from the trip. B. Mr. Macapagal who returned from a trip, ate sugpo for dinner. C. Mr. Macapagal ate sugpo for dinner returning from the trip. D. After eating sugpo, he returned from the trip.. 100.. When you take the exam, he/she should expect the worst. A. When you take the exam, expect the worst. B. When you take the exam, you should expect the worst. C. Expect the worst exam. D. Expect your worst exam.. 13 | P a g e. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com.

(16) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. Answers and Explanations. 14 | P a g e. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com.

(17) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. A synonym is a word having the same meaning as another word. The following are words that appear frequently in academic aptitude tests for colleges and universities: abated - lessened accentuated - emphasized adverse - unfavorable affectation - artificiality amok - loss of control of oneself arduous - difficult arraigned – accused avalanche – massive descent banal – commonplace burgeon – sprout coalition - alliance colloquial – informal coma – state of deep consciousness consensus – agreement constrained – compelled credible – trustworthy cupidity –greed daunt – frighten debonair – good-natured delectable – savory deleterious – harmful desist – stop devoid – lacking dire – urgent discordant – clashing dogface - soldier dovetail – fit together ecstasy – rapture elucidate – explain emblem – symbol escapade – adventure exemplary – commendable exorbitant – excessive exterminate – abolish falter – stumble feign – pretend fickle – changeable forlorn – forsaken gala –festive occasion. gamut – range genre – kind glib – fluent haven –refuge hegemony – political dominion homage – tribute hostilities - warfare icon – image ignominy – disgrace immutable – unchangeable impartial – fair insomnia – sleeplessness intimacy – familiarity irascible – cranky jargon – unintelligible language jibe – agree jostle – force by pushing junta – military rule juxtaposed – adjacent keen – sharp knack – gift kudo - compliment lampoon - satire languish – become weak latent – dormant lethargic – sluggish liberation – freedom loathe - hate lucidity – clearness malodorous – stinking maze – confusion melodramatic – sensational merger – combination monotonously – tiresomely mosaic – design naïve – artless nemesis - opponent obfuscate – darken occult – mysterious omnipotent – almighty. outrage - anger ooze – flow paradigm – example paragon – model partial – biased pathetic – pitiful perpetrate – commit plaintiff – complainant plethora - excess potent – powerful profuse – lavish prowess – bravery puerile – childish qualm – scruple quench – extinguish quibble – evade ramble – wander replete –filled rescinded – repealed resolutely - determinedly sagacious – discerning salient – prominent scathing – severe stalwart – mighty sweltered – perspired taboo – banned tacky – shabby testimony – affirmation turbulent – stormy ubiquitous – everywhere underpin – support ungainly – clumsy warp – twist wrath – rage whim – caprice valiant – heroic vanguard – forefront vitality – vigor vitiate - impair. In each item from number 1 to 10, select the word or phrase which is similar in meaning to the italicized word in the phrase.. 1.. exemplary services of the journalists. Answer:. B.. commendable. 2.. mosaic of ruined buildings. Answer:. B.. architecture. 3.. hostilities in Iraq. Answer:. A.. warfare. 4.. plethora of humanitarian aid. Answer:. B.. excess. 5.. dire humanitarian needs. Answer:. A.. urgent. 15 | P a g e.

(18) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. 6.. specious military tactics. Answer:. B.. misleading. 7.. think carefully to avoid qualms. Answer:. A.. scruple. 8.. the palace speaks of profuse lifestyle. Answer:. A.. lavish. 9.. sa manlulupig di ka pasisiil. Answer:. A.. mapagsamantala. 10.. alab ng puso. Answer:. C.. damdamin. An antonym is a word which means the opposite of another. Some of the common antonyms that are used in academic tests for colleges and universities are the following:. abate – alienate accede – antagonize acclaim – admonish accommodate – contradict allies - associates allay – incense altruistic - selfish ameliorate – fend off amenable – intransigent appease – embitter applaud – assail assuage – estrange benign – antipathy bitterness clandestine – open commend – berate comply – incense concede – infuriate conciliate – nettle concurring - contradict conscientious - careless. decorous – irascible defile - respect demagogues – truthful assertions eulogize – calumniate exacerbate - enhance exalt – castigate exodus - immigration extol – censure extricate - entrap flatter – chastise gratify – oppugn hail –chide illustrious - typical imperious – unostentatious infamous - insignificant intensify – destabilize imminent – implausible laud – decry lugubrious – ebullient lurk - hide maim – heal. meticulous – perfunctory mitigate – oppose mollify – rebuff munificent – penurious pacify – repel palliate – repulse panegyrize – denigrate pandemonium - silence pinnacle - abyss placate – snub plethoric – impecunious prolific - unproductive resound – denounce righteous – unethical succinct - extensive tenacious – irresolute timorous- intrepid thwart – confirm tout – disparage tyrannical – democratic vitiate - strength. In each item from number 11 to 20, choose the word or phrase which is opposite in meaning to the italicized word in the phrase.. 11.. benign acts of charity. Answer:. D.. antipathy. 12.. defiled by his opponents. Answer:. A.. respected. 13.. clandestine meeting. Answer:. A.. open. 14.. awakened by pandemonium of bombs. Answer:. C.. silence. 15.. intrepid suicide bombers. Answer:. C.. timorous. 16 | P a g e.

