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Sustainability Topics for Sectors: What do stakeholders want to know?

AIR TRANSPORTATION - AIRLINES

May 2013 Page 1 of 18

Additional information about the project can be found at https://www.globalreporting.org/reporting/sector-guidance/Topics-Research/Pages/default.aspx

27 – Air Transportation - Airlines

22 Topics

Companies providing primarily passenger air transportation.

Sustainability

Category Topic

Topic Specification (if available)

Explanation Reference(s)1 Constituency

Economic Carbon offsetting

A carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere.

Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) and may represent six primary categories of greenhouse gases. The categories include: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).

The industry is responsible for 2% of global CO2

emissions and is committed to carbon neutral growth. In order to “close the gap”, 90 million tonnes of CO2 will need to be offset by 2025 to mitigate emissions to 2020

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levels and achieve carbon-neutral growth. Economic direct and indirect benefits Employment, accessibility and mobility

Airports affect local development, by providing direct or indirect employment and increasing accessibility and mobility. 548 Mediating Institution Jobs and economic multiplier effect

Direct Economic Contribution:

Air transport services deliver the final product of civil aviation industries to customers around the globe. To provide passenger, freight and mail services, air carriers, business aviation and other commercial operators purchase a wide range of products and services from airports and air navigation service providers,

manufacturing and service industries, which in turn

depend on numerous suppliers. Multiplier effect: Beyond the direct economic

contribution of civil aviation industries, there are multiplier, or ripple, effects with a wider or narrower spread throughout an economy depending on the circumstances (for example, countries with significant aerospace manufacturing will show a wide spread, while those with limited air transport services may have a relatively narrow spread). Multiplier effects of non-directly generated output and employment are assessed by combining what is referred to as catalytic and induced demand effects. Catalytic demand effects include off-airport expenditures directly related to the use of air travel and shipment of freight and mail, notably travel and tourism businesses (such as hotels and restaurants, travel agencies, tour operators and retailers) as well as the whole spectrum of freight business activity. Induced

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demand effects are consumer spending from income earned through direct and catalytic economic activities and public expenditures from related tax revenues.

The contribution of air transport and related civil aviation industries to local, regional or national economies

includes the output and jobs directly attributable to civil aviation as well as the multiplier or ripple effect upon other industries throughout the economy

Environmental Materials sourcing and use

Plastic products Plastic, a valuable material, can generate significant positive, or negative, impacts on economy, environment and society. Plastic should be treated as a resource and managed judiciously.

A disclosure on management approach for plastics, including governance, strategy, risks, opportunities, considering: opportunities for product redesign, increasing recycled content, implementing reclaim and/or reuse which could attract economies, brand loyalty, investment, employee goodwill, and; risks to the business, stakeholder health, environment and society (including reputational/social license to operate, regulatory, investor, insurer, and liability risks) for plastics that are directly harmful to stakeholders, or indirectly through plastics being wasted/littered.

Performance indicators regarding the types and volumes of plastics being used, collected and/or distributed downstream; the portion that is made of post-consumer-recycled, bio-based, biodegradable, compostable, and/or oxobiodegradable material; the ratio of expected

life-353, 367 Civil Society Organization

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span of plastic products/packaging in contrast to the duration of their intended use; these volumes broken down by end of life disposition.

Most of this disclosure can be captured through the existing GRI framework (e.g. GRI G3 EC9, EN1, EN2, EN22), but commentary is needed to ensure disclosers appreciate the materiality of plastic; other questions can be added to the framework. Refer to the Plastic

Disclosure Project ( www.plasticdisclosure.org ) for more details on the suggested questions. PDP will align its questions to GRI G4 once finalised to assist organisations in disclosing to PDP and GRI easily.

Plastic are in high use in these "activity groups", and can have significant positive, or negative, impacts on the economy, environment and society:

Economics: There are significant cost savings available to organisations that treat plastic as a resource (e.g.

through redesign, use of recycled content, reclaiming, etc.) and risks of increased direct costs (regulation, liability, cost of capital, insurance) to organisations that do not lead in this area as well as indirect economic costs to impacted industries (e.g. food production, tourism) Environment: Plastics that are wasted or littered become extremely harmful to the environment, which will have a material effect on biodiversity and the global food chain, both nearby and far outside the local area of operations

Society: Some plastics are harmful to stakeholders during manufacture, use and/or disposal (e.g. due to

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phthalates, BPA), impact the wellbeing of society (e.g. effect of litter on community spirit and their interest in sustainability).

