Function Words

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Phonetics________________2nd Year LMD Teacher:

Mr.Aounali . W

Stress placement assigns the category of the

words

Addict (v) /əˈdɪkt/

(n) /ˈædɪkt/

Affix (v) /əˈfɪks/ , /

ˈæfɪks/

(n) /ˈæfɪks/

Annex (v) /ə

ˈneks/ , /ænˈeks/

(n) /ˈæneks/

Collect (v) /kəˈlekt/

(n) /ˈkɒlekt/ , /ˈkɒl

ɪ

kt/

Commune (v) /kəˈmju

ː

n/

(n) /ˈk

ɒ

mju

ː

n/

Compound (v) /kəmˈpaʊnd/ (n, adj) /ˈk

ɒ

mpaʊnd /

Compact (v) /kəmˈpækt/

(n)

/ˈkɒmp

æ

kt/

Compress (v)

/kəmˈpres/

(n) /ˈkɒmpres/

Conduct (v) /kənˈdʌkt/

(n)

/ˈkɒndʌkt/

Concert (v)

/kənˈs

ɜ

ːt/

(n) /ˈkɒnsət/

Confine (v) /kənˈfaɪn/

(n)

/

ˈkɒn

faɪn/

Conflict (v) /kənˈflɪkt/

(n)

/

ˈkɒn

flɪkt/

Console (v) /kənˈsəʊl/

(n) /ˈkɒnsəʊl/

Contrast (

v) /kənˈtr

æ

st/

(n)

/ˈkɒntr

æ

st/

Content (v, adj) /kənˈtent/

(n) /ˈkɒntent/

Contest (v)

/ kənˈtest/

(n)

/ˈkɒntest/

Contract (

v) /kənˈtr

a

ːkt/

(n)

/ˈkɒntr

a

ːkt/

Convert (v)

/kənˈv

ɜ

ːt/

(n)

/ˈkɒnv

ɜ

ːt/

Convert (v)

/kənˈv

ɪk

t/

(n)

/ˈkɒnv

ɪk

t/

Defect (v)

/ d

ɪ

ˈfekt/ , /

dəˈfekt/

(n)

/ˈdiːfekt/ , /d

ɪ

-, dəˈfekt/

Discharge

(v) /dɪsˈtʃɑːdʒ/

(n) /ˈdɪstʃɑːdʒ/

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Discount (v)

/dɪˈsk

aʊnt

/

(n)

/ˈdɪsk

aʊnt

/

Discourse (v)

/dɪˈskɔː

s

/

(n)

/ˈdɪskɔː

s

/

Desert (v) /dɪˈzɜ

ː

t/

(n) /ˈdezət/

Detail (v)

/ˈdiːte

ɪ

l/, /d

ɪ

- ,

dəˈte

ɪ

l/

(n) /ˈdiːte

ɪ

l/

Digest (v) /daɪ ,dɪ ,d

ə

-ˈdʒest/

(n) /ˈdaɪdʒest/

Escort (v) /

ɪˈskɔː

t

/

(n) /

ˈeskɔː

t

/

Envelop (v) /

ɪnˈv

ə

l

ə

p/ , /en

ˈv

ə

l

ə

p/

(n) Envelope /

ˈenv

ə

l

əʊ

p/ ,

/

ˈɒnv

ə

l

əʊ

p/

Explain (v) /ɪkˈspleɪn/, /ek

ˈspleɪn /

(n) Explanation /ˌekspləˈneɪʃn̩ /

Export (v)

/ɪkˈspɔːt/

(n) /ˈekspɔːt/

Exploit (v)

/ɪkˈsplɔɪt/, /ek

ˈsplɔɪt/

(n)

/ˈeksplɔɪt/

Extract (v)

/ɪkˈstr

æ

kt/ , /ek

ˈ- /

(n) /ˈekstr

æ

kt/

Frequent (v)

/frɪˈkwent/

(adj) /ˈfriːkwent/

Graduate (v) /

ˈ

grædʒue

ɪ

t/ (n) /

ˈ

grædʒuət/

Impact (v)

/ɪmˈp

æ

kt/

(n) /ˈɪmp

æ

kt/

Incline (v)

/ɪnˈklaɪn/

(n) /ˈɪnklaɪn/

Increase (v) /

ɪnˈkriːs/

(n) /

ˈɪnkriːs/

Insert (v) /

ɪnˈs

ɜ

ːt/

(n) /

ˈɪns

ɜ

ːt/

Insult (v) /ɪnˈsʌlt/

(n)