(19) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. 16.. hail the peace lovers. Answer:. A.. chide. 17.. succinct speech. Answer:. B.. extensive. 18.. oppugns the decision of the court. Answer:. B.. accepts. 19.. mayuming dalaga. Answer:. B.. maharot. 20.. tugatog ng tagumpay. Answer:. C.. ilalim. An idiom is a particular combination of words, the combination having its own meaning often unpredictable from individual meanings of its components. Always consult a dictionary to check on the current use of idioms.. Ability to (infinitive) Absolve from (a sin) According to Accords with Accused of (an action/a crime) Accused by (a person) Acquiesce in (a decision) Acquit of (a crime) Agree with (a person) Agree to (a suggestion/a proposal) Agree in (a principle or opinion) Agree on (a plan) Angry with Argue with Argue against (a bill) Argue with (a person) Avail oneself of Beg off Capable of Charge for (a purchase) Charge with (a crime) Compare to (something in a different class) Compare with (something in the same class) Concur with (a person) Concur in (an opinion) Contend with (a person) Contend for (a principle) Cope with Differ with (a person) Differ from (in appearance) Differ about or over (a question) Fascinated by Fascinated to (infinitive) Fascination for Follow in the footsteps Get off In a year Identical with Independent of. 17 | P a g e. In spite of Inquire of (a person) Inquire into (a matter) Inseparable from In the morning Impatient for (a raise) Impatient with (a person) Infer from Inferior to Jealous of Listen to Mastery of Oblivious to Occupied with (a thing) Occupied by (a person) Occupied in (study) Part from (a person) Part with (a thing) Pick up Preferable to Prior to Reconcile with (capital with labor) Reconciled to (affliction) Register in Remind (someone) of (something) Responsible for Result in Rewarded by (the judge) Rewarded for (something done) Rewarded with (a gift) Subscribe to (a statement) Subscribe for (a journal) Supportive of Superior to Transfer to Wait at (a place) Wait for (a person/a train) Wait on (customer).

(20) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2010. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. In each of the items from number 21 to 25, select the idiom that best fits the sentence from the choices under each sentence.. 21.. The terrorists were not _____ the crimes they committed.. Answer:. C.. absolve from. 22.. The cashier _____ me ___ the groceries I bought.. Answer:. B.. charged/for. 23.. It is difficult to _____ people of different beliefs.. Answer:. C.. contend with. 24.. Justice Undersecretary Merciditas Gutierrez _____ the truthfulness of Gracia Burnham’s statement that she heard Abu Sabaya talking to President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo using a satellite phone. Answer: D. inquired into. 25.. You will get up to 57 percent discount if you _____ Newsweek than buy it from the newsstand. Answer: B. subscribe for. VERBAL RELATIONSHIPS establish similar parallel relationships in different pair of words. Sometimes called verbal analogy, these may come in a single-word approach or a paired-word approach. In a single-word approach, a pair of words is given, followed by a third word. The fourth word is selected between/among choices, based on how the first pair of word is related to each other. In a paired-word approach, each item is given a pair of words related to each other. Following it are choices of pair of words. The pair of words is then selected which relates most closely to the same manner as the original pair of words. Commonly Used Relationships 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.. Synonym – Miserable: Poignant (Miserable means the same as poignant.) Antonym - Miserable: Joyful (Joyful is the opposite of miserable.) Classification or characterization – Apple: Fruit (Apple is a type of a fruit.) Part-whole or specific-general – Keyboard: Computer (A keyboard is part of a computer.) Sequence – Larva: Butterfly (A cocoon transforms into a butterfly.) Cause and effect – Deforestation: Flood (Flood is caused by deforestation.) Complement – Cup: Saucer (A cup usually goes with a saucer.) Function-purpose – Harrow: Plow (A harrow is used for plowing the farm.) Composition – Glass: Silica (A glass is made of silica.) Degree of difference – Crush: Love (Crush is simple admiration while love is great admiration.) Intensity, quantity, amount – Drizzle: Typhoon (A drizzle is a light rain; a typhoon is a downpour.) Measure - Liter: Liquid (Liter is a measure of liquids.) Shape, color, smell, taste – Hulahoop : Circle (A hulahoop is a circle.) Position or location – Lipa City : Batangas (Lipa City is located in Batangas.) Grammatical or verbal – Sit : Sat (Sat is the past tense of sit.) Defining characteristic – Candy : Sugar(A candy’s main ingredient is sugar.) Worker and article created - Seamstress : Clothes (A seamstress sews clothes.) Worker and workplace – Nurse : Hospital (A nurse works in a hospital.) Tool and its action – Scissors : Cut (A scissors is used to cut paper.) Tool and object it acts upon – Pen : Paper (A pen writes on paper.) Age – Cub : Bear (A cub is a young bear.) Gender – Doe : Stag (A doe is a female deer; a stag is a male deer.). 18 | P a g e.

(21) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. In Numbers 26 to 30, each item is composed of three words. The first pair of words shows a verbal analogy. Select the fourth word from the options provided following the same verbal analogy as the original pair of words.. 26.. Able : Disabled : : Arrange : _____. Answer:. C.. Disarrange. 27.. Gills: Fish : : Lungs : _____. Answer:. D.. Man. 28.. Brother : Sister : : Warlock : _____. Answer:. B.. Witch. 29.. Mahabharata: India : : Iliad : _____. Answer:. B.. Greece. 30.. Thread : Cloth : : Wire : _____. Answer:. B.. Mesh. In Numbers 31 to 35, each pair of words exhibits a form of association. Under each pair are two sets of words. Select the pair of words that shows the same relation as the original pair of words.. 31.. Egypt: Desert: : __________. Answer:. D.. Philippines: Islands. 32.. Car: Garage: : __________. Answer:. D.. Airplane: Hangar. 33.. Kid: Goat: : __________. Answer:. B.. Colt: Horse. 34.. Water: H2O: : __________. Answer:. B.. Gold: Au. 35.. Sum: Addition: : __________. Answer:. A.. Quotient: Division. DETERMINERS are positioned before nouns. They words which indicate the degree of certainty by the speaker of the actual identity of the nouns which these modify, or the position of the nouns relative to the speaker of the text, or their quantity. Types of Determiners 1. Article a. Indefinite: a/an with singular noun (depends on the initial sound, not the spelling of the word) b. Nondefinite: some with singular noun c. Definite: the 2. Demonstrative a. Near: this, these b. Far: that. Those 3. Quantifiers a. Any, each, every, either, neither: with singular noun b. All, some, both, few, many, more: with a plural noun c. Negative: no, with singular noun d. Possessive (See section on Case). 19 | P a g e.