While a valuable invention, which benefits society in many ways, the negative impacts associated with society's growing use of plastic are not fully recognised. Roughly 85% of plastic used in products and packaging is not recycled, and most plastic produced in the last 60 years still remains in the environment today.

Approximately 70% of discarded plastic is from single-use food and beverage containers. Discarded plastics persist in the environment for dozens or hundreds of years, accumulating across the globe, often out of sight of the producers and users. The direct physical impacts of plastic are significant to the organisation in increased costs or missed opportunities, and related economies (e.g. over $1.2bn in annual damages to ocean-related industries in Asia-Pacific), the environment through harming habitats and species, and to stakeholders health when exposed to the chemical ingredients; and are magnified if fragmentation of the plastic occurs, making it available for ingestion to additional species, who adsorb the chemical ingredients and/or the toxins carried on the plastic. These negative impacts could be avoided and turned into positive impacts, if plastic was treated as a resource to be managed judiciously (e.g. the US

economy lost $8.3bn worth of plastic packaging in 2010) - "It is not good business practice to throw away valuable resources".

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May 2013 Page 6 of 18 (if available) Renewable/alter native energy sources

Biofuels KLM’s official introduction of cooking-oil based biofuels for regular commercial services between Paris and Amsterdam marks an unequivocal step in its commitment to renewable energies. The move is symbolic of the shift in the sector as it continues to target two goals: 1/ cutting GHG emissions ahead of the increasingly tight regulations facing airlines; and 2/ reducing its energy bill. Given the ongoing controversy over biofuels and the fact that they are in limited supply, there are clearly issues surrounding the capacity of biofuels to supplant traditional fuels for the automotive sector, and of kerosene in the aerospace industry. It is hard to see how the crops traditionally used in the production of fuels for road transport (rape seed, corn, palm oil and sugar cane) could be employed to

manufacture bio-kerosene. Not only are these segments already under strain, they are also highly controversial given their contribution to food shortages and price volatility, their negative carbon profile and their role in deforestation.

In the face of this opposition, some airlines have committed to not using biofuels that could impact on crops designed to meet food requirements. This looks like a pre-requisite to ensure the acceptability of this new industry. The emergence of a third-generation biofuel based on seaweed, and in compliance with sustainability criteria, could be a solution to ethical considerations and airlines’ quantitative needs. Total, however, sees no potential in this field, at least in the short run.

389 Financial

Markets & Information Users

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In June, the European Commission, Airbus, some airlines (including Air France, British Airways and Lufthansa) and biofuel producers launched the Biofuel Flightpath initiative, which is aimed at promoting the

commercialisation of green aircraft in Europe. The aim is to produce 2m tonnes of biofuels on a sustainable basis for the aviation industry in 2020. But these sustainability criteria will need to be detailed quickly and be resolutely restricting if they are to fend off criticism. Under this European initiative, it is aimed to use 40% sustainable and low-carbon fuels by 2050 and 10% biofuels by 2017. Thus, the 10% bio-kerosene, plus the conventional biofuels provided for under European regulations (mandatory blending targets) cannot be produced from the same crops and will have to use non-food sources. Although European regulations include a series of sustainability criteria in their targets, we do not believe these are sufficiently restrictive (minimum reduction of 35% of CO2 emissions relative to conventional fuel for 2015, 50% for 2017 and 60% in 2018) for the aviation industry to add production capacity without it resulting in additional opposition. Energy efficiency initiatives Fuel use efficiency

The airline industry has started to recover from its extended slowdown. In recent years, declining business travel and rising fuel prices have put pressure on

companies to reduce costs, redesign route networks and increase fuel efficiency. Regulatory pressure continues to force airlines to reduce their CO2 emissions and invest in fuel-saving measures such as refitting airplanes with winglets, light-weight materials and advanced

route-460 Financial

Markets & Information Users

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planning technology. Through increased cooperation with governments, aircraft manufacturers and

developers of alternative fuels, airlines can reduce their exposure to rising fuel prices and improve their

environmental performance. Weight of flight

load

Airlines may attain energy-efficiency by operational weight-reductions, such as lighter trolleys, lighter chairs and carpets.

571 Mediating

Institution Energy consumption, total

153 Financial

Markets & Information Users Air quality Airports Local air quality concerns concentrate on effects created

during the landing and take-off (LTO) cycle as these emissions are released below 3,000 feet (915 metres) and releases from airport sources (such as airport traffic, ground service equipment, and de-icing). The

contaminants emitted by aircraft and airport sources can affect human health and the environment.

