Social outcomes. Skills and social well-being. Nordic PIAAC Conference Copenhagen May 2015

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09-06-2015 TITEL 1

Social outcomes

Skills and social well-being

Nordic PIAAC Conference Copenhagen 21-22 May 2015

Torben Fridberg

The Danish National Centre for Social Research www.sfi.dk

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09-06-2015 TITEL 2

OECD PIAAC: Four dimensions of what

is called well-being

1. level of trust in others

2. participation in associative,

religious, political, or charity

activities (volunteering)

3. political efficacy or the sense of

influence on the political process

4. self assessed health status

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Background

Skills affect people’s lives and the

level of well-being in ways that go

beyond what can be measured by

labour market earnings of the

individuals and economic growth of

the countris.

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Social “outcomes”

We are talking about social

“outcomes” of the skills

although it is not possible to say

anything about causality

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Social outcomes

Denmark Estonia Finland Norway Sweden Trust in others:

Trust Index 01 Strongly agree - 05

Strongly disagree Mean 2.98 2.04 2.77 2.67 2.84

Political efficacy:

People like me don't have any say about what the government does

01 Strongly agree - 05

Strongly disagree Mean 3.18 2.54 3.13 3.20 3.12

Voluntary work: Per cent

In the last 12 months Never 55,9 72,3 56,3 42,7 63,8

Health: Per cent

In general, would you say your health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?

Excellent or very

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Social trust

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements?

a. There are only a few people you can trust completely

b. If you are not careful, other people will take advantage of you.

Answers: from “01-Strongly agree” to “05-Strongly disagree”.

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Reading skills and general social trust

240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 Li ter ac y aver ag e s co re

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Numeracy skills and general social trust

240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 N um er ac y aver ag e sc or e

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Problem solving skills and general social

trust

240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 P ro bl em -s ol vi ng a ver ag e s co re

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General social trust and skills

1. by increasing social trust we find higher average skill scores for all three skills

1. only respondents with extremely high scores in social trust (score 4.5 or 5.0) in average have a little lower proficiency than respondents with a little less high score in social trust (score 4.0) – particularly in Estonia.

2. strong relation between education and trust. In addition it is a significant independent connection between literacy and social trust in all countries.

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Volunteering

In the last 12 months, how often, if at all, did you do voluntary work, including unpaid work for a charity, political party, trade union or other non-profit

organisation? 1. Never

2. Less than once a month,

3. Less than once a week but at least once a month 4. At least once a week but not every day

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Reading skills and volunteering

250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300

Never Less than once a month Less than once a week but at least

once a month At least once a week but not everyday Every day

Li ter ac y a ver ag e s co re .

Denmark Estonia Finland Norway Sweden

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Numeracy skills and volunteering

250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300

Never Less than once a month Less than once a week but at least

once a month At least once a week but not everyday Every day

N um er ac y a ve ra ge sc or e.

Denmark Estonia Finland Norway Sweden

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Problem solving skills and volunteering

250 260 270 280 290 300 310

Never Less than once a month Less than once a week but at least

once a month At least once a week but not everyday Every day

P ro ble m -s olv in g a ver ag e s co re .

Denmark Estonia Finland Norway Sweden

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Volunteering and skills

1. Never voluntary is associated with low skills. But, it is only in Norway a linear relation between skills and frequency of volunteering. In Denmark and Sweden it is the groups doing voluntary work less than once a week. In Estonia it is volunteering less than once a month that have the highest levels of skill scores.

2. as with social trust, skills in literacy have a significant connection with participation in

voluntary work even when other factors are taken into consideration

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Political efficacy

Or sense of influence on the political process

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements?

People like me don't have any say about what the government does.

Answers: from “01-Strongly agree” to “05-Strongly disagree”.

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Reading skills and political efficacy

250 260 270 280 290 300 310 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 Li tera cy a vera ge s co re.

Denmark Estonia Finland Norway Sweden

People like me don't have any say about what the government does

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Numeracy skills and political efficacy

250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 N um era cy a vera ge sc ore.

Denmark Estonia Finland Norway Sweden

People like me don't have any say about what the government does

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Problem solving skills and political efficacy

250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 P rob le m -s ol vin g av er age s co re .

Denmark Estonia Finland Norway Sweden

People like me don't have any say about what the government does

Strongly agree Strongly disagree

People like me don't have any say about what the government does

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Political efficacy and skills

1. average skill scores are increasing with the sense of having influence on the political process

2. but the groups that most strongly disagree in the statement are scoring a little lower than the

groups with a little less strong disagreement (Apart from Estonia)

3. it is a significant relation in all five countries

between skills in literacy and the sense of political influence even when other factors are taken into consideration

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Self assessed health

In general, would you say your health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?

1. Excellent 2. Very good 3. Good

4. Fair 5. Poor

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Reading skills and self assessed health

230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310

Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor

Li ter ac y a ver ag e s co re .

Denmark Estonia Finland Norway Sweden

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Numeracy skills and self assessed health

230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor

N um er ac y a ve ra ge sc or e.

Denmark Estonia Finland Norway Sweden

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Problem solving skills and self assessed health

230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310

Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor

P ro ble m -s olv in g a ver ag e s co re .

Denmark Estonia Finland Norway Sweden

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Self assessed health and skills

1. strong relation between health and skills in all the five countries and for all three basic skills

2. only the upper end of the health assessment scale is not scoring any higher in skills proficiency than the group assessing their health as being very

good

3. even when other factors are taken into

consideration it is a separate significant correlation between literacy skills and self reported health.

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Overall conclusion

Relations between indicators of social

outcomes and skills are very strong in

all the five countries.

Also the Nordic countries are very

similar when looking at the distribution

on the four dimensions. Only Estonia

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Thank you

Figure

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References

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