ACCA October 4, 2012 Orlando, Florida

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Lynn Zubernis, Matthew Snyder, Vickie Ann McCoy, Eric Owens & Jacqueline Hodes

Department of Counselor Education West Chester University of PA

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Dr. Lynn Zubernis

Department of Counselor Education

West Chester University of PA

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Dr. Jacqueline Hodes

Department of Counselor Education

West Chester University of PA

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"Could  I  be  gay?"    

Is  "homosexuality"  personally  relevant?    

Experience  denial  and  confusion.  

CRITICAL  TASK  

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" Maybe  this  does  apply  to  me."    

Will  accept  the  possibility  that     he  or  she  is  gay/lesbian.  

 Self-­‐alienation  can  become  isolation.  

CRITICAL  TASK  

Deal  with  potential  of  social  alienation  

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"I'm  not  the  only  one."    

Accepts  the  probability  of  being  gay  or  lesbian.  

Recognizes  sexual,  social,  emotional  needs.  

 Increased  commitment  to  being  lesbian  or  gay.    

CRITICAL  TASK  

Decrease  social  alienation  by  seeking  out  

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"I've  got  to  let  people  know  who  I  am!"    

Immerses  self  in  gay  and  lesbian  culture.    

Less  and  less  involvement  with  heterosexual   community.    

Us-­‐them  quality  to  political/social  viewpoint.  

CRITICAL  TASK  

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Develops  holistic  view  of  self.    

Defines  self  in  a  more  complete  fashion,     not  just  in  terms  of  sexual  orientation.  

CRITICAL  TASK    

Integrate  gay  and  lesbian  identity  so  that  instead  of  

being  just  the  identity,  it  is  one  aspect  of  self.  

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  How  does  Lesbian  and  Gay  Identity  Development   impact  College  Student  Development  as  a  Whole?  

  Does  it  matter  if  the  coming  out  process  occurs  in  

High  School,  College,  Graduate  school  or  later?  What   are  the  developmental  implications  of  coming  out  

earlier  or  later  in  life?  

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Dr. Eric Owens

Department of Counselor Education

West Chester University of PA

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It is essential that Higher Education

Counselors and Student Affairs Professionals remember that the Lesbian/Gay identity is only one part of college student

development.

Students who identify as lesbian and gay are also experiencing all the other

developmental milestones associated with

the college years.

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1. 

Developing Competence

2. 

Managing Emotions

3. 

Moving Through Autonomy Toward Interdependence

4. 

Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships

5. 

Establishing Identity

6. 

Developing Purpose

7. 

Developing Integrity

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  is  involved  in  making  choices,  

  interacts  with  diverse  individuals  and  ideas,  

  is  directly  involved  in  new  and  varied  experiences,  

  is  involved  in  solving  problems  without  demand  for   conformity  to  an  authority’s  opinion,  and  

  is  involved  with  receiving  feedback  and  making  an  

objective  self  assessment.  

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  Intellectual  and  interpersonal  competence,  

   developing  physical  and  manual  skills    

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  Students  develop  the  ability  to  recognize  and  accept   emotions,  

   as  well  as  to  appropriately  control  and  express  them.    

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  Increased  emotional  independence,    

  self  direction,    

  problem  solving.  

   Recognize  connectedness  and  interdependence.    

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  Intercultural  and  interpersonal  tolerance.  

  Relationship  experience  contributes  significantly  to   the  sense  of  self.    

  Accept  people  for  who  they  are.    

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  Acknowledges  differences  in  identity  development   based  on  gender,  ethnicity,  and  sexual  orientation.    

  Comfort  with  sense  of  self.    

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  Clear  vocational  goals,    

  making  meaningful  commitments  to  interests  and   activities,  

  intentionally  making  and  staying  with  decisions.    

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  Humanizing  values,    

  personalizing  values,    

  and  developing  congruence.    

  Going  from  a  rigid  moralistic  thinking  to  humanized  

value  system    

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  Vectors  1-­‐4  apply  to  Freshmen  and  Sophomores    

  Vector  5  applies  to  Sophomores  and  Juniors    

  Vectors  6  &  7  apply  to  Juniors  and  Seniors    

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 

How are these 7 vectors impacted by the coming out process?

 

How can we integrate these two theoretical models to better understand the overall

development of lesbian and gay college students?

 

We recommend:

Zubernis, L., Snyder, M. & McCoy, V. (2011).

Counseling lesbian and gay college students through the lens of Cass’ and Chickering’s

developmental models. Journal of LGBT Issues

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Dr. Vickie Ann McCoy

Department of Counselor Education

West Chester University of PA

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  As  Higher  Education  Counselors  and  Student  Affairs   professionals  we  can  foster  opportunities  for  college   students  to  explore  sexual  identity  as  part  of  their   development.  