(22) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. PREDETERMINERS are phrases which occur before the determiner in a noun phrase with a plural noun. Some predeterminers have articles (a few of, a little of) while some do not (some of, many of). Do not confuse the predeterminer with nouns. The verb agrees in number with the noun, not with the predeterminer. In Numbers 36 to 40, choose the determiner or predeterminer that best fits in the sentence.. 36.. Easy glider, _____ anaconda can cruise like a submarine and, with its eyes and nostrils strategically positioned atop its small, flat head, peer above water like a periscope. Answer: A. the. 37.. _____ peso you pay for in a National Geographic, goes to the research project on wildlife, like the research on anacondas. Answer: A. Every. 38.. _____ estimates suggest that there is nearly 200 billion barrels, roughly as much as the proven reserves of Iran and Iraq combined. Answer: B. Some. 39.. _____ of the Caspian’s sturgeons are being decimated by poaching and pollution. Answer: A. Many. 40.. _____ fishermen set about half a mile from shore, pulled their nets with sturgeons for caviar to sell in the black market. Answer: A. These Adopted from. Cullen, Robert. “The Rise and Fall of the Caspian Sea” National Geographic. Vol. 195, No. 5 (May 1999) Rivas, Jesus. “Tracking the Anaconda” National Geographic.Vol. 195, No. 1 (January 1999).. NOUNS have been commonly defined as “names of persons, places, or things.” However, this is not a functional definition of a noun. The linguistic approach in defining a noun is to describe its forms, functions and possible positions in the basic or kernel sentence. Characteristics of a Noun 1. Occurs with a determiner before it Except proper nouns and some common nouns 2. Has singular and plural form Except noun-count (“uncountable” or “mass”) nouns, e.g., lightning, information Nouns used as modifiers (always singular), e.g., book in book lover 3. Has possessive form 4. May function as: a. Subject of a verb, e.g., The sun shines. b. Object of a transitive verb, e.g., I love you. c. Complement of a transitive verb, e.g., We call them achievers. d. Compliment of a linking verb, e.g. Health is wealth. e. Object of a preposition, e.g., Sunflower is Peru’s national flower. f. Nominative of address, e.g., Buyer’s, beware! g. Appositive, e.g., Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, the president, attended the SARS conference in Thailand.. 20 | P a g e.

(23) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. Categories of Nouns 1. 2. 2.. Proper nouns are specific names of persons, places or things and are always capitalized.. All others are common nouns, are set in lowercase letters and are categorized as: a. According to grammatical number i. Collective nouns, e.g., persons (staff, committee), animals (herd, school), things (cluster, bundle) ii. Count, e.g., box, package, truck, house, chair. These have plural forms. iii. Non-count or mass nouns, e.g., water, cloth, coffee, wheat, flour. These do not have plural forms. b. According to reference: i. Abstract nouns, e.g., imagination, fear, anger, love, honesty. These refer to concepts, emotions or are non-tangible. ii. Concrete nouns, e.g., thunder, earthquake, fragrance, sweetness. These refer to phenomena which can be experienced through the senses. DERIVATIONS 1.. 2.. 21 | P a g e. Adjective-Noun Derivation (Adjectives may be transformed into nouns with their respective derivational suffix.) a. “-age” short > shortage (vs. shortness) b. “-ation” excite > excitation (vs. excitement) c. “-dom” sometimes with stem change wise > wisdom d. “-ice” coward > cowardice e. “-ion” “tion” cautious > caution perfect > perfection f. “-is” sometimes with stem change analyze > analysis g. “-ment” excite > excitement h. “-ness” (the most common) polite > politeness selfish > selfishness sensitive > sensitiveness (vs. sensitivity) sharp > sharpness short > shortness (vs. shortage) i. “-ry” brave > bravery j. “-th” sometimes with stem change deep > depth not deepness long > length strong > strength k. “-y” “-ty” “-ity” sometimes with stem change brief > brevity (vs. briefness) cruel > cruelty modest > modesty scarce > scarcity sensitive > sensitivity (vs. sensitiveness) vacant > vacancy Verb-Noun Derivation (Verbs may be transformed into nouns with their respective derivational suffix.) a. “-age” marry > marriage lug > luggage b. “-al” approve > approval c. “-ience” obey > obedience d. “-ion” (sometimes with stem change – the most common) deduct > deduction destroy > destruction expel > expulsion tempt > temptation e. change in vowel and consonant.

