A STUDY ON THE JOB SATISFACTION AND INSTITUTIONAL COMMITMENT AMONG SCHOOL TEACHERS IN KERALA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MALAPPURAM DISTRICT.

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International Journal in Management and Social Science http://ijmr.net.in, Email: irjmss@gmail.com A STUDY ON THE JOB SATISFACTION AND INSTITUTIONAL COMMITMENT AMONG SCHOOL TEACHERS IN KERALA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO

MALAPPURAM DISTRICT.

Lipin Raj

M.com Student, Christ College (Autonomous) Irinjalakuda Dr Josheena Jose

Assistant Professor , PG Department of commerce, Christ College (Autonomous) Irinjalakuda

Abstract

Teachers are pillars our nation. Teacher plays an important role in developing the knowledge

and skill of youth. This study aims at investigating the job satisfaction and institutional

commitment among school teachers in Malappuram district. 30 respondents from government

school, 30 respondents from aided schools and 30 respondents from private school were

taken for the purpose of the study. Data collected was analysed with both descriptive and

inferential statistics using spss version 21. Independent sample t-test and chi-square test has

been used in this study to analyse the job satisfaction and institutional commitment level

among male and female teachers and government, aided and private school teachers. On

comparing the job satisfaction level and institutional commitment between government and

aided and public school teachers. Job satisfaction influences job commitment towards the

institution

Key words: job satisfaction, Institutional commitment, organisational climate,

government school, private school, aided school, gender

1.1 Introduction

High quality teaching staff is the cornerstone of a successful educational system.

Teachers are both the largest human capital resource of an educational system,

particularly at the school level. Attracting and retaining high quality teachers is thus a

primary necessity for educational institution. However, good teachers are difficult to

recruit and almost impossible to retain if the rewards of teaching do not outweigh the

possible frustrations on account of poor job conditions. Job satisfaction has always been a

flash point of discussion among the researchers and scholars since along. This critical

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begging of industrialization, but now it is applied to each and every organisation. The

education system is also being changed in to an organisation. In the field of education

measuring the job satisfaction of teachers has become a prime focuses of attention for

researchers to make it a dynamic and efficient one. The job satisfaction teachers

particularly at secondary level are very vital. The value of secondary education is

undeniable; it is very important to provide teachers with the utmost facilities so that they

must be satisfied with the status of their job. The highlighted topic is very serious issue

due to the importance of secondary education which is central stage of the whole pyramid

of education system in the world. A better performance only possible if the job fulfils the

basic needs of teachers like terms of salary and better status as explained by Khan(1999), “salary or emoluments caters the material needs of the employees in allowing a sense of status and importance”. Performance from a teacher can only be expected if they are

satisfied with their job. Job satisfaction is an individual attributes and it is outcome of the

fulfilment of the individual needs which vary greatly from one person to another.

Institutional commitment is the most imperative trait of a teacher. The term can be

used in a verity of ways to label various teacher behaviours and fact beyond the dimensions

of organizational commitment. A teacher’s work is not limited to the class room only, but his

work is set with in the structure and environments of organisation, such as schools and

educational system. Therefore, professional commitment could be discussed in terms of

organisation dimensions of affective, continuance and normative commitment

(Meyer&Allen, 1991). The profession of teaching is unique profession and involves a

multifaceted and rich amalgamation of working relationship with not only the organisation,

but with a number of other participants, such as the parents, students and colleges. Therefore,

professional commitment is persuasive for both teachers and the educational system.

According to Arya (2012), professional commitment of the teachers is to deviate personal

time and dedicated towards his profession. Dave (1998) mentioned five areas towards which

teachers should be committed. There are (1) commitment to be a learner (2) commitment to

the society (3) commitment to the profession (4) commitment to achieve excellence and (5)

commitment to basic human values. The role of a teacher is very complicated because of

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As teachers are very important in any educational institution it is vital to track on their

performance, attitude and feelings. Every management feel believes that “satisfied teachers can bring their institution success “so it is very important for every management to identify

whether their employees are really satisfied or not? And job satisfaction survey is a tool to

check whether a person is happy with his job or not. it is important for every institution to

know job satisfaction level of their employees of the institution. Satisfaction refers to individual element of one’s job, like as salary, growth prospect, physical environment,

working hours, so on and so forth. Thus the research work is directed towards understanding

the job satisfaction and institutional commitment among school teachers in Malappuram

district.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Job satisfaction is good not only for employer but employee’s too. It increase

productivity and decrease the turnover. These two aspects are important in education. Job

satisfaction is the combination of psychological and environmental circumstances that

cause a person to truthfully say “I am satisfied with my job”. It is the end feeling of a

person after performing a task. employee job satisfaction is very complex, influenced by

many factors like pay, work promotion, recognition, working condition, benefit etc.

