Authoring Within a Content Management System. The Content Management Story

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Authoring Within a Content Management System

The Content

Management Story

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Learning Goals

Understand the roots of content management

Define the concept of content

Describe what a content management system does

Describe what an information model is and

how it is used in content management

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Course Map

Module 1: The Content Management Story

The roots of content management

What is content

The information model

Module 2: Content and Authors

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The Content Management Story

Connecting the Dots … , er Data

We Have Content!

What is Content?

Systematically Managing Content

The Information Model

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The Content Management Story

Connecting the Dots … ,

er Data

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Connecting the Dots , er Data

Computing with Applications

Networking the Computers

Internetworking

Isolated Information

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Computing With Applications

Computers mainly process data

Mainframes, minicomputers and personal computers all used applications to process data

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Networking the Computers

People wanted to access the unprocessed and the useful data from remote computers

And why not use the

applications from remote computers, too?

So, groups of computers were connected over LANs

Network applications such as email also appeared

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Internetworking

Soon the desire for connectivity spawned

acceptance of the Internet Protocols which can connect disparate networks

People could communicate across a global network

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Isolated Information

Spirit of connectivity ignored anything not considered data or communication

Documents, spreadsheets,

pictures, etc. were the domain of individuals, not information systems

People began to wonder what solutions and inspirations were hiding in this isolated info

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The Content Management Story

We Have Content!

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Decisions, Actions, Data

Enterprises repeat the following sequence:

Decide on a course of action

Act on the decision

Capture data about the action

This can be a development project, sales activity, personnel decision … anything

Very often, the data includes descriptive data

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What Drives the Decisions?

What about the information that …

drives the decision - planning documents, meeting notes, market analysis, email threads

supports the action – marketing collateral, product manuals, training materials

This information was found in computer files

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If It Is Valuable, Manage It

If it drives decisions, it must be valuable

If it supports actions, it must be valuable

If it ’ s valuable, it must be managed

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So Let s Manage Our Documents

Document management systems came into existence to manage the non-data files or documents

Search mechanisms were built into these

systems so users could find what they

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How Can We Reuse Information?

Enterprises discovered that they were

recreating the same information in different flavors

Every new flavor was a new document

They wanted to reuse information the way …

Manufacturers reuse components

Enterprise data systems reuse data

Software developers reuse small objects of code

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Single Sourcing

Technical communicators starting publishing multiple versions of the same information in 3 ways:

Identical content, multiple media

Customized content built from single source

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So What Is It That We Need?

More than just a smart library system like document management

We need something that can:

Store information in chunks, not documents

Reuse chunks as well as create new chunks

Publish chunks in different combinations for different media

We need a content management system!

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What Should It Do?

Help us manage our knowledge

Assist us in unifying our far flung content

Help us find content

Enable us to reuse content efficiently

Allow us to publish in multiple media

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The Content Management Story

But What is Content,

Exactly?

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But What is Content, Exactly?

Data, Information and Content

Content Has Format

Content Has Structure

Functionality as Content

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Data, Information and Content

Data – snippets of information without human meaning

Content – information with human meaning and context

How can a computer built to handle data deal with content?

By wrapping the content in data (metadata)

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Content Is Not Data

Data

is still mainly numbers

is usable by computers Content

can include text, images, video, animation,

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Content Is Information Plus Data

If you add a status to a newsletter article

(new, ready-to-publish, ready-to-delete), you have content.

A computer can then use the status

(metadata) to decide what to do with the article.

Metadata makes the context and meaning of

information explicit to a computer

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Content Has Format

Format for presentation

Emotional effect: size, color, position, etc.

Type of effect: type, layout or background

Scope: character, paragraph, page, chapter, etc.

Must be consistent

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Content Has Structure

Makes your content easier to create, to manage and easier to automate

Hierarchical structure is most common

Categories

Components

Elements

Creating a structure can be a large and

difficult task

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Types of Structures

Divisional structure organizes content by

categories (product reviews, press releases, etc.)

Access structure organizes content by how

the audience needs to access the content

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Functionality as Content

Web site functionality can be considered content

Programming objects and code applets are served along with information, often by

identical rules (metadata)

Personalized functionality such as login

applets, or user features based on account

type are examples of functionality as content

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The Content Management Story

Unified Content

Strategy Discussion

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Unified Content Strategy

Unmanaged content vs. content silos?

Content management without unified content strategy?

More benefits of content reuse?

What type of reuse you have done or seen?

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The Content Management Story

Systematically

Managing Content

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Systematically Managing Content

What is CMS Again?

Types of content systems

What does CMS Do?

Collection System

Management System

Publishing System

Metadata Keeps the Balance

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What Is CMS Again?

A hardware and software system

A set of content types and processes

A vehicle that enables an enterprise to

connect its information to its constituents

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Types of Content Systems

Web content

Transactional content

Integrated document management

Learning content

Enterprise content

Other content systems

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Web Content Management

Automates Web content creation, management and delivery

Supports collaborative authoring, testing and controlled delivery

Includes HTML authoring tool or web-based

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Transactional Content

Manages the exchange of money through Web-based product catalogs (E-commerce)

Capacity to interface with legacy systems (accounting, inventory, shipping, etc.)