(24) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. One type of verb-noun derivation is that which generates the nominal agentive form of the verbs, denoting the doer of the action. This derivation has several forms according to the verb involved. Learn the different forms and their respective verbs, and use accordingly. a. “-art” “-ard” brag > braggart drink > drinker, drunkard b. “-ent” (sometimes with stem change) study > student c. “-er” “-or” (the most common) teach > teacher translate > translator sell > seller (vs. salesman) d. “-ist” type > typist e. “-man” sell > salesman (vs. seller) f. no change cook > cook NOUN TRANSFORMATION 1.. Concrete-Abstract (Concrete nouns may be transformed into abstract nouns with their respective inflectional suffix.) a. “-hood” man > manhood b. “-ship” friend > friendship. 2.. Nominal Agentives (Nominal agentives may also be formed from nouns to denote the practitioner in the discipline, or user of the object. Those vary in form, and have their respective noun sets.) a. “-ian” statistics > statistician b. “-ist” guitar > guitarist. 3.. 22 | P a g e. Nationalities (Names of people derived from their respective place of origin, nationality or citizenship have varied forms). Some of these idiomatic forms are: Cities: Cairo > Cairene Cebu > Cebuano Davao > Davaoeño Frankfurt > Hamburger Madrid > Madrileño Manila > Manileño Moscow > Moscovite New York > New Yorker Paris > Parisian Vienna > Viennese Provinces: Batangas > Batangueño Ilocos > Ilocano Bicol > Bicolano Iloilo > Ilongo Zamboanga > Zamboangeño Countries or Region: Bangladesh > Bengali Belgium > Belgian Catalonia > Catalan Cyprus > Cypriot Egypt > Egyptian Finland > Finn Holland/Netherlands > Dutch Israel > Israeli (Israelite refers to the Hebrew people descended from Jacob) Iraq > Iraqi Kuwait > Kuwaiti Malta > Maltese Norway > Norwegian Peru > Peruvian Poland > Pole, Polish Portugal > Portugese Slovakia > Slovak Spain > Spaniard, Spanish Sweden > Swede Switzerland > Swede Switzerland > Swiss Thailand > Thai not Thailander The Philippines > Filipino The United States > American Turkey > Turk Uzbekistan > Uzbek Wales > Welsh.

(25) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. In Numbers 41 to 45, choose the correct noun derivation from the options.. 41.. In choosing music for your wedding ceremony, your first _____ is to keep it true to the purpose of the liturgy or service being said. Answer: A. responsibility. 42.. Many churches are quite strict about the _____and religiosity of the music played during the ceremony. Answer: B. sacredness. 43.. The list was compiled through the _____ of the parish priest. Answer:. B.. kindness. 44.. This list has been arranged to accommodate a purely instrumental music selection, a selection just for voices, or a combination of the two programs, by which you may choose to have _____ and singers perform your ceremony music. Answer: A. musicians. 45.. For general purposes, we shall assume that the music alluded to shall be applicable to _____ weddings. Answer: B. Filipino Adopted from: Neri, Rita M. “Music” The Essential Wedding Workbook for the Filipina. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc. , 1998. GENDER in English grammar refers to the biological sex of the noun’s reference, thus, masculine and feminine for animate nouns (god, goddess), neuter or inanimate nouns (universe). It affects the choice of pronoun, since pronouns have to agree in number and gender with their noun antecedent, yet allowing for metaphorical use of the feminine or masculine forms for the personified inanimate nouns, such as she for Earth. The basic form of the animate noun is usually masculine; while the feminine form is constructed according to the noun’s idiosyncrasy. The feminine form of nouns is generally constructed by adding “-ess”: Baron > baroness Count > countess Heir > heiress Host > hostess Priest > priestess Prince > princess Villain > villainess. Giant > giantess Lion > lioness Steward > stewardess. Some get their masculine or agentive suffix “-or/-er” replaced by “-ress” Actor > actress Conductor > conductress Instructor > instructress Janitor > janitress Sculptor > sculptress Waiter > waitress. Director > directress Murderer > murderess. Some apparent feminine derivations might not actually be used as the feminine counterpart of the masculine form: Governor (male or head of a province) > governess (hired female household administrator) Master > mistress. 23 | P a g e.

(26) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011 Some undergo slight change: Duke > duchess. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com Emperor > empress. Some masculine-feminine pairs of nouns are idiomatic: Anchorman > anchorwoman Best man > maid-of-honor (bride) groom > bride brother > sister countertenor > alto/contralto cowboy > gowgirl dog > bitch father > mother gentleman > lady headmaster > headmistress homosexual > lesbian (homosexual is also generic) king > queen laundryman > laundrywoman male > female man > woman nephew > niece primer danseur > prima ballerina son > daughter uncle > aunt widower > widow. Boy > girl bull > cow czar > czarina gander > goose hero > heroine husband > wife leading man > leading lady merman > mermaid salesman > saleslady warlock > witch. Some apparently masculine forms are being transformed into gender-neutral ones, mostly in response to criticism about “sexism” in language. Chairman > chairperson Policeman > police officer Salesman > salesperson (salesclerk is specific to one who sells in a store) More commonly, however some of these masculine forms are being used in the generc sense, or a popular feminine derivation is used: Policeman > policewoman Certain occupations are usually generic-specific; thus, the titles for such do not have other-gender counterparts: Bellboy Chambermaid Chef Messenger Stevedore Some are readily associated with a particular sex such that the other-gender forms need modifying words: Doctor/physician > lady doctor/physician Nurse > male nurse Alto > male alto or countertenor Soprano > boy soprano Use feminine forms that already listed in current dictionaries or used in current international newsmagazines and academic journal. If you really need a feminine noun yet none is listed, you could the contruction “lady + N.” Ambasaddor > lady ambassador In Numbers 46 to 50, choose the correct gender from the options.. 46.. The women’s choir competition gave a special prize to the most outstanding _____ performer. Answer: A. alto. 47.. Filipina _____ looks charming in their Filipiniana costumes. Answer: The _____ of the story is portrayed by Angel Locsin. Answer:. 48.. 24 | P a g e. A.. stewardess. B.. heroine.

