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Economic Institutions To build understanding of today’s economic institutions, have students com-plete a tree map graphic organizer like the one shown at the right. Remind students that a tree map shows an outline for a main topic, main ideas, and supporting details. Tell students to place the section title, “Banking Today,” in the top box; the main headings in the next row of boxes; and main ideas and supporting details in the boxes below that.

Section Reading Support Transparencies A tem-plate and the answers for this graphic organizer can be found in Chapter 10, Section 3 of the Section Reading Support Transparency System.

Graphing the Main Idea

B UI L D I N G B UI L D I N G K E YCONCE PT S K E YCONCE PT S

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Banking Today

Objectives

You may wish to call students’ attention to the objectives in the Section Preview. The objectives are reflected in the main headings of the section.

Bellringer

Ask students to list the kinds of money they have with them today. Students may list only bills and coins, or some may mention credit cards. Explain that in this section they will learn about the many types of money and banking services that exist today.

Vocabulary Builder

Ask students to read the section to find the meanings of the key terms. Then ask them to create a matching quiz using the terms and their definitions. Have students exchange quizzes, complete them, and return them for correction.

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o you have a checking account, credit card, or ATM card? If you don’t, you most likely will in the near future. As this question suggests, people in the United States today use more than just paper currency and coins to pay for purchases.

Measuring the Money Supply

You are familiar with paying for the items you need with currency—the bills and coins in your pocket. Money consists of currency. It also consists of traveler’s checks, checking account deposits, and a variety of other components. All of these components make up the United States

money supply—all the money available in the United States economy. To more easily keep track of these different kinds of money, economists divide the money supply into several categories. The main categories are called M1 and M2.

M1

M1 represents money that people can gain access to easily and immediately to pay for goods and services. In other words, M1 consists of assets that have liquidity,or the ability to be used as, or directly converted into, cash.

As you can see from Figure 10.5, about 48 percent of M1 is made up of currency

held by the public, that is, all currency held outside of bank vaults. Another large part of M1 is deposits in checking accounts. Funds in checking accounts are also called

demand deposits because checks can be paid “on demand,” that is, at any time. Until the 1980s, checking accounts did not pay interest, and a new category, called

other checkable deposits, was introduced to describe checking accounts that did pay interest. Today this distinction is not as meaningful as it once was since many checking accounts pay interest if your balance is sufficiently high.

Traveler’s checks make up a very small component of M1. Unlike personal checks, traveler’s checks can be easily turned into cash.

M2

M2 consists of all the assets in M1 plus several additional assets. These additional M2 funds cannot be used as cash directly, but can be converted to cash fairly easily. M2 assets are also called near money.

For example, deposits in savings accounts are included in M2. They are not included in M1 because they cannot be used directly in financial exchanges. You cannot hand a sales clerk your savings account passbook to pay for a new backpack. You can, however, withdraw

money supplyall the money available in the United States economy

liquiditythe ability to be used as, or directly converted to, cash

demand depositthe money in checking accounts

Banking Today

Objectives

After studying this section you will be able to: 1. Explainhow the money supply in the

United States is measured.

2. Explainthe functions of financial institutions.

3. Identify different types of financial institutions.

4. Understand the changes brought about by electronic banking.

Preview

Section Focus

Banking has changed greatly in recent decades. Today, many people are likely to use credit or debit cards instead of cash or checks. Banks provide a large array of services, and electronic banking is revo-lutionizing the way people conduct banking transactions.

Key Terms

money supply liquidity demand deposit money market mutual fund fractional reserve banking default mortgage credit card interest principal debit card creditor Assets that have liquidity include currency, funds in checking accounts, and traveler’s checks.

Lesson Plan

Teaching the Main Concepts

1. Focus Banking in the United States has come a long way since the country was founded. Ask students to identify ways in which banking has changed in the last 20 years.

2. Instruct Discuss the money supply, including the classifications M1 and M2. Explain that modern banks provide a variety of services, including checking and savings accounts, loans, credit cards, and so on. When discussing loans, be sure that students understand the difference between simple and com-pound interest. Finally, discuss the dif-fering types of financial institutions that serve customers today and the impact of technology on the banking industry.