Hence this study is aimed in measuring the job satisfaction level of the teachers in Kerala

with special focus on Malappuram District

1.3 Scope and significance

The scope of the research is job satisfaction and institutional commitment among school

teachers in Malappuram District. This study is highly significant and useful to know the

satisfaction and institutional commitment level of the school teachers in malappuram district.

1.4 Objectives of the study

1 To study the factors affecting job satisfaction of teachers in Kerala.

2 To compare the job satisfaction of teachers working in government, aided and

unaided schools.

3 To compare the institutional commitment of teachers working in government, aided

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1.5Hypotheses of the Study

1 There is significant association between job satisfaction and type of management.

2 There is difference in the commitment of teachers working in government, aided

and unaided schools towards their work assignment.

1.6Research Methodology

The present study is descriptive in nature. The study examines the job satisfaction,

school climate and institutional commitment of teachers with respect to different locations,

managements and schools in Kerala. It also analyses the impact of school climate on

institutional commitment and overall job satisfaction of teachers in Kerala. The present study

uses primary data. Due to the special nature of the study the qualitative data has also been

used in the present study.

1.7 Sample design

1.7.1 Population The study is conducted on job satisfaction and institutional commitment

among school teachers in Malappuram district.

1.7.1 Sample frame to study the whole population and in order to arrive at conclusion

would be impractical, since it is not practical to include all school teachers in Malappuram

district in the area of data collection. It was considered to draw the sample. The sampling

method is used in this study is purposive sampling under the non-probability sampling

method. Three schools in malappuram district viz, H.S Vannery, GHSS Maranchery, and

KMM perumpadapu selected for the purpose of selecting sample respondents.

1.7.2 Sample size

30 respondents from government school, 30 respondents from aided schools and 30

respondents from private school were taken for the purpose of the study. Therefore 90

respondents were selected to constitute the sample size for the study. Among 90

samples 42 samples respondents are male and 48 are females.

1.7 Tools for analysis

A questionnaire was designed for the purpose of achieving the research

objectives. In order to analyze the impact of school climate on institutional

commitment and overall job satisfaction of teachers in Kerala. The statistical

tools used for the analysis of primary data consist of frequencies

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analytical tools used for establishing and analyzing the relation and dependence

between variables include: statistical methods used for hypotheses testing, such

as Factor analysis, Chi-square test and ANOVA

Part II

2.1 Conceptual Frame Work of the Study

Sinemaydogdu and barisasikgil(AYDOGDU, 2011)

They conduct a study on a topic “An Empirical study on the relationship among job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention”. The study conducted on 100

employees from production sector. The relationship among job satisfaction, organizational

commitment and turnover intention are investigated to determine statistically significant

relation .the result of the study support the hypothesis. Job satisfaction as a significant and

positive relationship with three dimensions of organizational commitment and turn over

intention has a significant and negative relationship with job satisfaction and organizational

commitment.

Lynn mcfarlane and harry j. martin (McFarlane, 1989)

They studied the differential Association of job satisfaction and organizational commitment

have with job performance and turnover intentions were studied in a sample of bank tellers

and hospital professionals. Result showed that organizational commitment was more strongly

related than job satisfaction with turn over intentions for the tellers but not for the

professionals

Dr.saminanawab(Nawab, 2010)

He conducted on a study topic on “job satisfaction and organizational commitment of university teachers in public sector of Pakistan”. The study aimed to exploring to what extent

these teachers are committed to their universities and satisfied withdifferent dimensions of

their job. The study based on descriptive research design was used. The study was carried on

teaching faculty working in two public sector universities of Pakistan. Regression analysis

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Bola adekola(Adekola, 2012)

He study topic on the” impact of organizational commitment on job satisfaction: As a study

of employees at Nigerian universities”. He tested in the private and public university system

ascertains the veracity of this hypothesis. Data were collected from 150 employees consisting

of academic and administrative and technical staff from both public universities and private

universities. The result revealed that employees in public universities have greater degree of

organisational commitment in comparison to private universities.