(27) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011 49.. 50.. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. In the show “Mel and Joey,” Joey (de Leon) is the _____. Answer:. B.. anchorman. B.. stevedore. My luggage were taken by a _____ at the port. Answer:. GUIDELINES FOR FORMING NOUN PLURALS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.. Add s to most nouns (chair, chairs; mortage, mortages; Monday, Mondays) Add es to nouns ending in s, x, z, ch or sh (bench, benches; boss, bosses; box, boxes; Lopez, Lopezes) Change the spelling in irregular noun plurals (man, men; foot, feet; mouse, mice, child, children) Add s to nouns that end in y when y is preceeded by a vowel (attorney, attorneys; valley, valleys; journey, journeys) Drop the y and add ies to nouns ending in y when y is preceded by a consonant (company, companies; city, cities; secretary, secretaries) Add s to the principal word in most compound expressions (editors in chief, fathers-in-law, bills of lading, runnersup) Add s to most numerals, letters in the alphabet, words referred to as words, degrees, and abbreviations (5s, 1990s, ands, CPAs) Add ‘s only to clarify letters of the alphabet that might be misread, such as A’s, I’s, M’s, U’s and i’s, p’s and q’s. An expression like c.o.d.s requires no apostrophe because it would only be misread.. In Numbers 51 to 55, complete each of the following sentences accurately by choosing the correct noun plural.. 51.. 52.. 53.. That accounting firm employs two _____ for five CPAs. Answer:. A.. secretaries. Answer:. B.. sisters-in-law. Two major _____ will participate in arms negotiation. Answer:. A.. countries. Both my _____ agreed to the settlement.. 54.. Nearly all _____ demand observance of the standard punctuation. Answer: B. editors in chief. 55.. The office is unusually quiets on _____. Answer:. 25 | P a g e. A.. Sundays.

(28) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. PRONOUNS substitute for nouns. They are classified by function and case. Classification according to function and case 1. Personal (see grid below) Includes the nominative/subjective case, objective case, and the possessive case. 2. Relative (see grid below) 3. Demonstrative Indicates distance of the speaker towards the subject Singular Plural Near this these Far that those 4. Interrogative (see grid below) The interrogative pronouns are similar to the relative pronouns, but the interrogatives distinguish between eliciting and selecting. The word which as an interrogative has a different sense from the word which as a relative pronoun. 5. Indefinite ( see grid below) 6. Impersonal one The impersonal pronoun always allows you to refer to both genders at the same time. In most cases, one is a formal substitute for he/she, you, or we. 7. Distributive each, either, neither Distributive pronouns are always singular. 8. Reflexive (see grid below) 9. Reciprocal (each other, one another) The reciprocal indicates the action being done by the actor to the receiver and by the receiver to the actor.. Singular Ist person 2nd person 3rd person, M F N Plural Ist person 2nd person 3rd person. Nominative/Subjective Case (Used for subjects of verbs and subject complements) I You He She It We You They. Objective Case (Used for objects of prepositions and objects of verbs) Me You Him Her It. Possessive Case (Attributive and Predicative) (Used for possession) My, Mine Your, Yours His, His Her, Hers Its. Us Our, Ours You Your, Yours Them Their, Theirs Relative Case and Interrogative Case Whom Whose. Human. Who. Non-human. Which (That). Which (What). Which (What). Human and NonHuman. That. That. That. Indefinite Case Singular Simple form Compound form Plural Singular or plural. 26 | P a g e. One, Little, Much (Some, any, no, every + -one, -body, -thing) every, another, none Both, many, few, several, others All, most, some. Reflexive Case Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself Ourselves Yourselves Themselves. (Interrogative case only).

(29) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. In Numbers 56 to 60, for each sentence, choose the correct pronoun from the options.. 56.. Jashmid wore a thin sport shirt, Reebok warm-up pants, and shower clogs when I visited _____, unannounced. Answer: B. him. 57.. Jamshid shares his room with two other people. _____ sleep on iron cots with creaking springs. Answer: B. They. 58.. In the Soviet era students bore _____ responsibility for their futures. Answer: B.. little. The state determined _____ to send to evict in Baku. Answer:. who. 59.. 60.. B.. Jamshid _____ perseverance is unwavering, has a bright future ahead of him. Answer: B. whose Adopted from Cullen, Robert. “The Rise and Fall of the Caspian Sea” National Geographic.Vol. 195, No. 5 (May 1999). In Numbers 61 to 65, for each sentence, choose the correct pronoun from the options.. 61.. 62.. 63.. 64.. 65.. Apparently, one of the female applicants forgot to sign _____ application. Answer: A.. her. Everyone has completed the reports except Marc and _____. Answer:. B.. him. Answer:. B.. me. A number of inquiries were addressed to Vicky and _____. Answer:. B.. me. Lack of work disturbs Roy as much as _____.. On her return from Australia, Ms. Aquino, along with many other passengers, had to open _____ luggage for inspection. Answer: A. her. 27 | P a g e.