Due to the increasing amount of residential development surrounding airports and the continued growth of commercial air travel, air pollution surrounding airports has become a significant concern

280 Business

Emissions to air Aircraft Aircraft engine emissions: The formation and discharge of gaseous and particulate pollutants into the

environment, especially the stratosphere, chiefly from airplanes, helicopters and other high-altitude aircrafts

Aircraft engines produce emissions that are similar to

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(if available)

other emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion. However, aircraft emissions are unusual in that a significant proportion is emitted at altitude. These emissions give rise to important environmental concerns regarding their global impact and their effect on local air quality at ground level.

Total CO2, NOx, SOx, VOC emissions in million tonnes

153 Financial Markets & Information Users Emissions to air - GHG emissions Management and reduction strategies

A great deal of the environmental damage is caused by the way we do business. Governments have recognised this and are working to reverse some current trends. Achieving this will depend on rebalancing the focus of taxation – increasing taxes on economic negatives, such as pollutions, while reducing them on economic

positives, such as labour. The European Union’s contribution to a balanced carbon world includes the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), which is a mechanism to cost the price of carbon (negative externality) into those industries that are the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters. In the short term, carbon pricing will change the cost structure for many companies and the relative competitiveness of carbon-intensive business sectors. Over the long term, if unchecked, the changing climate could do severe damage to the economy, undermining the ability of pension funds and other long-term investors to finance their liabilities. While some commentators have argued that investors should preferentially invest in companies with low GHG

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emissions, the prudent investors will also consider the likelihood that the company will be required to reduce some or all of its GHG emissions, the timeframe over which the emission reductions are required, and the cost to the company of reducing or offsetting its emissions. The airline industry has started to recover from its extended slowdown. In recent years, declining business travel and rising fuel prices have put pressure on

companies to reduce costs, redesign route networks and increase fuel efficiency. Regulatory pressure continues to force airlines to reduce their CO2 emissions and invest in fuel-saving measures such as refitting airplanes with winglets, light-weight materials and advanced route-planning technology. Through increased cooperation with governments, aircraft manufacturers and

developers of alternative fuels, airlines can reduce their exposure to rising fuel prices and improve their

environmental performance. 460 Financial Markets & Information Users Emissions to air - GHG emissions and other emissions Management and reduction strategies

The EU objective is to halve, by 2020, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and perceived noise pollution, and to reduce nitrogen oxide by 80% from 2000 levels.

479 Business

Noise Aircraft and components

Aircraft noise is noise pollution produced by any aircraft or its components, during various phases of a flight: on the ground while parked such as auxiliary power units, while taxiing, on run-up from propeller and jet exhaust, during takeoff, underneath and lateral to departure and arrival paths, over-flying while en route, or during landing

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Aircraft noise can be a nuisance to local communities near airport

Noise is another major pollution and there is ongoing pressure to reduce the level impacting areas in the vicinity of airports. Aircraft are 50% quieter than 10 years ago. However, there are often trade-offs in new

technological developments. For example, ‘open rotor’ technology, which can provide a 15-20% reduction in fuel consumption, is noisier than current turbo jets.

479 Business

Social Labor conditions Workforce turnover and restructuring

Restructuring is another important issue in ESG, as a number of sectors are experiencing mergers, downsizing and delocalising to emerging countries. Shrinking markets and downward pressure on revenue have put pressure on many industries in our coverage to undertake significant restructuring over the past two-three years. The number of jobs lost was a striking feature of our analysis, leading to heightened community tension and adverse relationships in some industries. The responsibility of some sectors is quite pronounced as their workforce is made up of the vulnerable

communities in which they operate. For example in the mining industry’s precious metals subset, there was an average of a 10 percent decrease in employees globally from 2008 to 2009. We accept that restructuring and reduced capacity can lead to recovery for companies, however it can also have a negative impact.