  We  can  work  to  make  certain  that  our  campuses  are     safe  places  with  opportunities  for  lesbian  and  gay  

students  to  participate,  advocate  and  receive  

supportive  services.  

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 

Explore  core  personal  beliefs  and  distinguish  them  from   internalized  societal  attitudes  

 

Explore  misconceptions  about  career  possibilities  and   limitations    

 

Develop  coping  strategies  

 

Create  a  safe  environment  for  understanding  and  

integrating  both  LG  identity  development    and  typical  

college  student  development.  

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  Understand  that  LG  status  is  NOT  indicative  of   mental  illness  

  Recognize  how  their  attitudes  and  knowledge  about   GLB  issues  may  be  relevant  to  assessment  and  

treatment,  and  seek  consultation  or  make  appropriate   referrals  when  needed  (APA  Guidelines,  2000)  

  Understand  the  ways  in  which  social  stigmatization   (prejudice,  discrimination,  violence)  poses  risks  to  the   mental  health  and  well-­‐being  of  LG  clients  

  Understand  how  inaccurate  or  prejudicial  views  may  

affect  the  client’s  presentation  in  treatment  and  the  

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  Be  knowledgeable  about  and  respect  the  importance   of    LG  relationships  

  Understand  how  a  person’s  LG  orientation  may  have   an  impact  on  his  or  her  family  of  origin  and  the  

relationship  to  that  family  of  origin  

 

Recognize  the  particular  life  challenges  of  LG  members  of   racial  and  ethnic  minorities  that  are  related  to  multiple   and  often  conflicting  cultural  norms,  values  and  beliefs  

  Understand  the  special  problems  and  risks  that  exist   for    LG  youth  and  adolescents  

  Recognize  the  particular  challenges  experienced  by  

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  Encouraging  trust  

  Promoting  disclosure  

  Supporting  risk-­‐taking  

  Confronting  homophobia  

  Confronting  non-­‐adaptive  defenses  

  Generalizing  group  experiences  to  “real  world”  

  Discussion  of  non-­‐LG  issues  germane  to  college  

students  (i.e.  love  relationships,  sexual  fidelity,  

aging,  physical  appearance,  health,  death/dying,  

F.O.O.  concerns,  friends,  employers,  co-­‐workers,  

career  concerns,  spiritual/religious  concerns)  

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  1. Identity Confusion

  2. Identity Comparison

  3. Identity Tolerance

  4. Identity Acceptance

  5. Identity Pride

  6. Identity Synthesis  

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I am NOT GAY. (?) I AM NOT GAY!

I am not gay.

I am gay.

I AM GAY!

I am Gay.

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1.    Identity  Confusion  (Less  Effective)   2.    Identity  Comparison  (Effective)  

3.    Identity  Tolerance  (Effective)   4.    Identity  Acceptance  (Effective)   5.    Identity  Pride  (Less  Effective)  

6.  Identity  Synthesis  (Most  Effective)  

Chojnacki  &  Gelberg,  1995  

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What  is  the  cultural  climate  of  your  campus  community?  

urban/rural?  

conservative/liberal?  

boundaries?  

SES?  

patriarchal/matriarchal?  

collective/individualistic?  

religious/spiritual?  

traditional/modern?  

majority/minority  race,  ethnicity,  heritage,  language,  ability?  

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  Understand  the  various  stage  theories  regarding  LG   identity  development  and  typical  college  student   development.  

  Familiarize  yourself  with  the  LG  research  

  Gain  knowledge  about  appropriate  and  inappropriate   LG  conceptualizations  and  interventions  

  Refresh  knowledge  base  or  add  greater  detail  about  

appropriate  and  successful  group  interventions  

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Question:

Do I have to identify as Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual

to be an effective group leader?

Answer:

NO!

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We  need  to  provide:  

 

Facilitation  of  supportive  relationships  on  campus  to   buffer  the  potential  discrimination  in  the  larger  society.  

 

Connection  with  supportive  faculty  and  student  affairs   professionals  on  campus,  which  may  include  counseling   center  professionals.  

 

Opportunities  for  students  to    safely  advocate  for  the   needs  of  the  LG  community.  

 

Education  about  LG  issues  and  non-­‐discrimination  for  

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  What  would  you  do?    

  What  offices  on  campus  can  assist  you?  

  Do  you  know  faculty  members  and  other  students   who  are  out  and  advocating?  How  can  they  help  this   student?  

  How  can  you  prepare  yourself  to  work  more  

effectively  with  the  developmental  needs  of  lesbian  

and  gay  college  students?  

Figure

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