3. Close/ReteachBanking has changed radically in the last half of the twentieth century, and technological innovations continue to promise exciting develop-ments. Ask students to speculate on how banking might change in the twenty-first century.

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Answer to . . .

Building Key Concepts The main component of M1 is currency. The main component of M2 is savings deposits.

Money Help students understand liquidityby ask-ing them to think about the difference between a glass of water and an ice cube. Water flows, so you can use it instantly to do many things. You can drink it, shower in it, water plants with it, wash your car with it, and so on. Ice, on the other hand,

often is not very helpful in its frozen state. You sometimes have to change its form before it becomes useful. Ask students to make compar-isons between liquid assets and water.

Econ 101: Key Concepts Made Easy

Econ 101: Key Concepts Made Easy

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Guided Reading and Review Unit 4 folder, p. 6 asks students to identify the main ideas of the section and to define or identify key terms.

(Reteaching) Ask students to classify

each of the following as M1, M2, neither, or both: a savings account, a dollar bill, a personal check, a new car, a traveler’s check, a 1-carat diamond, a certificate of deposit (CD), a sav-ings bond, and an Individual Retirement Account (IRA).

Background

The T

The T

wo Faces of Money

wo Faces of Money

Money isn’t just M1 or M2, paper or coins, checks or credit cards. Some money is good, and some is bad, according to the theories of Sir Thomas Gresham, who was a treasury official in England in the 1500s. He for-malized a principle that others had observed before him—that bad money tends to drive out good money. This has become known as Gresham’s law.

It works like this: If gold coins are worth more than silver coins, people will hoard the gold coins (good money) and use the silver (bad money). Thus gold coins tend to disappear from, or be driven out of, circulation. The same effect occurred in the United States after 1965, when the government began minting dimes and quarters with more copper and less silver in them. Pre-1965 dimes and quarters quickly disappeared from circulation, driven out by the “bad” new coins.

money from your savings account and then use that money to buy a backpack.

Deposits in money market mutual fundsare also included as part of M2. These are funds that pool money from small savers to purchase short-term government and corporate securities. They earn interest and can be used to cover checks written over a certain minimum amount, such as $250. You will read more about money market mutual funds in Chapter 11.

Functions of Financial

Institutions

Banks and other financial institutions are essential to managing the money supply. They also perform many functions and offer a wide range of services to consumers.

Storing Money

Banks provide a safe, convenient place for people to store money. Banks keep cash in fireproof vaults and are insured against the loss of money in the event of a robbery. As you read in Section 2, FDIC insurance protects people from losing their money if the bank is unable to repay funds.

Saving Money

Banks offer a variety of ways for people to save money. Four of the most common ways are the following:

• Savings accounts • Checking accounts • Money market accounts • Certificates of deposit (CDs)

Savings accounts and checking accounts are the most common types of bank accounts. They are especially useful for people who need to make frequent with-drawals. Savings accounts and most checking accounts pay a small amount of interest at an annual rate.

Money market accounts and certificates of deposits (CDs) are special kinds of savings accounts that pay a higher rate of interest than do savings and checking accounts. Money market accounts allow you to save and to write a limited number of checks. Interest rates are not fixed, but can move up or down. CDs, on the other hand, offer a guaranteed rate of interest over a certain period of time. Funds placed in a CD, however, cannot be removed until the end of a certain time period, such as one or two years. Customers who remove their

money market mutual funda fund that pools money from small savers to purchase short-term government and corporate securities

M1 Components Billions M2 Components Billions

Traveler's checks 1% Other checkable deposits 24% Demand deposits 25% Currency 51% M1 21% Retail money market funds 11% Small denomination time deposits 13% Savings deposits 55% Currency Demand deposits Other checkable deposits Traveler's checks Total M1 $704.1 $337.7 $322.6 $7.5 $1,371.9 Savings deposits Retail money market funds Small denomination time deposits Total M1 Total M2 $3,550.0 $701.8 $851.1 $1,371.9 $6,474.9

Individual categories may be affected by rounding.

