Traffic Noise

Full text

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LAB

NO.

: 4

LAB

TITLE

: Traffic Noise Study

DAT

E

: 21

st

July

2016

LEVEL OF OPENNESS

: Level

CLASS

: EC110 5F

GROUP LEADER: STUDENT NO:

GROUP MEMBERS

NO.

NAME

STUDENT

NO.

SIGNATUR

E

REMARK

1. Muhammad Akmal Bin Yahya 2014894858

2. Mohammad QaidHaziq Bin Izhar 2014468582

3. Nik Muhamad Harith Bin Nik Rusli 2014421554 4. Atiqah Zahirah Binti Mohamad Amran 2014249374 5. Nurin Adlina Binti Mohd Roslan 2014686014

ASSESSMENT OF THE LAB ACTIVITIES

NO. ELEMENT TO ASSESS

STUDENT

1

2

3

4

5

INDIVIDUAL IN-LAB ACTIVITIES

1

PUNCTUALITIY

2

DISCIPLINE (DRESS CODE,SAFETY SHOES,SAFETY

REGULATIONS)

3

KNOWLEDGE ON OPEN ENDED LABORATORY

GROUP IN-LAB ACTIVITIES

4

LEADERSHIP SKILL

5

COMMUNICATION

6

ORGANISATION/TEAMWORK

LAB REPORT

7

INTRODUCTION

8

BASIC CONCEPTS

9

SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES/ METHODS

10

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

11

DISCUSSION OF RESULT

12

CONCLUSION

LECTURER’S

SIGNATURE:

REMARKS:

ECG 354 – HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

Faculty of Civil

Engineering

UiTM Pahang

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Introduction

The noise from the traffic considered as a pollution if exceed the allowable limit. The high traffic noise level will disturb the surrounding area Thus; the traffic noise level should be controlled and measured in order to ensure that the environment is free from the noise pollution.

Objectives

1. To measures the pattern of existing noise levels

2. To perform the statistical analysis on noise samples collected and interpret the results obtained.

Learning Outcomes

At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:

1. Identify the right tools to carry out the appropriate traffic noise study. 2. Analyse test data and present the solution in proper technical format.

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Theoretical background

Noise has been long considered as one type of pollution. This problem affected most residential housing particularly in urban area. Mostly noise pollution is come from highway with heavy traffic. Volume of traffic, speed and perhaps also type of vehicles contribute mostly to the noise pollution. Excessive noise from traffic can cause annoyance to daily activities, disturb rest (especially sleep) and disrupt communication. Thus, decrease the overall quality of life.

However, people perceptions and awareness toward limitation of noise pollution may be varying. Type of residential housing, exposure, community and areas may be affected people opinions on noise pollution.

The study of noise may be done to measure level of noise pollution and its impact towards a particular area. From that study, action may be taken to provide adequate noise control measures such as construction of a noise barrier.

WHO Recommended Health Criteria of noise limit for daytime is 55 dB and for night time is 45 dB. While in Malaysia, the Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE) recommended a Guideline for Limiting Sound Level (LAeq) from Road Traffic (For Proposed New Roads and/or Redevelopment of Existing Roads) from The Planning Guidelines for Environmental Noise Limits and Control (2004). Table 1 below listed those guidelines.

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Apparatus

1. Traffic noise tester

Procedure

1. Select and sketch the layout of the study area (proper and strategic location), located at the Block I & J in UITM

2. Record the sound level of moving vehicle using the sound level meter.

3. Observe and record the data at 15 seconds interval in the data sheet for duration of 45 minutes.

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Data Analysis

Table 1: Data collected

Int db Int db Int db Int db Int db

15 69.20 555 56.50 1095 59.20 1635 54.90 2175 54.20 30 54.70 570 55.30 1110 51.20 1650 58.70 2190 54.50 45 58.40 585 49.50 1125 60.90 1665 65.30 2205 64.50 60 53.90 600 49.50 1140 55.80 1680 66.70 2220 46.50 75 65.40 615 57.50 1155 51.20 1695 49.80 2235 49.50 90 67.50 630 65.90 1170 62.30 1710 47.70 2250 52.60 105 60.90 645 61.90 1185 51.80 1725 58.80 2265 47.50 120 64.20 660 61.70 1200 54.10 1740 64.20 2280 52.70 135 55.30 675 74.20 1215 54.60 1755 59.50 2295 49.10 150 50.90 690 56.60 1230 49.60 1770 58.90 2310 48.30 165 64.20 705 71.30 1245 65.00 1785 48.60 2325 55.70 180 47.30 720 61.50 1260 55.50 1800 59.00 2340 49.20 195 56.20 735 55.20 1275 61.80 1815 50.40 2355 54.40 210 54.00 750 60.50 1290 64.60 1830 45.00 2370 54.70 225 55.00 765 57.40 1305 75.50 1845 55.00 2385 46.70 240 67.30 780 52.60 1320 61.40 1860 52.60 2400 66.60 255 65.30 795 49.40 1335 56.50 1875 68.60 2415 57.80 270 52.50 810 52.20 1350 56.60 1890 50.80 2430 63.00 285 69.60 825 58.40 1365 59.30 1905 47.20 2445 56.50 300 55.60 840 53.10 1380 57.80 1920 52.10 2460 53.30 315 69.10 855 54.50 1395 57.60 1935 55.10 2475 52.90 330 54.00 870 60.90 1410 73.90 1950 54.20 2490 68.90 345 52.90 885 63.10 1425 52.80 1965 57.40 2505 46.90 360 67.30 900 55.70 1440 55.40 1980 68.70 2520 54.00 375 51.70 915 62.50 1455 49.30 1995 59.10 2535 52.50 390 49.00 930 54.40 1470 68.60 2010 51.10 2550 48.70 405 50.60 945 63.90 1485 89.90 2025 47.10 2565 52.10 420 47.90 960 62.40 1500 52.90 2040 45.90 2580 53.80 435 52.20 975 65.60 1515 59.90 2055 49.70 2595 51.30 450 61.00 990 66.60 1530 54.70 2070 61.10 2610 47.30 465 61.10 1005 57.40 1545 64.10 2085 52.70 2625 64.50 480 64.40 1020 62.40 1560 60.60 2100 56.20 2640 46.40 495 60.90 1035 79.20 1575 64.90 2115 72.20 2655 50.90 510 64.40 1050 71.10 1590 67.80 2130 50.50 2670 49.00 525 51.30 1065 64.40 1605 59.10 2145 48.90 2685 58.80 540 64.30 1080 53.10 1620 60.20 2160 62.30 2700 59.80