(30) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. Guidelines for Agreement with Subjects 1.. A singular verb requires a singular verb: He does not work on a Saturday 2. A plural subject requires a plural verb: Our students write excellent essays. 3. A verb agrees with the it subject regardless of prepositional phrases that may intervene: The list of school requirements is extensive. (The verb is agrees with the subject list.) 4. A verb agrees with its subject regardless of intervening phrases introduced by as well as, in addition to, such as, including, together with, and similar expressions: The teacher as well as officers of the PTA approves of the proposal. (The verb approves agrees with the subject teacher.) 5. A verb agrees with the its subject regardless of the location of the subject: There are many problems yet to be solved. (The verb agrees with the subject problems. The adverb there cannot function as a subject.) 6. Subjects joined by and require a plural verb: The tone and wording of the letter were persuasive. (The plural verb were agrees with two subjects, tone and wording.) 7. Subjects joined by or or nor may require a singular or plural verbs. Make the verb agree with the closer subject: Neither the principal nor the teachers were in the conference hall. (The plural verb were agrees with the nearer subject teachers.) 8. The following indefinite pronouns are singular and require singular verbs: anyone, anybody, anything, each, every, everyone, everybody, everything, many, a, neither, nobody, nothing, someone, somebody, and something. Each of the objectives is achieved. (The verb is agrees with the singular subject each.) 9. Collective nouns may take singular or plural verbs, depending on whether the members of the group are operating as a unit or individually: Our team is united in its goal. The members of the team are having their lunch break. 10. Organization names, titles of publications, although they may appear to be plural, are singular and require singular verbs. Go and Associates has hired a new lawyer. In the Hands of My Enemies is a best seller.. Guidelines for Verb Tense. 1.. 2. 3.. 28 | P a g e. Use present tense for statements, that although they may be introduced by past-tense verbs, continue to be true: What did you say his name is? (Use the present tense is if the name has not changed.) Avoid unnecessary shift in verb tense. The manager saw (not sees) a great deal of work yet to be completed and remained to do it herself. Although unnecessary shifts in verb tense are to be avoided, not all verbs within the same sentence have to be in the same tense. She said that she wants to work late..

(31) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. In Numbers 66 to 70, for each sentence, choose the correct verb from the options.. 66.. 67.. Yesterday, Ms. Co _____ a new dress for the awards night. Answer:. B.. chose. B.. are. Across from our school _____ the food stalls. Answer:. 68.. Neither the faculty nor the students _____ rehearsing for the Intramurals. Answer: B. have been. 69.. Have you _____ to your parents about the trip to Boracay? Answer:. 70.. B.. spoken. A.. lost. Anton _____ his new bicycle. Answer:. Avoid inconsistent shifts in subject, voice and mood. Pay particular attention to this problem area, for undesirable shifts are often characteristic of student writers. Inconsistent: When Mrs. Aquino read the report, the error was found. (The first clause is in the active voice, the second in passive voice.) Improved: When Mrs. Aquino read the report, she found the error. (Both clauses are in the active voice.) Inconsistent: Begin the transaction by opening an account, then you enter the customer’s name. (This sentence contains inconsistent shift from the imperative mood to the indicative mood in the second clause.) Improved: Begin the transaction by opening an account; then enter the customer’s name. (Both clauses are now in the indicative mood.). In Number 71, choose the one that illustrates consistency in use of subject, voice, and mood. Choose either A or B.. 71.. A. B.. She was an enthusiastic teacher who always had a smile for everyone. She was an enthusiastic teacher who always has a smile for everyone. Answer:. 29 | P a g e. A.

(32) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS: Guidelines for Use 1.. 2. 3.. 4.. 5. 6.. Use the comparative degree of the adjective and adverb to compare two or more persons or things; use the superlative degree to compare three or more: Of the two alternatives, which is better? Of all the alternatives, we like this the best. Do not create a double comparative or superlative by using –er with more or –est with most: The teacher’s explanation couldn’t have been clearer. A linking verb (is, are, look, seem, feel, sound, appear, and so forth) may introduce a word that describes the verb’s subject. In this case be certain to use an adjective, not an adverb: The principal’s letter made her feel bad. (not badly) (The adjective bad follows the linking verb feel and describes the noun her.) Use adverbs, not adjectives, to describe or limit the action of verbs: The performance is running smoothly. (not smooth) (Use the adverb smoothly to describe the action of the verb is running.) Two or more adjectives that are joined to create a compound modifier before a noun should be hyphenated: The four-year-old child was tired. Keep adjectives and adverbs close to the words they modify: She asked for a cup of hot coffee. (not a hot cup of coffee) Don’t confuse the adverb there with the possessive pronoun their on the contraction they’re: They’re coming to inspect today. (The contraction they’re is a shortened form of they are.). In Numbers 72 to 74, for each sentence, choose the correct adjective or adverb from the options.. 72.. 73.. 74.. Darren completed the employment test _____. Answer:. A.. satisfactorily. Answer:. A.. 60-day. Answer:. A.. page by page. New owners will receive a _____ trial period.. You must check the document _____.. PREPOSITIONS are connecting words that join nouns or pronouns to other words in a sentence. The “preposition + NP” constructions, or prepositional phrase, function as a modifier. Prepositions are usually classified according to their meaning: 1. location aboard, about, above, across, after, along, amid (st), among, apart from, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, by, down, in, in front of, inside, near, off, on, out, outside, over, under, up, upon, within 2. direction across, against, around, down, from, into, past, off, out, out of, through, to, toward(s), up 3. relation according to, along with, apart from, besides, but, by, despite, except, for, in accordance with, in spite of, like, pending (not used in personal pronouns), with, without. 30 | P a g e.