Source: Federal Reserve Board Statistical Release H.6, April 28, 2005

Figure 10.5 Major Components of the Money Supply

Figure 10.5 Major Components of the Money Supply

The components of M1 can be used as cash or can be easily converted into cash. M2 consists of the assets in M1 plus assets that can be converted to cash fairly easily.

Money What is the largest component of M1? Of M2?

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Answer to . . .

Building Key Concepts The FED requires certain reserve percentages to cover demand for withdrawals.

Consider these suggestions to take advantage of extended class time:

■ Conduct an in-class tour of Internet sites created by financial institutions: banks, credit unions, brokerage houses, and so on. Ask students to speculate about the advantages and disadvantages of banking in cyber-space. Use the links provided in the Economics: Principles in Actionsegment in the Social Studies area at the following Web site: www.phschool.com

■ To reinforce a discussion of credit cards, bring a credit card application to class and work with students to fill it out for a fictitious applicant. Help students to understand what types of infor-mation are asked for and why. Discuss with stu-dents how credit cards can be used responsibly. Then discuss irresponsible ways in which they are sometimes used.

Block Scheduling Strategies

Block Scheduling Strategies

To help students understand M1 and M2, ask them to find illustrations or examples of each type of money and use these to create an M1/M2 collage.

ELL

Organize students into groups of three or four. Tell each group to create a fact sheet that lists and briefly describes the various services that banks provide: storing money, saving money, loaning money (including mortgages), issuing credit cards, and so on. Suggest that the fact sheet can be organized around questions (What if I need to borrow money?)or descriptive headings (Storing

Money).Remind students that they are

creating a fact sheet, so the informa-tion should be brief and to the point.

Transparency Resource Package Economics Concepts, 10C: Components of the Money Supply Economics Concepts, 10D: Anti-Counterfeiting Measures

Economics Concepts, 10E: Savings Rates

money before that time pay a penalty for early withdrawal.

Loans

Banks also perform the important service of pro-viding loans. As you have read, the first banks started doing business when gold-smiths issued paper receipts. These receipts represented gold coins that the goldsmith held in safe storage for his customers. He would charge a small fee for this service.

In early banks, those receipts were fully backed by gold—every customer who held a receipt could be sure that the goldsmith kept the equivalent amount of gold in his safe. Gradually, however, goldsmiths realized that their customers seldom, if ever, asked for all of their gold on one day. Goldsmiths could thus lend out half or even three

quarters of their gold at any one time and still have enough gold to handle customer demand.

Why did goldsmiths want to lend gold? The answer is that they charged interest on their loans. By keeping just enough gold reserves to cover demand, goldsmiths could run a profitable business lending deposits to borrowers and earning interest. The first banks were based on this practice.

A banking system that keeps only a fraction of funds on hand and lends out the remainder is called fractional reserve banking.Like the early banks, today’s banks also operate on this principle. They lend money to homeowners for home improve-ments, to families to pay for college tuition, and to businesses. The more money a bank lends out, and the higher the interest rate it charges borrowers, the more profit a bank is able to make.

By making loans, banks help new busi-nesses get started, and they help established businesses grow. When a business gets a

Figure 10.6 The Fractional Reserve System

Deposit of $10,000

A customer deposits $10,000 into his or

her account

Loan of $6,400

The bank lends $6,400 to a customer who uses

it to buy furniture

Deposit of $6,400

The seller of the furniture deposits the $6,400

in a bank

Retain $1,280

The bank retains 20% of the deposit

Retain $1,600

The bank retains 20% of the deposit

Retain $2,000

The bank holds 20% of the deposit

to cover demand for withdrawals

Loan of $8,000

The bank lends $8,000 to a customer who uses

it to buy a car

Deposit of $8,000

The seller of the car deposits the $8,000

in a bank

Loan of $5,120

The bank lends $5,120 to a customer who uses

it for college tuition

Figure 10.6 The Fractional Reserve System

In a fractional reserve system, banks keep only a fraction of funds on hand and lend out the rest. The funds lent out fuel the economy and ensure continued growth.