/ˈɪnsʌlt/

Intern (v) /

ɪnˈt

ɜ

ːn/

(n) /

ˈɪnt

ɜ

ːn/

Invalid (adj) /ɪnˈvælɪd/

(n) /ˈɪnvəlɪd/

Object (v) /

əbˈ

bdʒekt/

(n) /ˈɒbdʒɪkt/ , /ˈɒbdʒekt/

Perfume (v)

/pə

(n)

/ˈp

ɜ

ːfjuːm/

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Phonetics________________2nd Year LMD Teacher:

Mr.Aounali . W

ˈfjuːm/ , /p

ɜ

ː- /

Permit (v)

/pəˈmɪt/

(n) /ˈp

ɜ

ːmɪt/

Pervert (v)

/pəˈv

ɜ

ːt /

(n) /ˈp

ɜ

ːv

ɜ

ːt/

Present (v) /prɪˈzent/

(n) /ˈprezn̩t/

Produce (v) /prəˈdju

ː

s/ ,/

-ˈdʒu

ː

s/

(n) /ˈprɒdju

ː

s/,/ -dʒu

ː

s/

Progress (v) /prəʊˈgres/

(n)

/prəʊˈgres/ ,/prə- /

Project (v) /pr

əʊˈ

dʒekt ,

/pr

ə-ˈ /

(n) /

ˈ

prɒdʒekt/ , / -dʒɪkt/

Protest (v) /

prəʊˈtest/ ,

/pr

ə-ˈ /

(n)

/ˈprəʊtest/

Perfect (n, adj) /p

əˈfɪkt/ ,

/p

ə

ˈfekt/

(v) /ˈpɜːfekt/

Rebel (v)

/rɪˈbel/

(n)

/ˈreb

/

Recall (v) /rɪˈkɔ

ː

l/

(n) /ˈri

ː

ː

l/ , /rɪˈkɔ

ː

l/

Recess (v) /rɪˈses/

, /rəˈ-/

(n)

/ˈriːses/

Record (v) /rɪˈkɔ

ː

d/

(n)

/ˈrekɔːd/

Refuse (v) /rɪˈfju

ː

z/ ,

/rəˈ-/

(n ,adj) /

ˈre

fju

ː

s/

Refill (v) /ˌri

ː

ˈfɪl/

(n) /ˈri

ː

fɪl/

Segment (v) /segˈment/

(n) /ˈsegmənt/

Subject

(v) /səbˈdʒekt/

(adj, n) / ˈsʌbdʒekt/ , /

ˈsʌbdʒɪkt/

Survey (v)

/səˈveɪ/

(n) / ˈsɜːveɪ /

Suspect (v)

/səˈspekt/

(adj) /ˈs

ʌ

spekt/

Transfer (v)

/tr

æ

nsˈf

ɜ

ː /,

trɑːnsˈf

ɜ

ː /

(n) /ˈtr

æ

nsf

ɜ

ː /, /ˈtrɑːnsf

ɜ

ː /

Transport (v) /træn

ˈ

spɔːt/,

/trɑːn

ˈsp

ɔ

ːt/

(n) /ˈtrænspɔːt/ ,

/ˈtrɑːnsp

ɔ

ːt

/

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Lectures 5:

Introduction:

To pronounce words properly, we have to know which syllables are stressed, but it is difficult for foreign learners to master because of several factors like the morphological structure of the words in terms of stems and affixes or the grammatical function of the word, that’s why English word-stress is not always predictable, but the majority of words follow general principle/rules .Any description of English word-stress inevitably involves certain number of exceptions because of its variable word-stress patterns.

Prefixes & suffixes: these are not usually stressed in English and do not usually change the stress pattern of the root word. Consider: QUIetly, oRIGinally, unFEEling, and so on. (Note the exceptions, though, among prefixes, like BIcycle and DISlocate).

