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Fall 2006

Classroom 209


Fall 2006, Nursing 6301 1

The University of Texas at Arlington School of Nursing PhD Program

NURS 6301 Theoretical Evolution in Science (3-0) Fall, 2006

Friday, 9:00 a.m. -11:50 noon Pickard Hall, Room 205 INSTRUCTOR: Faculty: Jennifer Gray, RN, PhD

George W. and Hazel M. Jay Professor Office: Pickard Hall 518

Office Hours: Monday morning; Friday afternoon; and By appointment

Office Phone: 817-272-5295; Office Fax: 817-272-2950 Home Phone: 817-467-0375; Mobile Phone: 817-994-9963 Campus Mail Box: 19407 Email:


Course materials available in WebCT



Admission to the PhD Program


A.P.A. (2002). Publication manual of the American

Psychological Association (5th ed.).Washington, D.C.: APA.

Meleis, A. I. (2007). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Walker, L.O. & Avant, K.C. (2005). Strategies for theory construction in nursing (4th ed.). Norwalk, Ct: Appleton & Lange.



Philosophies of science and epistemologies, their influence on knowledge development for nursing practice, and strategies for theory development and analysis


1. Explore the historical evolution of knowledge building in nursing and the relationship of nursing theories with other disciplines

2. Analyze the theoretical accomplishments in nursing within the context of a rapidly changing society

3. Explain the relationships among theory, research and practice


Fall 2006, Nursing 6301 2 4. Critique theories related to culturally diverse populations 5. Use knowledge of the major philosophies of science to select

or develop frameworks for research

6. Use the knowledge gained from analyzing and evaluating theories to formulate a framework for research


• Regular class attendance and participation is expected of all students.

• Students are responsible for all missed course information. A PhD student who wishes to change a schedule by either dropping or adding a course must first consult with his or her PhD Advisor. The following regulations pertain to adds and drops:

1. A student may not add a course after the end of the late registration.

2. A PhD student dropping a course or resigning from the university after the Census Date but before the final

designated drop date for the enrolled semester will receive a grade of W only if at the time of dropping the student is passing the course (has a grade of A, B, or C); if the student has a D or F at the time of dropping, an F will be recorded. Students dropping a course must: (1) Complete a Course Drop Form (available online or PhD Office Room 512; (2) obtain faculty signature and current course grade; and (3) Submit the form to PhD Office Room 512.

3. A PhD student who desires to drop all courses for which he or she is enrolled is reminded that such action constitutes a withdrawal from the University. The student should indicate intention to withdraw from all courses by: (1) Completing a Registration Form (available online or PhD Office Room 512; (2) Obtaining faculty signature for each course enrolled and current course grade; (3) Filing the registration form in the School of Nursing Office Room 512; and (4) Filing the Registration Form in the Office of the Registrar in Davis Hall Room 333.

4. PhD students may drop a course up to 12 weeks in the fall or spring semester and up to 8 weeks in a 10-week summer session. Under extreme circumstances, the Dean or Associate Dean of the PhD in Nursing Program may consider a petition to withdraw after the designated drop date, but in no case may a PhD student selectively drop a course after the drop date and remain enrolled in any other course.


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I. Philosophies of science and epistemologies; logical empiricism and historicism; postmodernism

II. Nursing’s theoretical heritage. Contribution of theory to nursing science

III. Theory evaluation for application with vulnerable populations; validity and social congruence of theories IV. Concept clarification and development

V. Theory construction in nursing and other disciplines


1. Participation in class discussions and seminars 2. Refinement of succinct and clear writing 3. Presentation of a philosophy of science seminar 4. Exploration and clarification of selected concept 5. Development of a framework for study with a selected




Lecture, discussion, seminar, presentations, reading, reflection on practice and readings, preparation of course products


Due Date Assignment Points

Sept. 8, Sept. 22, & Oct.6

Mini-Papers (3) 15 Sept. 15, 22, 29


Philosophy of science group seminar

25 Oct. 20 Concept Analysis/

Clarification Paper

30 Dec. 7,


Research Framework Paper 30

Total 100

After all assignments are completed and evaluated, course grades will be assigned using this scale.