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Table 2: Data Noise Group (dB) Mid group noise, v (dB) Frequen cy, f Percenta ge of frequenc y (%) Cumulati ve frequenc y Percenta ge of cumulati ve frequenc y (%) fv (v-u)2 f(v-u)2 40 – 44.9 42.45 0 0 0 0 0 226.80 0 45 – 49.9 47.45 27 15 27 15 1281.1 5 101.20 2732.5 50 – 54.9 52.45 50 27.8 77 42.8 2622.5 25.60 1280.18 55 – 59.9 57.45 39 21.7 116 64.4 2240.55 0.00 0.1404 60 – 64.9 62.45 35 19.4 151 83.9 2185.75 24.40 854.126 65 – 69.9 67.45 21 11.7 172 95.6 1416.45 98.80 2074.88 70 – 74.9 72.45 5 2.8 177 98.3 362.25 223.20 1116.02 75 – 79.9 77.45 2 1.1 179 99.4 154.9 397.60 795.20 7 80 – 84.9 82.45 0 0 179 99.4 0 622.00 0 85 – 89.9 87.45 1 0.6 180 100 87.45 896.40 896.404 TOTAL 180 100 180 100 10351 2616.04 9749.45 Sample Calculations :

1. Arithmetic mean noise level

,

u=

fv N

=

10351

180

= 57.51 db

2. Standard deviation ,

δ=

f (v−u)

2

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¿

9749.45

179

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Frequency Histogram 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Frequency Histogram

Noise, dB Percentage of Frequency, %

Frequency Distribution Curve

40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0.6

Frequency Distribution Curve

Y-Values

Noise, dB Percentage of Frequency, %

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Cumulative Frequency Curve

40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

Cumulative Frequency Curve

Noise, dB Percentage of Cumulative Curve, %

P15, 15 percentile noise = 46 dB

P50, 50 percentile noise = 54 dB

P85, 85 percentile noise = 65dB

P95, 95 percentile noise = 69 dB

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Discussion

Early in the planning stages of most highway projects, highway agencies do a traffic noise study. The purpose of the study is to determine if the proposed highway will create any traffic noise problems.

We have conducted the traffic noise study in UiTM which is in front of blok I and J . The choices for our location will affect our data analysis for the loudness. There were no many vehicles passing through the roadway. Thus, the values for the loudness are not very high and it is between the range of 40db-90db. We have used traffic noise tester or known as sound level meter in order to determine the loudness of traffic at the location. The traffic noise tester can be used directly; power on, set the sound source and read the result.

Based on the data tabulated a few vehicles have been observed during the traffic noise for 45 min duration. According to data obtained, the arithmetic mean, u are 57.51 db. While the median noise, v for these data are 54 db. So that the median class is 50-54.9 db. The standard deviation calculated based on data is 7.38 db.

Generally, the loudness of traffic noise is increased by heavier traffic volume, higher speeds and greater numbers of trucks. Vehicle noise is a combination of the noise produces by the engine, exhaust, and tires. The loudness of traffic noise can also be increased by defective mufflers or other faulty equipment on vehicles. Any condition (such as steep incline) that causes heavy labouring of motor vehicle engines will also increase traffic noise levels. In addition, there are other more complicated factors that affect the loudness of traffic noise.

Error during experiment

1 While taking a reading, the noise of car collide with other car. So, the reading unclear. 2 Take a reading during other activities was happen like construction activity.

3 Error on instrument like the sound level meter damage. 4 Human error - during the process of reading data.

5 The data may also be affected when the members in our group were talking to each other.

All of the above errors are caused by the sensitiveness of the traffic noise tester. As what we observed, the traffic noise tester is so sensitive in which it can detects sound even though the sound is in very lower range.

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3

CONCLUSION

As the conclusion, we have achieved the objectives for this traffic noise study which is to measure the pattern of existing noise levels. The values of the loudness are not very high because there were no many vehicles pass through the roadway. The traffic noise level is higher because the speed of the vehicle that passes through the roadway is high. The speed of the vehicle is higher because there are no other vehicles on the roadway and the condition of the roadway is free flow. Based on the result, the high level of traffic noise is because there are some lorries pass through the roadway. We can conclude that the pattern of existing noise level in the location is variable which means that the traffic noise came from a variety of sources and different level of loudness.

REFERENCE

1. https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/phys_agents/noise_measurement.html

2.

https://www.pce-instruments.com/english/measuring-instruments/test-meters/sound-level-meter-noise-level-meter-kat_40095_1.htm

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