Airlines were badly hit by the economic downturn, with IATA reporting a 25% fall in intra-European premium travel, which remains weak (economy travel only

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dropped by 3.2% during 2009). This affected the traditional premium market carriers. The fall and continued weakness in yields could not be offset by other costs, notably airport and navigation charges as well as fuel costs. During the course of 2008-09, the AEA (Association of European Airlines) reported some 35,000 job losses among its members. Management’s ability to convince their labour unions to adapt to new realities is critical in this restructuring. The breakdown in labour relations and rise in union opposition can lead to recurring strikes and significant bottom line and reputational impacts (especially at traditional carriers, which have strong union structures), as evidenced by British Airways. Labor management relations Strikes and/or lock-outs

Airlines were badly hit by the economic downturn, with IATA reporting a 25% fall in intra-European premium travel, which remains weak (economy travel only dropped by 3.2% during 2009). This affected the traditional premium market carriers. The fall and continued weakness in yields could not be offset by other costs, notably airport and navigation charges as well as fuel costs. During the course of 2008-09, the AEA (Association of European Airlines) reported some 35,000 job losses among its members. Management’s ability to convince their labour unions to adapt to new realities is critical in this restructuring. The breakdown in labour relations and rise in union opposition can lead to recurring strikes and significant bottom line and reputational impacts (especially at traditional carriers, which have strong union structures), as evidenced by

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Sustainability Topics for Sectors: What do stakeholders want to know?

AIR TRANSPORTATION - AIRLINES

May 2013 Page 13 of 18 (if available) British Airways. Cabin personnel health and safety Risk assessment and mitigation

The aircraft environment poses specific and unique situations in which the health and safety of workers in such environments may be extra sensitive. Identification of these risks and measurements to prevent or mitigate their effects are the responsibility of the airlines.

These include (examples of measures to mitigate/prevent effects):

- Unruly or disruptive behaviors (policies for the denial of boarding)

- Unanticipated turbulence (Handrails, no angular surfaces on board)

- Fatigue on long flights (mandaroy rests) - More flight crew than legally necessary

77 Mediating

Institution

Cabin air quality On-board health and safety conditions

Air quality is affected by recirculation of air, air intake from outside the aircraft, and other sources of possible contamination. Contamination may take place due to activities outside the aircraft before or after take - off, lubricants and oils in the engine; accidents and incidents inside the pressurised cabin; or from the hold

Several potential hazards, some of which have been implicated with significant sickness, can affect air quality, and certain types of aircraft have been identified as posing an increased risk, specifically where engine bleed air is used to supplement cabin air.

171 Mediating Institution Unlawful sex tourism Human trafficking risks and child abuse

Adherence to the Code of conduct for the protection of children from sexual exploitation in travel and tourism (http://www.thecode.org/)

304, 499 Mediating Institution

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Policies and management systems related to the Code.

Breach of the code leads to violation of the following human rights:

Universal declaration of human rights : articles 3, 4,5, 12 and 13

Convention on the rights of the child: articles 3, 6, 9, 11, 19, 32, 34 and 35

See section 3.3 as example on Kuoni human rights impact assessment covering children

http://www.kuoni.com/docs/assessing_human_rights_i mpacts_0.pdf Persons’ with special needs access to services and facilities Travelers with disabilities and medical conditions

Policies put in place by a dedicated governmental department to ensure assistance and safety of travellers with disabilities or medical conditions

"Ensuring that all passengers, regardless of their personal situations and needs, are treated equally and with the dignity, respect, and courtesy they deserve"

515 Mediating

Institution

Emergency preparedness

Airlines may be subject to a wide range of emergencies, including terrorist threats, natural disasters, aircraft incidents, and outbreaks of worldwide viruses.

549 Mediating Institution Fleet technological improvement Noise, energy efficiency, emissions

Fleet technological improvement: At Airbus and Eurocopter, 80% of the R&D budget is devoted to environmental innovation. New aircraft have achieved a steady reduction in noise and emissions over the past 40 years. EADS has set the 2020 objective of reducing its energy consumption by 30% (compared to 2008 level).

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AIR TRANSPORTATION - AIRLINES

May 2013 Page 15 of 18 (if available) Other Corporate governance Gender participation on governance bodies

GOVERNANCE / EUROPE: boardroom lady boom: is it possible without quotas?

On 22 June, the CapitalCom agency published its 2011 survey into the boardroom gender mix of CAC 40 companies, with fairly encouraging results: the

proportion of women on the board has doubled in recent years, from 10.5% in 2009 to 20.8% in 2011.