Letter Grade Points

A 90 to 100 B 80 to 89 C 70 to 79 D 60 to 69 F Below 59 STATUS OF RN LICENSURE:

All graduate nursing students must have an unencumbered license as designated by the Board of Nurse Examiners (BNE). It is imperative that any student whose license becomes

encumbered by the BNE must immediately notify the Associate Dean for the PhD Program, Dr. Jennifer Gray. Failure to do so will result in dismissal from the PhD Program. The complete policy about encumbered RN license is available online at:


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You signed a Confidentiality Form in orientation and were provided a copy of the form. Please take your copy of this

Confidentiality Form with you to your clinical sites. Please do not sign other agency confidentiality forms. Contact your faculty if the agency requires you to sign their confidentiality form.


The University of Texas at Arlington is on record as being

committed to both the spirit and letter of federal equal opportunity legislation; reference Public Law 93112 -- The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as amended. With the passage of new federal legislation entitled Americans With Disabilities Act - (ADA), pursuant to section 504 of The Rehabilitation Act, there is renewed focus on providing this population with the same opportunities enjoyed by all citizens.

As a faculty member, I am required by law to provide "reasonable accommodations" to students with disabilities, so as not to

discriminate on the basis of that disability. Student responsibility primarily rests with informing faculty of their need for

accommodation and in providing authorized documentation

through designated administrative channels. Information regarding specific diagnostic criteria and policies for obtaining academic accommodations can be found at Also, you may visit the Office for Students with Disabilities in room 102 of University Hall or call them at (817) 272-3364.


The University of Texas at Arlington supports a variety of student success programs to help you connect with the University and achieve academic success. They include learning assistance, developmental education, advising and mentoring, admission and transition, and federally funded programs. Students requiring assistance academically, personally, or socially should contact the Office of Student Success Programs at 817-272-6107 for more information and appropriate referrals.


The University of Texas at Arlington School of Nursing supports the Student Code of Ethics Policy. Students are responsible for knowing and complying with the Code. The Code can be found in the Student Handbook online:


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It is the philosophy of The University of Texas at Arlington that academic dishonesty is a completely unacceptable mode of conduct and will not be tolerated in any form. All persons involved in academic dishonesty will be disciplined in accordance with University regulations and procedures. Discipline may include suspension or expulsion from the University.

"Scholastic dishonesty includes but is not limited to cheating, plagiarism, collusion, the submission for credit of any work or materials that are attributable in whole or in part to another person, taking an examination for another person, any act designed to give unfair advantage to a student or the attempt to commit such acts." (Regents’ Rules and Regulations, Series 50101, Section 2.2)

PLAGIARISM: Copying another student’s paper or any portion of it is plagiarism. Additionally, copying a portion of

published material (e.g., books or journals) without adequately documenting the source is plagiarism. If five or more words in sequence are taken from a source, those words must be placed in quotes and the source referenced with author’s name, date of publication, and page number of publication. If the author’s ideas are rephrased, by transposing words or expressing the same idea using different words, the idea must be attributed to the author by proper referencing, giving the author’s name and date of publication. If a single author’s ideas are discussed in more than one paragraph, the author

must be referenced in each paragraph. Authors whose words or ideas have been used in the preparation of a paper must be listed in the references cited at the end of the paper. Students are

encouraged to review the plagiarism module from the UT Arlington Central Library via

BOMB THREATS: If anyone is tempted to call in a bomb threat, be aware that UTA will attempt to trace the phone call and prosecute all responsible parties. Every effort will be made to avoid cancellation of

presentations/tests caused by bomb threats. Unannounced alternate sites will be available for these classes. Your instructor will make you aware of alternate class sites in the event that your classroom is not available.


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E-CULTURE POLICY: The University of Texas at Arlington has adopted the University email address as an official means of communication with students. Through the use of email, UT-Arlington is able to provide students with relevant and timely information, designed to facilitate student success. In particular, important information concerning

department requirements, registration, financial aid and scholarships, payment of bills, and graduation may be sent to students through email. All students are assigned an email account and information about activating and using it is available at Students are responsible for checking their email regularly.