Dr.lalitamishra(Lalitamishra, 2018)

He conducted a study topic on “A study of employee satisfaction and organizational

commitment of the teaching and non-teaching staff”. The study is descriptive and empirical

nature and purposive sampling technique is used to select management colleges. The study is

based on primary data, which has been collected through structural questionnaire, filled by

teaching and non-teaching staff members stake 150 respondents of teaching and non-teaching

staff of different colleges (10 management colleges) of Gwalior has been selected on random

sampling basis.

Based on literature, the major concepts that guided this study consist

of Job Satisfaction developed by Spector (1997), School Climate developed by Hoy

et.al (2002) and Organizational Commitment developed by Mowday et al (1982).

School climate viz, type of management effects on institutional commitment and the

overall job satisfaction of teachers.

Part III

The third section of this paper analyse the School climate viz, type of management

effects on institutional commitment and the overall job satisfaction of teachers. Institutional

commitment or organisational commitment denotes the employees‟ attachment or loyalty to

the organisation. It is concerned with the degree to which people are involved with their

organisation and are interested to remain with them. A highly committed person has the

feeling that he is working for himself and not for somebody else. The success of the

school system is basically determined by the level of commitment on the part of teachers

Factor analysis is performed as a data reduction technique. Factor Analysis is performed on

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International Journal in Management and Social Science http://ijmr.net.in, Email: irjmss@gmail.com Table 3.1 Communalities Extracted for the Evaluation of Institutional

Commitment

Sl.

No.

Institutional Commitment Initial Extraction

1 I am proud to tell others that I am part of

this school

1.000 .696

2 I identify My values and school values are

similar

1.000 .260

3 I spend more time in my school 1.000 .891 4 I speak\talk up this school to my friends as a

great school to work for

1.000 .732

5 I really try to increase image in this school 1.000 .776 6 I really care about the fate and image of this

school

1.000 .829

7 The school really inspires the very best in

me in the way of job performance

1.000 .598

8 I have security in my job 1.000 .796 9 I would accept almost any type of job

assignment in order to keep working for the

school

1.000 .826

10 I am willing to put in a great deal of effort

beyond that normally expected in order to

help this school be successful

1.000 .836

Source: SPSS output

Since all communalities are fairly large (greater than .5) except the factor IC 2 it is

supposed to be a good set of variables. The Principal Components Extraction followed by

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International Journal in Management and Social Science http://ijmr.net.in, Email: irjmss@gmail.com Table 3.2Total Variance Explained on the Variables for the Evaluation of

Institutional Commitment

Total Variance Explained

Compone

nt

Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of

Squared Loadings

Rotation Sums of

Squared Loadings Tota l % of Varian ce Cumulati ve % Tota l % of Varian ce Cumulati ve % Tota l % of Varian ce Cumulati ve %

1 2.93

9

29.385 29.385 2.93

9

29.385 29.385 2.30

1

23.007 23.007

2 1.89

5

18.952 48.337 1.89

5

18.952 48.337 2.08

1

20.805 43.812

3 1.32

5

13.248 61.585 1.32

5

13.248 61.585 1.75

7

17.573 61.385

4 1.08

0

10.804 72.389 1.08

0

10.804 72.389 1.10

0

11.004 72.389

5 .870 8.695 81.084

6 .644 6.436 87.520

7 .460 4.599 92.119

8 .309 3.086 95.204

9 .259 2.589 97.794

10 .221 2.206 100.000

Source: SPSS output

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

It is a general practice in Factor Analysis to consider as many factors as there are Eigen

values greater than one (Eigen Values are variances of the factors). Using this procedure,

three factors are identified as dominant with 72.389 per cent of explanation of total

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International Journal in Management and Social Science http://ijmr.net.in, Email: irjmss@gmail.com Table 3.3 Rotated Component Matrixes for the Evaluation of Institutional

Commitment

From this matrix using factor loadings, the following factors were developed for further analysis

in this study overall commitment is constituted by four important factors such as (1)

commitment towards Work Assignment, (2) Image Building Activities, and (3) Commitment

towards Institution (4) sense of belongingness.