(33) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.. time process approximation possession attribution. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. about, after, around, before, during, since, until by means of, through about, around of according to. Prepositions may also be classified according to form: Simple: at, for, in, on Compound: according to, apart from, because of, due to In Numbers 75 to 77, select the preposition that best fits the sentence from the choices under each sentence.. 75.. Masked for protection _____ stinging jellyfish, Philippine divers squirt illegal and deadly cyanide to stun and net the fish. Answer: D. against. 76.. The bus that leaves for Baguio leaves the station at _____ five o’clock in the morning. Answer: D. about. 77.. Larger live specimens from the reefs began going to places ___ Hong Kong so fashionable diners could pick them out of a restaurant tank to eat, paying hundreds of dollars for the privilege. Answer: B. toward Adopted from Chadwick, Douglas H. “Coral in Peril” National Geographic. Vol 195 No. 1 (January 1999).. CONJUNCTIONS connect words, phrases, and clauses. They act as signals, indicating when a thought s being added, contrasted, or altered. Coordinate conjunctions (such as and, or, but) and other words that act as connectors (such as however, therefore, when, as) tell the reader or listener in what direction a thought is heading. They’re like road signs signaling what is ahead.. Guidelines for Use 1.. 2. 3.. 4.. 31 | P a g e. Use coordinating conjunctions to connect only sentence elements that are parallel or balanced. Weak: His report was correct and written in a concise manner. Improved: His report was correct and concise. Do not use the word like as a conjunction. It seems as if (not like) the exam will be forever. Avoid using when or where inappropriately. A common writing fault occurs in sentences with clauses introduced by is when and is where. Written English ordinarily requires a noun (or a group of words functioning as a noun) following the linking verb is. Instead of acting as conjunctions in these constructions, the words where and when function as adverbs, creating faulty grammatical equations. To avoid the problem, revise the sentence, eliminating is when or is where. Weak: Word processing is where you use a computer and a software to write. Improved: Word processing involves the use of a computer and software to write. Don’t confuse the adverb then with the conjunction than. Then means “at that time”; than indicates the second element in a comparison. We would rather buy a second-hand car than (not then) a brand new car..

(34) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. In Numbers 78 to 80, select the conjunction that best fits the sentence from the choices under each sentence.. 78.. Results of the study show that Filipinos are more aware of immediate problems that affect urban lives such as waste/garbage management (83%), air pollution (75%), floods (48%) and water pollution (37%). It _____ shows that environmental problems that are personally observed and experienced create the most impact on awareness. Answer: C. actually. 79.. Respondents have very low systemic understanding of the cause and effect of environmental issues _____ possess a superficial grasp of problems makes matters worse. Answer: C. and. 80.. The findings of this study are disconcerting. _____so many years of painstaking hard work and hard-nose advocacy, environmentalists are apparently still on the losing end in their battle to save the country’s vital resources. Answer: A. After Adopted from “How much do Filipinos know about their environment?” Haring Ibon. 1st Quarter 2002.. A sentence should be consistent: grammatical elements such as a person, number, tense, and voice should remain the same throughout the sentence unless grammar or the meaning of the sentence requires a shift. Unnecessary shifts in these elements, either within a sentence or among related sentences, confuse readers and distort meaning. SHIFTS 1.. Shifts in Person Person refers to the distinction among the person talking (first person), the person spoken to (second person), and the person, object or concept being talked about (third person). Inconsistent: If a person works hard, you can achieve your goal. Clear: If you work hard, you can achieve your goal. or If a person works hard, he/she can achieve his/her goal.. 2.. Shifts in Number Number refers to the distinction between one (singular) and more (plural). Inconsistency in number occurs most often between a pronoun and its antecedent. Inconsistent: If a student does not understand a lesson, they should consult the teacher. Clear: If a student does not understand a lesson, he/she should consult the teacher. Clearer: If students do not understand a lesson, they should consult the teacher.. 3.. Shift in Tense Unnecessary shifts from past to present or from present to past in sentences narrating a series of events are practically confusing. Inconsistent: The teacher gives the quiz and collected the assignments. Clear: The teacher gives the quiz and collects the assignments.. 32 | P a g e.

(35) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. MISPLACED MODIFIERS appear to modify the wrong part of the sentence. Thus, the sentence may appear awkward, unintentionally amusing, or genuinely confusing. 1.. Place the prepositional phrase where they will clearly modify the words intended. Confusing: He was happy that he scored better than the rest by 50 points. (The sentence implies that he scored 50 points better than the rest.) Clear: He was happy that he scored 50 points better than the rest.. 2.. Place subordinate clauses where they will clearly modify the words intended. Confusing: The bride and groom were able to offer a toast and then they danced the waltz when the wine arrived. (The clause appears to modify the danced the waltz.) Clear: When the wine arrived, the bride and groom were able to offer a toast and then they danced the waltz.. 3.. Place limiting modifiers carefully. These include almost even, exactly, just, only, simply and the like. These modifiers should fall immediately before the word or word groups they modify to avoid any ambiguity. Unclear: They only saw each other during recess. (Does this mean they had eyes only for each other, or they met only during recess?) Clear: They saw each other only during recess. Note that only is acceptable immediately before the verb when it modifies a whole statement. I only wanted our team to win.. 4.. Avoid a squinting modifier which may refer to either a preceding or a following word, leaving the reader uncertain about what it is intended to modify. A modifier can modify only one grammatical element in the sentence. It cannot serve two elements at once. Squinting: My parents said a long time ago the siblings should always take care of each other. Clear: A long time ago, my parents said the siblings should always take care of each other.. 5.. Avoid separating a subject from its verb or a verb from its object or complement. If adjective phrases or clauses separate them, the meaning is usually clear. However, if a an adverb phrase or clause interrupts the movement from subject to verb to object or complement, the resulting sentence is likely to be awkward and confusing. Awkward: The students, soon after, they finished the final examinations, had a swimming party. (The clause beginning soon after interrupts the movement of the subject to verb.) Clear: Soon after they finished the final examinations, the students had a swimming party.. 6.. Avoid separating the parts of the verb phrase or the parts of an infinitive. A verb phrase consists of a helping verb plus a main verb, as in will read, was speaking, had been listening. Such phrases constitute grammatical units. We regularly insert single-word adverbs in them without causing awkwardness: Luz had almost completed her assignments. But when longer word groups interrupt verb phrases, the result is always awkward. Awkward: Many students had, by spending most of their time on the experiment, completed it. Clear: By spending most of their time on the experiment, many student had completed it.. 33 | P a g e.

