INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS

Full text

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INTRODUCTION TO

COMPUTERS

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TEXT AND REF. BOOKS

 

Text Book:

 Peter Norton (2011),

Introduction to

Computers

, 7 /e, McGraw-Hill

 

Reference Book:

 Gary B (2012),

Discovering Computers

, 1/e,

South Western

 Deborah (2013),

Understanding Computers

,

14/e, Cengage Learning

 June P & Dan O (2014),

New Perspective on

Computer

, 16/e

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MOBILE ALERT

Kindly

Switch Off

your Mobile/Cell Phone

OR

Switch it to

Silent Mode

Please

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Presented by: Asma Khan

OUTPUT DEVICES

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Learning Outcome

What is Output

What is an output device

Monitor, Printer, Plotter & Voice output

Multifunction Output Devices

What is Ergonomics

Ergonomics Applies to

Benefits of Ergonomics

Controlling Ergonomics Hazards

Moving Information in Computer

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What is Output ?

Any information that has been

processed

and comes from a

computer

 or computer

device is considered as 

output

When someone is viewing output, they're

seeing it on an

output device

such as a

computer monitor or a hard copy print

out.

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Output Device

An 

output

device

 is

any

piece

of 

computer

hardware

 equipment

used to communicate the results of 

data

processing

 carried

out

by

an 

information

processing

system (such as a 

computer

) which

converts the electronically generated

information into human-readable form

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Output Devices

Processed data from a computer

Text, graphics, photos, audio, video

Common output devices

Monitor

Printer

Plotter

Voice

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Monitors

10

Most frequently used output

device

Size is measured by diagonal of

screen

Common sizes: 15, 17, 19, 21

inches

Clarity is indicated by resolution

Measured in pixels

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Monitor Standards

Resolution capabilities indicated by a monitor’s

standard

Video Graphics Array (VGA)

Super Video Graphics Array (SVGA)

Extended Graphics Array (XGA)

Super Extended Graphics Array (SXGA)

Ultra Extended Graphics Array (UXGA)

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Monitor Types

Cathode-Ray Tubes (CRT)

Most common

Flat-panel monitors (LCD)

Passive-matrix

images created by scanning the entire screen

Active-matrix (TFT)

each pixel is individually activated

eBook readers

Data projectors

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Printers

Produces hard copy output

Ink-jet printer

Inexpensive and for home use

Sprays droplets of ink

Produce very sharp images

Laser printer

More expensive, fast printing speed

Laser produced excellent letter and images

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Laser Printing

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Printers

Thermal printer

Heated element produce image on heat

sensitive paper

Originally seen in research labs

Very expensive and require special paper

Near-photographic output

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Other Printers

Dot-matrix

Series of pins on print head

Inexpensive, not high quality

Chain/Line printer

Used on networks

Plotter

Maps, architectural drawings

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Audio Output Devices

Translate computer data into understandable sounds

Windows machines need special

Sound card

Speaker/Headphone for audio output.

Macintosh has audio playback built in.

Audio output is useful for:

Music

CD player is a computer.

Most personal computers have CD players that can access both music CDs and CD-ROMs.

Multimedia

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Output Devices

Optical Disks: CD-ROM and DVD

CD-ROM (Compact Disk - Read Only Memory)

By its definition, CD-ROM is Read Only.

Special CD drives “burn” information into blank CDs.

Burn: A laser is used to “burn” craters into the surface to

represent a binary 1.

Two main types of CDs:

CD-R (Compact Disk - Recordable)

CD-WR (Compact Disk – Re-Writable)

It takes longer to write to a CD-R than a hard drive.

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Combination Input/Output

Devices

Devices are combined into one device

Save room

Specialized applications

Fax machine

Multifunctional device

Terminals

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Fax Machine

Facsimile transmission machine

Sends and receives images across

telephone lines

Fax/modem board

Give computer same capability

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Multifunctional Device

Combines

Scanner

Printer

Fax machine

Copying machine

Cost effective

Saves space

Popular in small offices or home

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ERGONOMICS

WHAT IS “ERGONOMICS”?

In Greek

Ergos

= work

Nomos

= laws

Ergonomics = the laws of work

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Ergonomics Mean

Designing jobs, equipment, and work tasks

to fit human physical characteristics and

energy limitations

It considers body dimensions, mobility, and

the body’s stress behavior

“Make the work fit the person, not the

person fit the work”

Designing

jobs

,

equipment

, and

work tasks

to fit human

physical

characteristics and

energy limitations

It considers body

dimensions

,

mobility

, and

the body’s

stress

behavior

“Make the work

fit

the

person

, not the

person fit the work”

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Benefits of Ergonomics

Safer jobs with fewer injuries

Increased efficiency and

productivity

Improved quality and fewer errors

Improved morale

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Controlling Ergonomic

Hazards

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Workstation Design—(desks, chairs, space, layout)

 Working in Prolonged Positions Sitting/Standing--(alternate postures, footwear, floors)

Work Organization (Pace, Breaks, Variety)

Tools, Equipment, and Furniture Design---(body size, height, gender, promoting neutral postures, reduced vibration, exposure to acceptable lighting, noise, temperature

Manual Materials Handling—(lifting, lowering, pulling, pushing, carrying and holding materials)

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Tips for Working on the

Computer

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Head: held straight & squarely over shoulders

Eyes: top of computer screen should be at or slightly below eye level

Shoulders: relaxed, not raised or hunched

Arms: supported comfortably & close to the body

Wrists: naturally straight and flat

Elbows: bent approximately 90 degrees and positioned close to the body

Back: sufficiently supported to maintain its natural curve

Hips: bent approximately 90 degrees

Knees: bent approximately 90 degrees.

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Laptops: The New

Hazard?

Laptops should only be used for short periods of

time if not ergonomically retrofitted

Retrofitting means adding a full size keyboard,

external mouse and raising the laptop to eye level

to promote neutral body postures

Consider transporting your laptop in a roller cart, or

ergonomically designed bag

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Moving Information in the Computer

How do binary numerals move into, out of,

and within the computer?

Information is moved about in bytes, or

multiple bytes called words.

Words

are the fundamental units of information.

The number of bits per word may vary per computer.

A word length for most large IBM computers is 32 bits:

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30

Bits that compose a word are

passed in parallel from place to

place.

Bus/Ribbon cables

:

Consist of several wires,

molded together.

One wire for each bit of the

word or byte.

Additional wires coordinate the

activity of moving information.

Each wire sends information in

the form of a

voltage pulse.

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Moving Information in the Computer

Example of sending

the word WOW over

the ribbon cable

Voltage pulses

corresponding to

the ASCII codes

would pass through

the cable.

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Any Questions !!!

END OF LECTURE

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