• Exceptions on some suffixes: some suffixes are themselves stressed: -ade (e.g.: LEMon/lemoNADE)

-aire (e.g.: MILlion/millioNAIRE)

-cratic (e.g.: DEMocrat/demoCRATIC) -ee (e.g.: ABsent/absenTEE)

-ivity (e.g.: SUBject/subjecTIVITY)

With some suffixes, the stress is usually on the syllable before the suffix ‘’penult rule’’:

-cracy (e.g.: DEMocrat/deMOCracy) -ety (e.g.: SOCial/soCIety)

-ial (e.g.: conSPIRacy/conspiraTORial) -ian (e.g.: HIStory/hisTORian)

-ic (e.g.: SCIence/scienTIFic) -ical (e.g.: biOLogy/bioLOGical) -ify (e.g.: PERson/perSONify) -ion (e.g.: CELebrate/celeBRAtion) -ious (e.g.: VICtory/vicTORious) -ive (e.g.: PRODuct/proDUCTive) -ity (e.g.: eLECtric/elecTRICity)

N.B.: Do not stress the final '–ate' syllable in verbs, even though '-a-' is stressed in nouns ending with '–ation', e.g. graduate-graduation;

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Phonetics________________2nd Year LMD Teacher:

Mr.Aounali . W

vibration.

Compound words: words formed from a combination of two words tend to be stressed on the first element. Examples are: POSTman, TEApot and CROSSword.

Words having a dual role: in the case of words which can be used as either a noun or a verb, the noun will tend to be stressed on the first syllable (in line with 'core vocabulary' rule above) and the verb on the last syllable (in line with the 'prefix rule'). Examples: IMport (n), imPORT (v); REbel (n), reBEL (v); and INcrease (n), inCREASE (v), print out (v); and print-out (n). • Exceptions: there is not always a change of stress in words that are both nouns and verbs. For example: answer, picture, promise, reply, travel, visit always have stress on the same syllable

Using suffixes to predict stress: (A) Stress the suffix itself:

- ee employee refugee trainee referee

- ee

r engineer career volunteer - es

e Chinese Japanese Portuguese iqu

e unique antique technique

(B) Stress the syllable immediately before the suffix ‘’ult’’ rule :

- ial memorial financial artificial essential

- ual visual unusual intellectual individual

- ian Canadian vegetarian pedestrian politician

- sion explosion occasion conclusion permission

- tion definition production situation qualification

- ient ancient sufficient efficient deficient proficient

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- ic academic energetic fantastic terrific realistic

- ible edible flexible incredible impossible

- ity ability necessity publicity possibility humidity

- ify classify terrify humidify personify solidify

- logy biology sociology anthropology psychology - grap

hy geography autobiography photography pornography -

meter kilometer parameter speedometer thermometer

(C) Stress on the second syllable before the suffix ‘’penult’’ rule:

2. Using Parts of Speech to predict stress

(A) For certain two-syllable words used as both nouns and verbs,

stress nouns on the first syllable, and verbs on the second syllable.

Nou

n Verb Example

1. record record

The bank recorded a new record yesterday.

present He presented his wife with a

- at

e operate exaggerate associate integrate certificate - iz

e apologize criticize recognize computerize - ar

y secretary necessary contemporary vocabulary - o

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Phonetics________________2nd Year LMD Teacher:

Mr.Aounali . W

2. prese nt beautiful present. 3. condu ct

conduct They're conducting a study into his conduct.

4. suspe ct

suspect The suspect was suspected of robbing the bank.

5. desert desert

The desert is so dry that it is usually deserted.

(B) Stress in compound nouns on the first part/word:

deadline classroom softwar e typewriter policema n airplane bus stati on air conditio ner sports car credit card stock mar ket Great wal l

(C) Stress in two-word verbs more strongly on the second word,

but for their noun equivalents, stress them on the first part.

Noun: Here's the printout.

She's a dropout.

Verb: He printed it out. She dropped out. Can I check it out?

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counter?

There was a holdup at the bank

Hold up your hand.

This clearly is a setup. I'll set up a meeting for you.

These rules do not cover all the words in English; but

they do cover the large majority of –polysyllabic or

plurisyllabic words in the language.

The problem: should you say: difficult or difficult or difficult?

Where do we put the accent on multi-syllable words in English? English people don't often make mistakes, but they never learn any rules! Obviously therefore there must be some fairly simple basic "rules" that apply to words with 2, 3, or 4 syllables. Here are the most important of these rules.

1. A word is normally stressed on the first syllable, unless there is a reason to put the stress somewhere else.

2. The "reasons" are either suffixes (like -ity) or prefixes (like con-, dis-, ex- or in-).

3. If the suffix (ending) starts with the letters i or u this will affect the position of stress in a word.

Sample suffixes: -ion, -ual, -ial, -ient, -ious, -ior, -ic, -ity, etc. The stress comes on the syllable before the suffix (penult rule) . Examples: Atlantic, comic, sufficient, explanation, residual. There are only a very few exceptions to this rule.