NO GIFT POLICY: In accordance with Regent Rules and Regulations and the UTA Standards of Conduct, the School of Nursing has a “no gift” policy. A donation to one of the UTA School of Nursing Scholarship Funds, found at the following link: Nursing Scholarship List

would be an appropriate way to recognize a faculty member’s contribution to your learning. For information regarding Scholarship Funds, please contact the Dean’s office.


Vivian Lail-Davis, Admin. Assistant, Room 512; Phone: (817) 272-1038; Fax: (817) 272-2950;




Helen Hough, Nursing Librarian (817) 272-7429

Research Information on Nursing:


Inclement Weather (School Closing) Inquiries: Metro (972) 601-2049

Fax Number - UTA School of Nursing: (817) 272-2950 Attn: PhD in Nursing Office

UTA Police (Emergency Only): (817) 272-3003 Mailing Address for Packages:

UTA School of Nursing C/O (insert faculty name)

411 S. Nedderman Drive, Pickard Hall Arlington, Texas 76019-0407


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The University of Texas at Arlington

School of Nursing

PhD in Nursing Program


Description Website

University of Texas Home Page

Graduate Catalog & Faculty

Graduate Nursing Programs

PhD Nursing Courses & Syllabi

Faculty and Staff Email Contacts and Biosketches

Graduate Student Handbook

Preceptor (Clinical) Sites Numbers

Criminal Background Check (Group One)

Criminal Background Check (TDPS)

Instructions for E-Reserves

Select under Library Catalogs (UTA Library Catalogs) Select Course Reserves

Look for Instructor’s Name Click Search

Select Article

Password is course abbreviation and course number.

ALL CAPS no spaces (ex. NURS5340).


Fall 2006, Nursing 6301 8

Complete Citations for Assigned Readings


Andershed, B., & Ternestedt., B. M. (2000). Development of a theoretical framework describing relatives’ involvement in palliative care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 34 (4), 554-562.

Barrett, E. A. M. (2002). What is nursing science? Nursing Science Quarterly, 15 (1), 51-60.

Cody, W. K. (2003). Nursing theory a guide to practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 16 (3), 225-231.

Flaskerud, J. H., & Winslow, B. J. (1998). Conceptualizing vulnerable populations health-related research. Nursing Research, 47(2), 69-78.

Henderson, V. (2006). The concept of nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53(1), 21-34.

Hilton, P. A. (1997). Theoretical perspectives of nursing: A review of the literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(6), 1211-1220.

Kulig, J. C. (2000). Community resilience: The potential for community health nursing theory development. Public Health Nursing, 17(5), 374-385.

Morse, J. M., Mitcham, C., Hupcey, J. E., & Tason, M. C. (1996). Criteria for concept evaluation. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24(2), 385-390.

Ponterotto, J. G. (2005). Qualitative research in counseling psychology: A primer on research paradigms and philosophy of science. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(2), 126-136.

Ridner, S. H. (2004). Psychological distress: A concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(5), 536-545.

Rodgers, B. L. (1989). Concepts, analysis, and the development of nursing knowledge: The evolutionary cycle. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 14, 330-335.

Rutty, J. E. (1998). The nature of philosophy of science, theory, and knowledge relating to nursing and professionalism. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(2), 243-250.

Smith, J. A. (1981). The idea of health: A philosophical inquiry. Advances in Nursing Science, 3

(4), 43-50.

Van Ryn, M., & Fu, S. S., (2003). Paved with good intentions: Do public health and human service providers contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in health? American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 248-255.


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Philosophy of Science Group Seminar September 15, 22, or 29 (assigned)

Two to three students will be work together to give a 30-minute presentation of an assigned philosophy. Following the short presentation, you will lead a 20-minute discussion of how the philosophy is applicable to nursing theory, research, and practice. Provide your colleagues with a handout that includes key facts about the philosophy, thought leaders, at least one primary source, and other pertinent references.