In January, the French parliament adopted legislation imposing quotas for the proportion of women on the board of major companies. Under the measures, the development of female board membership is mandatory and gradual: 20% for listed groups, public companies of an administrative, industrial and commercial nature by January 2014, rising to 40% by January 2017. The law also stipulates that companies with no women present on their board must appoint at least one within six months of it being on the statute books (voted on 13 January 2011). In France, some 2,000 companies are affected (the 650 largest listed firms and companies with more than 500 employees and those generating sales in excess of €50bn). In terms of sanctions for

noncompliance, appointments that run counter to the parity principles are to be declared null and void and attendance fees are to be temporarily suspended. At the European level and at the instigation of the Vice-president of the European Commission, Viviane Reding, the European parliament will decide in March 2012 on whether to adopt common legislation on this matter (a

389 Financial

Markets & Information Users

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mandatory proportion of women in decision-making positions of 30% in 2015 and 40% in 2020). This will depend on the level of improvement seen based on the selfregulation of European companies, in accordance with the equality initiative adopted by the European Commission in December 2010 and the European parliament resolution of 17 January 2008 calling for the Commission and member states to promote a balance between women and men on company boards, particularly where member states are shareholders. Europe as a whole illustrates the degree of hesitation between a soft-law approach and conventional legislation (quotas in this instance), but it is clear from the experience at national level that the second method tends to get much better results.

Sourcing strategy for aircrafts and components Sourcing standards on aircraft energy efficiency

Airlines may attain energy-efficiency by choosing to operate energy efficient aircraft. Procurement practices of new aircrafts and parts of these, such as engines, that include specific criteria regarding energy efficiency may have effects on energy efficiency

571 Mediating

Institution

1

All references can be found at https://www.globalreporting.org/reporting/sector-guidance/Topics-Research/Pages/default.aspx

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12 Airports Council International (ACI), 2007. Climate Change, Geneva: Airports Council International (ACI). 77

Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand Health and Safety in Employment Unit (CAA HSE), 2009. Occupational Health and Safety for Cabin Crew and Flight Crew - A Guideline for Health and Safety Onboard Aircraft [Draft], Wellington: Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand Health and Safety in Employment Unit (CAA HSE).

153 European Federation of Financial Analysts Societies (EFFAS) and Society of Investment Professionals in Germany (DVFA), 2010. KPIs for ESG - A

Guideline for the Integration of ESG into Financial Analysis and Corporate Valuation, Frankfurt am Main: EFFAS.

171 Expert Panel on Aircraft Air Quality, 2009. Contamination of Aircraft Cabin Air by Bleed Air – A Review of the Evidence, Canberra: Civil Aviation Safety Authority (Australia).

262 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report, Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

265 International Air Transport Association (IATA), 2004. Noise Certification Standards. IATA Environmental Review, p. 9.

266 International Air Transport Association (IATA), 2008. Aviation Carbon Offset Programmes - IATA Guidelines and Toolkit, Geneva: International Air Transport Association (IATA).

267

International Air Transport Association (IATA), 2011. Balanced Approach to Noise Management around Airports. [Online] Available at: http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/Documents/balanced-approach-to%20noise-management-around-airports.pdf [Accessed 6 March 2013].

279 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), 2000. Economic Contribution of Civil Aviation - Ripples of prosperity, Montréal: International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

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304

International Labour Organization (ILO), 2013. International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC). [Online] Available at: http://www.ilo.org/ipec/lang--en/index.htm#a1

[Accessed 26 March 2013].

353 Kershaw, P., Katsuhiko, S., Lee, S., Samseth, J., Woodring, D., & Smith, J., 2011. Plastic Debris in the Ocean. In United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UNEP Year Book 2011 (pp. 20-33). Nairobi: United Nations Early Warning and Assessment.

367 MacKerron, C., 2011. Unfinished Business: The Case for Extended Producer Responsibility for Post-Consumer Packaging, Oakland: As You Sow. 389° Natixis, 2011. Strategy Note Equity Research - Strategy/SRI: Monthly review June 2011, Paris: Natixis.

460 Robeco SAM, 2012. The Sustainability Yearbook 2012, Zurich: Robeco SAM.

479° Société Générale, 2011. SRI: Beyond Integration, from satellite to core, Paris: Société Générale.

499 The Code.org, 'Code Of Conduct For The Protection Of Children From Sexual Exploitation In Travel And Tourism', 2004. 515

Transport Security Administration, 2013. Travelers with Disabilities and Medical Conditions. [Online] Available at: http://www.tsa.gov/traveler-information/travelers-disabilities-and-medical-conditions [Accessed 27 February 2013].

548 US Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, 2011. The economic impact of civil aviation on the US economy, Washington, D.C.: US Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration.

549 US Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, 'Airport Emergency Plan', 2010.

571 World Bank, 2012. Air Transport and Energy Efficiency, Washington D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.

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