Money Why does the bank retain a percentage of the money it receives from depositors?

fractional reserve bankinga banking system that keeps only a fraction of funds on hand and lends out the remainder

In the NewsRead more about loans in “The Lowdown on Loans,” an article in

The Wall Street Journal Classroom Edition.

The Wall Street Journal Classroom Edition

For:Current Events Visit:PHSchool.com Web Code:mnc-4103

Typing in the Web Code when prompted will bring students directly to the article.

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Transparency Resource Package Economics Concepts, 10F: Simple and Compound Interest

Math Practice Activity Math Practice folder, p. 9,

“Comparing Credit Cards Payments,” allows students to examine the effects of interest rates and time on credit card payments.

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Background

Common

Common

Misconceptions

Misconceptions

Beth has just returned from the bank with a savings account deposit receipt tucked inside her wallet. What will happen to the money Beth has deposited? Contrary to what some people think, it isn’t put into a vault and simply stored until Beth wants it again.

Some of Beth’s money is loaned to people who want to buy houses or cars. Because these borrowers pay interest, Beth’s money earns revenue for the bank. Some of Beth’s money is invested in government securities. These also pay interest. When Kelvyn takes $20 out of a cash machine, some of that money comes from Beth’s deposit, too.

But how does Beth profit from her hard-working money? Banks pay interest on savings accounts and sometimes on checking accounts. Interest is the bank’s way of thanking Beth for letting it use her money. When Beth is ready to bor-row money for college or to finance her new business, someone else’s money will be there to help her out.

Answer to . . .

Building Key Concepts It takes 14 years for the amount to double.

Have students read the section titled “Simple and Compound Interest” and then answer the question below.

Which of the following best describes compound interest?

A interest paid on the principal of borrowed money

B interest paid by mortgage lenders

C interest paid on the principal and interest of borrowed money

D interest paid on bank profits

Preparing for Standardized Tests

Preparing for Standardized Tests

loan, that business can create new jobs by hiring new workers or investing in physical capital in order to increase production.

A business that gets a loan may also help other businesses grow. For example, suppose you and a friend want to start a window-washing business. Your business will need supplies like window cleaner and ladders, so the companies that make your supplies will also benefit. They may even hire workers to expand their businesses.

Bankers must, however, consider the security of the loans they make. Suppose borrowers default,or fail to pay back their loans? Then the bank loses money. Bankers therefore always face a trade-off between profits and safety. If they make too many bad loans—loans that are not repaid—they may go out of business altogether. (See pages 510–511 of the Personal Finance Handbook to learn more about banks and the services they offer.)

Mortgages

A mortgageis a specific type of loan that is used to buy real estate. Suppose the Lee family wants to buy a house for $200,000. They are unlikely to have the cash on hand to be able to pay for the house. Like almost all home-buyers, they will need to take out a mortgage.

The Lees can afford to make a down payment of 20 percent of the price of the house, or $40,000. After investigating the Lees’s creditworthiness, their bank agrees to lend them the remaining $160,000 so that they can purchase their new house. Mortgages usually last for 15, 25, or 30 years. According to the terms of their loan, the Lees are responsible for paying back the loan plus whatever interest the bank charges over a period of 25 years.

Credit Cards

If you look at a credit card, somewhere you will see the name of a bank printed on it. Another service that banks provide is issuing credit cards—cards entitling their holders to buy goods and services based on the cardholder’s promise to pay for these goods and services.

How do credit cards work? Suppose you buy a sleeping bag and tent for $100 on May 3. You do not actually pay for the gear until you receive your credit-card bill and pay it in June. In the meantime, however, the credit-card issuer (the bank) will have paid the sporting goods store. Your payment repays the bank for the “loan” of $100.

Simple and Compound Interest

As you have read, interestis the price paid for the use of borrowed money. The amount borrowed is called the principal.

Simple interest is interest paid only on principal. For example, if you deposit $100 in a savings account at 5 percent simple interest, you will make $5 in a year (assuming that interest is paid annually).