This section deals with analysis of the four factors of institutional commitment and

evaluation of variation in teachers perception with respect to these factors based on type of

school management. Analysis is made with the help of ANOVA. Component

1 2 3 4

IC8 .857

IC4 .834

IC7 .745

IC6 .896

IC5 .851

IC1 .584

IC9 .901

IC10 .879

IC3 .941

Source: SPSS output

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.a

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Table 3.4 ANOVAcommitment towards Work Assignment

Sum of

Squares

df Mean Square F Sig.

IC7

Between Groups 20.459 2 10.230 15.163 .000

Within Groups 58.696 87 .675

Total 79.156 89

IC8

Between Groups 76.564 2 38.282 52.128 .000

Within Groups 63.891 87 .734

Total 140.456 89

IC4

Between Groups 39.617 2 19.808 35.651 .000

Within Groups 48.339 87 .556

Total 87.956 89

Source: SPSS output

Table 3.5 ANOVA Image Building Activities

Sum of

Squares

df Mean Square F Sig.

IC6

Between Groups 1.635 2 .817 1.246 .293

Within Groups 57.087 87 .656

Total 58.722 89

IC5

Between Groups 1.592 2 .796 1.101 .337

Within Groups 62.864 87 .723

Total 64.456 89

IC1

Between Groups 16.287 2 8.143 11.396 .000

Within Groups 62.169 87 .715

Total 78.456 89

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International Journal in Management and Social Science http://ijmr.net.in, Email: irjmss@gmail.com Table 3.6 ANOVA Commitment towards Institution

Sum of

Squares

df Mean Square F Sig.

IC9

Between Groups .628 2 .314 .565 .571

Within Groups 48.361 87 .556

Total 48.989 89

IC10

Between Groups 2.272 2 1.136 2.516 .087

Within Groups 38.829 86 .452

Total 41.101 88

Source: SPSS output

Table 3.7 ANOVA Sense of belongingness. IC3

Sum of

Squares

df Mean Square F Sig.

Between Groups 2.175 2 1.088 3.269 .043

Within Groups 28.947 87 .333

Total 31.122 89

Source: SPSS output

From Tables 3 . 4 , 3.5, 3.6 and 3.7 it is evident that teachers perception with

respect to Institutional commitment varies considerably according to the type of

management. Management-wise mean variation is also statistically significant at 5 per cent

level of significance in commitment towards work assignment. Under the image Building

Activities mean variation is statistically significant in unaided sector only while in the Govt.

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Karl Pearson chi-square came out to be 15.122 and the significant value as 0.004. This

value being less than .05 (level of significance), clearly indicates that there is significant

difference in job satisfaction level of teachers working in government, aided and unaided

schools.

Conclusion

Satisfaction level of the teachers with respect to different dimensions of job satisfaction

such as pay, promotion, supervision, rewards, peer groups, nature of work and

communication shows significant variations among different management systems. The

overall job satisfaction significantly influences teachers’ work assignment, commitment

towards image building activities and commitment towards their institution.

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Table 3.8 Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig.

(2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 15.122a 4 .004

Likelihood Ratio 14.361 4 .006

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.823 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 90

Source: SPSS output a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count

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International Journal in Management and Social Science http://ijmr.net.in, Email: irjmss@gmail.com

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Figure

Table 3.3 Rotated Component Matrixes for the Evaluation of Institutional Commitment

Table 3.3

Rotated Component Matrixes for the Evaluation of Institutional Commitment p.9
Table 3.4 ANOVA commitment towards Work Assignment

Table 3.4

ANOVA commitment towards Work Assignment p.10
Table 3.6 ANOVA  Commitment towards Institution

Table 3.6

ANOVA Commitment towards Institution p.11
Table 3.7 ANOVA Sense of belongingness.

Table 3.7

ANOVA Sense of belongingness. p.11
Table 3.8 Chi-Square Tests

Table 3.8

Chi-Square Tests p.12

References