(36) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. A DANGLING MODIFIER does not sensibly modify anything in its sentence. Dangling modifiers occur most often when certain kinds of modifying word groups precede the main clause of the sentence. These word groups include: participial phrases (verb + ing) infinitive phrases (to + verb) prepositional phases in which the object of the preposition is a gerund (preposition + verb) elliptical clauses in which the subject and perhaps the verb are understood Since these phrases and clauses have no expressed subject, readers take them to modify the following noun, the subject of the main clause. If they do not sensibly define or describe the following noun, they are dangling modifiers. We correct dangling modifiers by recasting the sentences in which they appear. We can change the subject of the main clause to a word the modifier properly defines or describes. Or we can recast the dangling modifier as a complete clause. Dangling: Via air mail, we received the envelope. Clear: We received the envelope via air mail. In Numbers 81 to 90, choose the letter that corresponds to the word/phrase that makes the sentence inconsistent and confusing.. 81.. If you write a page in your diary everyday, you will discover that one learn from practice. A B C D. Answer:. C. 82.. He went into his room, closed the door, opened the window and goes to bed. A B C D. Answer:. D. 83.. Inserting the letter in the envelope and seal it. A B C D. Answer:. A. 84.. When you pass the UPCAT, one should be proud. A B C D. Answer:. C. 85.. We blocked the road, stopped the vehicles and had the traffic will be rerouted. A B C D. Answer:. D. 86.. The hallways are deserted, the parking lot is isolated, and the canteen abandon. A B C D. Answer:. D. 87.. They are sincere when you fulfill your promise. A B C D. Answer:. A. 88.. The experimental apparatus was set up and the laboratory assistant cleans up after the experiment was completed. A B C D Answer: B. 89.. The mother wraps the baby in a towel before the baby took a bath. A B C D. Answer:. D. 90.. First, splice the wire. Next, the soldering iron should be taken. A B C D. Answer:. D. 34 | P a g e.

(37) REVIEW MASTERS LEAGUE, INC. ©2011. ENGLISH REVIEW www.upcatreview.com. In Numbers 91 to 100, each number has an ungrammatical sentence. Below it are sentences related to the original sentence. Choose the letter that would correspond to the best and clearest sentence from the options. 91.. Answer:. A. Answer:. A. Answer:. A. Answer: Next Monday, we will see a program about mothers who gave birth to babies who are alcoholic. A. Next Monday, we will see a program about mothers who gave birth to alcoholic babies. B. Next Monday, we will see a program on alcoholic mothers who gave birth. C. Next Monday, we will see an alcoholic program about mothers who gave birth to babies. D. Next Monday, we will see a program on alcoholic mothers and babies.. B. 95.. Your letter regarding your order of 10 trucks arrived by airmail this morning. A. Your morning letter regarding your order of 10 trucks arrived by airmail. B. Your airmail letter regarding your order of 10 trucks arrived this morning. C. This morning, your airmail letter regarding your order of 10 trucks arrived. D. Ten trucks arrived this morning by airmail with your letter.. Answer:. C. 96.. When only one year old, this customer’s mother died. A. This customer’s mother died when they were only one year old. B. This customer’s mother died at one year old only. C. This mother died when the customer was only one year old. D. The customer was one year old when his/her mother died.. Answer:. D. 97.. Wearing an orange dress, the prayers were offered by the monk. A. Wearing a dress, the orange monk offered prayers. B. Wearing an orange dress, the monk offered prayers. C. The monk who was wearing an orange dress offered a prayer. D. The prayers were offered by the orange monk who was dressed.. Answer:. B. 98.. The mother took the gift and gave it to the child from the bag. Answer: A. and gave the bag to the child. C. and gave it to the child from the bag. B. from the bag and gave it to the child. D. and gives the bag to the child.. B. 99.. Mr. Macapagal ate sugpo for dinner after returning from the trip. A. Mr. Macapagal ate sugpo from the trip. B. Mr. Macapagal who returned from a trip, ate sugpo for dinner. C. Mr. Macapagal ate sugpo for dinner returning from the trip. D. After eating sugpo, he returned from the trip.. Answer:. B. 100.. When you take the exam, he/she should expect the worst. A. When you take the exam, expect the worst. B. When you take the exam, you should expect the worst. C. Expect the worst exam. D. Expect your worst exam.. Answer:. B. 92.. 93.. 94.. Driving across Metro Manila, our gas ran out. A. we ran out of gas. B. our gas ran.. C. D.. our gas went running. we ran with the gas.. Enclosed are your contracts on Charice concert in triplicate. A. Enclosed are your Charice concert triplicate contracts. B. Your contracts enclosed are Charice concert triplicate. C. Your triplicate contracts of the Charice concert are enclosed. D. Charice concert triplicate contracts are enclosed for you. The president’s Independence Day speech will be followed by the firing squad. A. After the president’s Independence Day speech, the firing squad will follow. B. The firing squad will follow the president’s Independence Day speech. C. The president’s firing squad will follow the Independence Day speech. D. Following the president’s Independence Day speech is the firing squad.. 35 | P a g e.

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