Suppose that you leave the $5 in interest in the bank, so that at the end of the year you have $105 in your account—$100 in principal and $5 in interest. Compound interest is interest paid on both principal and accumulated interest. That means that in the second year, as long as you leave both the principal and the interest in your account, interest will be paid on $105. Figure 10.7 shows how an account paying compound interest grows over time.

defaultfailure to pay back a loan

mortgagea specific type of loan that is used to buy real estate

credit carda card entitling its holder to buy goods and services based on the holder’s promise to pay for these goods and services

interestthe price paid for the use of borrowed money

principal the amount of money borrowed Start of year – 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 $100.00 $105.00 $110.25 $115.76 $121.55 $127.63 $134.01 $140.71 $147.75 $155.14 $162.90 $171.04 $179.59 $188.57 $198.00 $207.90 Principal amount $5.00 $5.25 $5.51 $5.79 $6.08 $6.38 $6.70 $7.04 $7.39 $7.76 $8.14 $8.55 $8.98 $9.43 $9.90 $10.39 Interest earned at 5% $105.00 $110.25 $115.76 $121.55 $127.63 $134.01 $140.71 $147.75 $155.14 $162.90 $171.04 $179.59 $188.57 $198.00 $207.90 $218.29 Principal at end of year Figure 10.7 Compound Interest

Figure 10.7 Compound Interest

This chart shows the money earned on a $100 deposit when interest is com-pounded yearly at 5 percent.

Income How many years does it take for the original deposit to double?

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You may wish to have students add the following to their portfolios. Ask them to create a pamphlet that explains the functions of the financial institutions covered in the section: commercial banks, savings and loan associations, savings banks, and credit unions. Suggest that they provide an overview of each type of institution, its function, and how it differs from the other insti-tutions. Have students share their pamphlets with peers to review impor-tant concepts. GT

Economics Assessment Rubric Economics Assessment Rubrics folder, pp. 6–7 provides sample evaluation materials for a writing assignment.

(Enrichment) Explain to students that

some banks are global in nature. Ask students to research the origins and purposes of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and to write an expository essay explaining how each functions. Essays should include a real-life example of each institution in action.

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Answer to . . .

Building Key Concepts Sources of income are deposits from customers, interest from borrowers, and fees for services.

Banks and Profit

The largest source of income for banks is the interest they receive from customers who have taken loans. Banks, of course, also pay out interest on customers’ savings and most checking accounts. The amount of interest they pay out, however, is less than the amount of interest they charge on loans. The difference in the amounts is how banks cover their costs and make a profit.

Types of Financial

Institutions

Several kinds of financial institutions operate in the United States. These include commercial banks, savings and loan asso-ciations, mutual savings banks, and credit unions. During the 1990s, these financial institutions became more similar than dis-similar, although differences still remain.

Commercial Banks

Commercial banks, which traditionally provided services to businesses, offer a wide range of services today. Commercial banks offer checking services, accept

deposits, and make loans. Some commer-cial banks are chartered by states and are regulated by state authorities and by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). About one third of all commercial banks are national banks and are part of the Federal Reserve System. Commercial banks provide the most services and play the largest role in the economy of any type of bank.

Savings and Loan Associations

Savings and Loan Associations (S&Ls), which you read about in Section 2, were originally chartered to lend money for building homes during the mid-1800s. Members of Savings and Loan Assoc-iations deposited funds into a large general fund and then borrowed enough money to buy their own houses. Savings and Loans are also called thriftsbecause they originally enabled “thrifty” working-class people—that is, people who were careful with their money—to save up and borrow enough to buy their own homes. Over time, Savings and Loan Associations have taken on many of the same functions as commercial banks.

Figure 10.8 How Banks Make a Profit

Figure 10.8 How Banks Make a Profit

Loans to borrowers: • business loans • home mortgages • personal loans Bank‘s costs of doing business: • salaries • taxes • other costs Interest and withdrawals to customers Interest from borrowers Fees for services Bank retains required reserves

Money enters bank Money leaves bank

Deposits from customers

B A N K

After customers deposit money, a bank lends it to businesses and other borrowers and collects interest. The bank uses this income from interest to cover its costs and make a profit.