4. Other suffixes do not affect the stress of a word.

Sample suffixes: -al, -ous, -ly, -er, -ed, -ist, -ing, -ment Examples: Permanent, permanently.

5. ► Prefixes are not normally stressed in two-syllable words, except in some nouns or adjectives.

Examples: To ex'pand , to de'fend; but an 'expert, a report. Nouns may need to be learned individually.

► Prefixes are usually stressed in three-syllable nouns and adjectives, but not always stressed in verbs.

Examples: 'Continent, 'incident, 'exercise; to con'sider, to en'visage but to 'indicate

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Phonetics________________2nd Year LMD Teacher:

Mr.Aounali . W

6. Rule 3 takes priority over all others, notably when a "rule 3 ending" is followed by a "rule 4 ending",

Examples : perpetually, deliciously, conditional, conditioner, illusionist. This list of rules is not complete, but it does explain where to place the

main accent in the majority of words in English.

Can you designate the tonic syllable (main stress) in these words which all obey the rules?

Britain, England, Edinburgh, region, regional, economic, to complain, community, to refuse, considering.

I.- PRIMARY STRESS: 1 A°) Normal Stress Rule:

a) Two-syllable words are normally stressed on the first syllable (code/10/): foreign,

, mountain, legal, … etc

b) Three-syllable words are normally stressed on the first syllable (code / 100/) (character, family, …

c) Words of more than three syllables are normally stressed on the antepenultimate (code /-100/) and may need a secondary stress (see section II below) original, curiosity, … (unless a strong suffix assigns the primary stress to the Penultimate as in characterization /200010/, popularization /200010/, or elsewhere as in characteristically /20010(0)0/ where one strong suffix is followed by two weak suffixes).

1 B°) Main classes of exceptions for two-syllable words /0 1/:

a) Words beginning with a Latin or Germanic prefix (remind, decide, except...; about, behind, forget...)

b) Verbs ending in <-ate> (create, frustrate, translate...) 2°) Retrieving the original word (= the deriving word)

To calculate the main stress of longer words, you must first remove any "weak" suffix, and then count from the end.

The principal weak suffixes, added to words without modifying the stress of the stem, are:

a) Grammatical suffixes such as <-ed>, <-en>, <-ing>, <-(e)s>, <-er>, <-est>…

b) Agent suffixes such as <-er>,<-or>, 1-A few explanations:

An asterisk * means that the form proposed at the right of this symbol is not acceptable.

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c) Any suffix beginning with a consonant such as ful>, less>, ness>, <-ment>, <-ly>,…

3-A°) Words of three or more syllables are normally stressed on the antepenultimate (code /1 0 0 -/)

a) Three-syllable words are normally stressed on the first syllable (code /100/): character, family, …

b) Words of more than three syllables are normally stressed on the antepenultimate (code /-100/) and may need a secondary stress (see section II below)

3B°) Main classes of exceptions:

a) Words ending in <-ic> (code/-10/): eccentric, symbolic, catastrophic…

(CAUTION: a few words, which are not derived adjectives, are stressed according to the "Normal" Stress Rule (code /100/ or /-100/) and must be learnt by heart: Arabic, arithmetic, arsenic, Catholic, heretic, lunatic, politics, rhetoric)

b) Verbs ending in <-ish> /-10/ (demolish, diminish, extinguish) c) Words ending in <-ion>, or more generally in CiV(C)#4

, CeV(C)# or

CuV(C)# (or Vi/e/uV(C)#, have their main stress on the syllable immediately preceding the ending (code/-10/): education, colonial, atrocious, advantageous, conspicuous, residual, ratio…

The forms written between this type of brackets <…> represent the spelling of a word or a piece of word. Hence, <-ate> means “words ended with the letters mentioned between these brackets”.

2- In foreign, the first three letters are not a German prefix but are part of the word, whereas in forget, <for-> is an unstressed strong prefix. For example, it may be replaced by another prefix such as <be-> in beget, a verb which can be found in the English version of the Bible: and he begat…

In this abridged course, a bold character or bold chain of characters means that this part of the word bears a primary or a secondary stress. The usual symbols will be used in the full course.

/0/ symbolizes an unstressed syllable, /1/ the primary stress and /2/ the secondary stress.

3-The rule is not complete in this abridged course which shows the main tendencies only. There may be other cases which will be explained in the unabridged course.

Figure

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