Web-based only

Content sharing is usually one way

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Integrated Document Management

Manages enterprise documents, but some have moved to content elements as well

Interface with many authoring tools and content images

Strong on traditional CMS (audit trails,

version control, access control, etc.)

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Learning Content

Manage Web-based learning materials

Include tools to create simulations,

animations, multimedia and other reusable e-learning content

Usually can only develop content within the tool

Few support sharing content from other CMS

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Enterprise Content

New vendor category

Usually XML-based systems

Focus on Web delivery with some print and PDF creation

Some include e-commerce functionality

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Other Content Systems

Knowledge Management – focus on

discovery and reporting. Manage documents and data, not content elements

Customer Relationship Management –

manage customer information allowing one face to customer. Sharing of information

within enterprise varies by vendor

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4 Big Things That a CMS Does

Collect new and existing content in CMS repository

Manage the stored content, system processes and administer the system

Publish content from repository to Web and

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Collection System

Transform information into content components

Authoring – creation of new content

Acquisition – gathering of content from existing sources

Conversion – remove unnecessary

information or apply new markup language

Aggregation – edit, componentize and tag

with metadata

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Management System

Maintain repository and administer system

Repository

Content database

Control and configuration files

Administration

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Publishing System

Create publications with content components

Publishing templates and services

Static elements (text, media, etc.)

Calls to publication services (necessary functions such as executing personalization rules or

building navigation)

Calls to enterprise services

Connections to other enterprise systems

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Types of Reuse

Opportunistic – when an author decides to reuse information

Systematic – when technology automatically reuses information

Locked reuse, when content cannot be changed

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CMS Is a Balance of Entities

Goals and Requirements

Audiences

Publications

Content components

Authors

Acquisition Sources

Workflow and staffing

Access structures

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Metadata Keeps the Balance

It ’ s the snippets of information (data) that let a computer catalog, store and retrieve your content

It draws diverse classes of content into a

coherent scheme

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The Content Management Story

The Information Model

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The Information Model

What is an Information Model?

XML: eXtensible Markup Language

Document Type Definitions

Metadata

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What Is an Information Model?

A blueprint for writing, structuring and delivering reusable content

A catalog of the enterprise ’ s information products

Identifies required and optional content elements

Illustrates how to structure and reuse content

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3 Levels of an Information Model

Taxonomy

Categories of information that become the attributes and values of your metadata

Information Products or Types

Authors use these templates to create consistent information products

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Taxonomy Means Categories

Reflect the

dimensions of the user community’s attitudes and

goals

Metadata consists of all the values for the attributes in the Taxonomy

Value Attribute

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Cookbook Recipe Example

Starters, Soups, Salads, Main Role in a meal

Italian, Mexican, Chinese, Irish, Thai, Vietnamese

Ethnicity

Beef, Lamb, Chicken, Fish Shellfish, Vegetables

Primary Ingredient

Metadata Value Attribute

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Information Products or Types

Templates for communications that ensure consistent structure

Starting point for authors

Could be a simple WORD template or defined by an XML Document Type Definition

Contains elements or content units, some of

which may be re-usable or re-used

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Containers or Nested Elements

Elements can be information or containers of information

For example, a Body element can contain other elements (announcement, features, benefits, etc.)

Announcement can contain paragraphs,

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Model Components

Semantic Information

Base Information

Metadata

Architectural Information

Production Information

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XML: eXtensible Markup Language

Specification for the creation of tag sets

Based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)

Not a set of tags like HTML

You create the tags

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Benefits of Defining Tag Names

Tag names have meaning for you and your authors

Names can reflect the content

Tag names have nothing to do with formatting

You can have as many or as few tags as you

need

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Benefits of Using XML

Structured content

Separation of content and format

Built-in metadata

Database orientation

XSL style sheets

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Document Type Definitions (DTD)

XML version of Information Type

Defines what content your information products can contain

Both a template and a set of rules for automated publishing

Can be very specific and flexible

Content elements are XML tags

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What Does Meta Mean?

Meta from Merriam-Webster OnLine:

occurring later than or in succession to

situated behind or beyond

later or more highly organized, specialized form of

change : transformation

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What Does Metadata Mean?

Meta-data is about data

Or data about data

It is what you need to use the content

It is what you need to understand the content

It is not the content

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Early Metadata

Library Card Catalog

File Properties listed by operation system

Size

Date Modified

Application Type

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Metadata In Content Management

CMS is concerned with smaller content chunks

Therefore, metadata describes entities

smaller than a file (components, elements)

CMS is also concerned with publication of smaller chunks

Metadata describes how to present a content

chunk

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Types of Metadata

Categorization

Hierarchies

Taxonomies

Element

Reuse

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Metadata Process

Must be consistently applied to content

Done by authors or editors

Metadata guide can be helpful

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The Content Management Story

Summary

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Connecting the Dots , er Data

Computing with Applications

Networking the Computers

Internetworking

Isolated Information

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We Have Content!

Valuable information (non-data) was stored in documents and was unmanaged

Document management organized the

volumes of documents, but was only half the

story

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But What is Content, Exactly?

Data, Information and Content

Content Has Format

Content Has Structure

Functionality as Content

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Systematically Managing Content

What is CMS Again?

Types of Content Systems

What does CMS Do?

Collection System

Management System

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The Information Model

What is an Information Model?

XML: eXtensible Markup Language

Document Type Definitions

Metadata

Figure

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References

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