Income What are the sources of a bank’s income?

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Organize the class into groups of four or five students. Instruct each group to create a technology-based scenario in which a character spends a weekend banking and buying, both in the United States and abroad, without ever actually touching currency in any form. Activities should include money being deposited in a bank, commodities being purchased, money being given to charity, money being transferred to and from checking and savings accounts, loans being arranged, and so on. Each group should prepare an oral, written, or performance-based presentation that shows how various technologies make these transactions possible.

Economic Detective Activity Unit 4 folder, p. 10, “Tortoise Domain,” provides an integrated application of chapter concepts.

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Have students read the section titled “Electronic Banking” and then answer the question below.

Which of the following transactions cannot be completed at an Automated Teller Machine (ATM)?

A deposit money in a savings account

B withdraw money from a checking account

C check the balance of a checking or savings account

D withdraw money from a certificate of deposit

Preparing for Standardized Tests

Preparing for Standardized Tests

Savings Banks

Mutual savings banks (MSBs) originated in the early 1800s to serve people who made smaller deposits and transactions than commercial banks wished to handle. Mutual savings banks were owned by the depositors themselves, who shared in any profits. Later, many MSBs began to sell stock to raise additional capital. These institutions became simply savings banks because depositors no longer owned them. Although savings banks were tradition-ally concentrated in the Northeast, they had an important influence on the national economy. In 1972, the Consumer’s Savings Bank of Worcester, Massachusetts, intro-duced a Negotiable Order of Withdrawal (NOW) account, a type of checking account that pays interest. NOW accounts became available nationwide in 1980.

Credit Unions

Credit unions are cooperative lending associations for particular groups, usually employees of a specific firm or government agency. Credit unions are commonly fairly small and specialize in home mortgages and car loans, usually at interest rates favorable to members. Some credit unions also provide checking account services.

Finance Companies

Finance companies make installment loans to consumers. These loans spread the cost of major purchases like computers, cars, refrigerators, and recreational vehicles over a number of months. Because people who borrow from finance companies more frequently fail to repay the loans, finance companies generally charge higher interest rates than banks do.

Electronic Banking

Banks began to use computers in the early 1970s to keep track of transactions. As computers have become more common in the United States, their role in banking has also increased dramatically. In fact, computerized banking may revolutionize

banking in much the same way that paper currency changed banking long ago.

Automated Teller Machines

If you use an Automated Teller Machine (ATM), you are already familiar with one of the most common types of electronic banking. ATMs are computers that customers can use to deposit money, withdraw cash, and obtain account infor-mation at their convenience. Instead of having to go to the bank during the bank’s hours of operation to conduct banking business face–to–face with a teller, you can take care of your finances at an ATM.

ATMs are convenient for both banks and for customers, since they are available 24 hours a day and reduce banks’ labor costs. The overwhelming popularity of ATMs suggests that they are likely to be a perma-nent feature of modern banking.

Debit Cards

Debit cardsare used to withdraw money. You may use a debit card to withdraw

debit carda card used to withdraw money

Electronic banking has greatly changed the way customers interact with their banks.

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Guide to the Essentials

Chapter 10, Section 3, p. 44 provides support for students who need addi-tional review of the section content. Spanish support is available in the Spanish edition of the guide on p. 44.

Quiz Unit 4 folder,p. 7 includes questions to check students’ under-standing of Section 3 content.

Presentation Pro CD-ROM Quiz provides multiple-choice questions to check students’ under-standing of Section 3 content.

Answers to . . .

Section 3 Assessment

Section 3 Assessment

1.M1 includes all money that is immedi-ately accessible for people to use to pay for goods and services. Examples: cash, money in checking accounts, traveler’s checks. M2 includes all of M1 plus all assets that are easily transferred into M1. Examples: savings account deposits and money market mutual funds.

