columnas-cortas-y-esbeltas

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COLUMNA 

COLUMNA 

••

Las columnas son elementos utilizados para resistir

Las columnas son elementos utilizados para resistir

básicamente solicitaciones de compresión axial aunque,

básicamente solicitaciones de compresión axial aunque,

por lo general, ésta actúa

por lo general, ésta actúa en combinaciones con corte,

en combinaciones con corte,

flexión o torsión ya que

flexión o torsión ya que en las estructuras de concreto

en las estructuras de concreto

armado, la continuidad del sistema genera momentos

armado, la continuidad del sistema genera momentos

flectores en todos sus elementos.

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••

La esbeltez de una columna se expresa en términos de su

La esbeltez de una columna se expresa en términos de su

relación de esbeltez

relación de esbeltez

Mientras mayor sea la relación de

Mientras mayor sea la relación de esbeltez de un miembro,

esbeltez de un miembro,

RELACIÓN DE ESBELTEZ

RELACIÓN DE ESBELTEZ

La relación de esbeltez mide la

La relación de esbeltez mide la tendencia de una columna a

tendencia de una columna a

pandearse. Mientras mayor sea la relación de esbeltez de

pandearse. Mientras mayor sea la relación de esbeltez de

un miembro, menor será la

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¿COLUMNA CORTA?

¿COLUMNA CORTA?

La columna corta se produce debido a una

La columna corta se produce debido a una

modifcación accidental en la confguración

modifcación accidental en la confguración

estructural original de una columna.

estructural original de una columna. Se pres

Se presenta

enta

cuando en una estructura sometida a uerzas o

cuando en una estructura sometida a uerzas o

solicitaciones horizontales, la luz libre de la columna

solicitaciones horizontales, la luz libre de la columna

—distancia libre vertical entr

—distancia libre vertical entre vigas o

e vigas o losas que son

losas que son

soportadas por la columna— se ve disminuida por un

soportadas por la columna— se ve disminuida por un

elemento, generalmente no estructural, que limita la

elemento, generalmente no estructural, que limita la

capacidad de la

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(11)

"asi en toda su totalidad las

"asi en toda su totalidad las estructuras de columnas cortas

estructuras de columnas cortas

son de alturas menores en comparación a los elementos

son de alturas menores en comparación a los elementos

estructurales verticales que las

estructurales verticales que las componen.

componen.

#na ma$or rigidez lateral de una columna implica ma$or

#na ma$or rigidez lateral de una columna implica ma$or

resistencia a la deormación, por tanto mientras ma$or es

resistencia a la deormación, por tanto mientras ma$or es

la rigidez, ma$or será la 

la rigidez, ma$or será la uerza necesaria para deormarla.

uerza necesaria para deormarla.

Si una columna corta no

Si una columna corta no está dise%ada adecuadamente

está dise%ada adecuadamente

para resistir esta uerza, va a surir da%o

para resistir esta uerza, va a surir da%o durante el evento

durante el evento

tel&rico. ' este comportamiento se le ha llamado

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(alla )!pica por cortante de las columnas cortas.

(alla )!pica por cortante de las columnas cortas.

Las columnas cortas son los

Las columnas cortas son los elementos que más da%o in*igen a

elementos que más da%o in*igen a

la construcción. +l

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DISEÑO DE COLUMNAS CORTAS SOMETIDAS A CARGA AXIAL Y

DISEÑO DE COLUMNAS CORTAS SOMETIDAS A CARGA AXIAL Y

FLEXIÓN

FLEXIÓN

"arga aial, causa alla del concreto por

"arga aial, causa alla del concreto por

aplastamiento con todas las varillas alcanzando

aplastamiento con todas las varillas alcanzando

su *uencia en compresión.

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omento grande con carga aial menor, la alla

omento grande con carga aial menor, la alla

inicia por *uencia de las varillas

inicia por *uencia de las varillas a tensión.

a tensión.

/+"#+/0' 1#+ 2

/+"#+/0' 1#+ 2

+n una columna corta la resistencia depende solo de

+n una columna corta la resistencia depende solo de la resistencia de los materiales

la resistencia de los materiales

$ de la geometr!a de la sección transversal.

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COLUMNAS DE HORMIGON ARMADO

COLUMNAS DE HORMIGON ARMADO

TIPOS DE ARMADURAS TIPOS DE ARMADURAS

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COLUMNAS DE HORMIGON ARMADO

COLUMNAS DE HORMIGON ARMADO

COMPRESION AXIAL PURA 

COMPRESION AXIAL PURA 

0onde2 0onde2  Ag

 Ag2 área bruta de2 área bruta de

( (

 Ag 

 Ag 

 Ast 

 Ast 

))

 f fyy

Ast 

Ast 

cc

 f 

 f 

 Ast 

 Ast 

 fy

 fy

 Ac

 Ac

cc

 f 

 f 

 Pn

 Pn

=

=

0

0

,,

85

85

×

×

``

×

×

+

+

×

×

=

=

0

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85

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+

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¿COLUMNA ESBELTA?

¿COLUMNA ESBELTA?

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COLUMNAS ESBELTAS SOMETIDAS A FLEXO- COMPRESION

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Carga crítica de pade! ! carga de E"#er

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+S 6+"+S'/35 S'9+/::.

+S 6+"+S'/35 S'9+/::.

"onorme la esbeltez disminu$e el esuerzo de pandeo incrementa

"onorme la esbeltez disminu$e el esuerzo de pandeo incrementa

4uesto que la columna no puede soportar un esuerzo superior a su resistencia,

4uesto que la columna no puede soportar un esuerzo superior a su resistencia,

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La epresión

La epresión

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Figure

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