2.A debit card withdraws money directly from a checking or savings account when it is used to make a purchase, whereas when a credit card is used to make a purchase, it functions as a loan that then needs to be paid off.

3.Students should describe any three of the following: storing money safely, lending money, offering mortgages, or issuing credit cards.

4.The more a bank lends out, the more profit a bank makes. However, the bank must not lend out too much of its money, since it needs to keep some in reserve for withdrawals and for safety. Also, banks cannot make loans to everyone who asks but must assess a person’s ability to pay back the loan.

5.Students may suggest incentives such as premiums, free checking accounts, or initial low interest rates on loans. Profit plans may include investing deposits, collecting interest on loans, and charging user fees for electronic transfers.

6.Students may mention convenience of branch locations, availability of interest on checking accounts, or convenient electronic options.

7.(a) Personal savings as a percentage of disposable income rose through 1975 and then dropped quickly. (b) During the 1970s consumers often spent

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money as quickly as possible because of inflation. Other explanations include increases in consumerism and in stock and bond trading.

8.Student’s answers will vary, but should include an understanding of loans, savings and checking accounts, mutual funds, ATMs, and credit cards.

money at an ATM. You may also use a debit card in stores equipped with special machines. When you “swipe” your card through one of these machines, your debit card sends a message to your bank to transfer money from your checking account directly into the store’s bank account. For security, debit cards require customers to use personal identification numbers, or PINs, to authorize financial transactions.

Home Banking

More and more people are using the Internet to conduct their financial business. Many banks, credit unions, and other financial institutions allow people to check account balances, transfer money to different accounts, pay their bills, and automatically deposit their paychecks via computer.

Automatic Clearing Houses

Automatic Clearing Houses (ACHs), located at Federal Reserve Banks and their

branches, allow customers to pay bills without writing checks. An ACH transfers funds automatically from customers’ accounts to creditors’ accounts. (A creditor

is a person or institution to whom money is owed.) People usually use ACHs to pay regular monthly bills like mortgage payments, rent, utility bills, and insurance premiums. They save time, postage costs, and any worries about forgetting to make a payment.

Stored Value Cards

Stored value cards, or smart cards, are similar to debit cards. These cards are embedded with either magnetic strips or computer chips with account balance information. Smart cards include cards issued to college students living in dormi-tories to pay for cafeteria food, computer time, or photocopying. Phone cards, with which customers prepay for a specified amount of long-distance calling, are also smart cards.

Will stored value smart cards someday replace cash altogether? No one can know for sure, but private companies and public facilities have continued to explore new uses for smart card technology.

creditorperson or institution to whom money is owed

Section 3 Assessment

Key Terms and Main Ideas

1. What is the difference between M1 and M2? Give an example of each.

2. How does a debit carddiffer from a credit card? 3. Describe three services that banks provide. 4. Explain why banks must balance profit and security

when making loans.

Applying Economic Concepts

5. Try This Suppose you are setting up a classroom bank. What incentives will you offer so your classmates will use your bank? How will your bank make a profit? 6. You Decide Suppose that you are planning to open a

checking account so you can deposit checks from your summer job. How will you decide on a bank?

7. Using the Databank Turn to the graph entitled “Personal Savings as a Percentage of Disposable Income” on page 540. (a)Describe the pattern of personal savings shown on the graph. (b)What factors could have caused the steady drop in savings since the 1970s?

8. Critical Thinking Write a paragraph in which you analyze how financial institutions affect households and businesses.

Electronic banking has clear economic benefits. While the cost of processing a paper check is 35 cents, the cost of processing an electronic payment is only 7 cents. The percentage of transactions com-pleted electronically is growing dramatically. Electronic payments account for about 90 percent of the total dollar value of all transactions.

FA S T FA C T

PHSchool.com

For:Writing Activity Visit:PHSchool.com Web Code:mnd-4103

Progress Monitoring Online For:Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code:mna-4107

Typing in the Web Code when prompted will bring students directly to detailed instructions for this activity.

Progress Monitoring Online

For additional assessment, have students access Progress Monitoring Online at Web Code: mna-4107

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References