Grading Guidelines

Description Evaluative Standard Possible Points

Your Points Overview of Main Premises of the


Accuracy and completeness of information

25 Context of the philosophy- time,

place, major thought leaders

Insight into the influences of the thought leaders’ backgrounds and historical context


Influence of this philosophy on contemporary science and theory

Give a contemporary example of how this philosophy affects current science and theory

Implications clearly stated


Strengths and challenges of using this philosophy of science when studying vulnerable


Strengths Challenges


Presentation Visual aids Participation of all group members

20 Class Discussion Ability to engage the class and

elicit participation



Philosophies of Science to be assigned (followed one or two philosophers) Empiricism/Positivism: Locke, Mill, and Carnap; Vienna Circle

Phenomenology: Husserl; Heidegger Social Constructivism: Kant, Dilthey

Critical-ideological: Horkheimer, Adorno, Marcuse, Frankfurt School Pragmatism and/or scientific realism: James, Kune, Hempel


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Purpose: To provide an opportunity to clarify your thinking on the building blocks (vulnerable population, key concept, nursing theory) that you will use in your framework for research and to obtain faculty feedback on your writing.

Format: Cover page. Body consisting of 500 words or less (about two double-spaced pages). Word count provided at the end of the text. Reference page.

Grading: 75% content, 25% format (APA and writing)

Mini Paper #1 Due 9/8

Vulnerable Population and Health Issue/Problem

Description Evaluative Standard Possible Points

Your Points Describe your vulnerable


Size 10

What makes this group vulnerable?

Presented in the context of Flaskerud and Winslow's model of vulnerability


What is the health problem/issue in this group that you want to study?

Brief description

Significance of this problem or issue for the population

How aspects of vulnerability affect the problem or issue


Format Correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling References cited correctly

Reference list correct according to APA



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Mini Paper #2 Due 9/22

Concept and Health Problem/Issue of the Vulnerable Population

Description Evaluative Standard Possible Points

Your Points Key concept to be studied Definition of the concept 15 Rationale for selecting

this concept

Why this concept is related to this health problem


Fit of concept to vulnerability

How does this concept fit within the model of vulnerability


Format Correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling References cited correctly

Reference list correct according to APA



Mini Paper #3 Due 10/6

Nursing Theory related to the Vulnerable Population and Health Problem/Issue

Description Evaluative Standard Possible Points

Your Points Main ideas of theory Key ideas stated clearly. 20 Why this theory is a good fit

with your health problem/ issue and vulnerable population

Logical links between concept, problem, and population


Why this theory is a good fit with your personal and professional values

Personal and cultural values that support selection of this philosophy


Format Correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling

References cited correctly

Reference list correct according to APA



Fall 2006, Nursing 6301 12

Concept Clarification Paper Due October 20

Section Description Possible


Your Points

Concept What is the concept of interest?

Rationale for why you selected the concept

What is the philosophical and theoretical context of the concept?


Method Which method of concept analysis did you use? (Walker & Avant;

Rodgers; Morse)

Identify the uses of the concept that you explored. What bodies of knowledge were used?


Presentation of Analysis: Discipline #1

How does this discipline define the concept?

What conditions or phenomena precede the concept? (antecedents) What is the essence of the concept (criteria)?

What conditions or phenomena occur as a result of the concept? (consequences)


Presentation of Analysis: Discipline #2

How does this discipline define the concept?

What conditions or phenomena precede the concept? (antecedents) What is the essence of the concept (criteria)?

What conditions or phenomena occur as a result of the concept? (consequences)


Presentation of Analysis: Discipline #3

How does this discipline define the concept?

What conditions or phenomena precede the concept? (antecedents) What is the essence of the concept (criteria)?

What conditions or phenomena occur as a result of the concept? (consequences)


Clarification of concept

[What you have integrated and synthesized from the 3 disciplines; what you mean when you use the concept]

What conditions or phenomena precede the concept? (antecedents) What is the essence of the concept (criteria)?

What conditions or phenomena occur as a result of the concept? (consequences)

How can the concept be distinguished from related concepts?


Future Direction What additional literature review or other work is needed to be able to use this concept?

Will you use this concept in your framework for research?


Format Body of the paper is 10 to 20 pages.

APA format for referencing in the text and in the reference list was correctly followed.

Correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling.

Adequacy of literature and other knowledge sources will be evaluated in each content section.



Fall 2006, Nursing 6301 13

Research Framework Paper Due December 7 Section Possible Points Your Points Philosophical Perspective

Identify your philosophy of science.

Describe the congruence of this perspective to your vulnerable population and research problem.


Vulnerable Population

What is the size and characteristics of this population? Why are they vulnerable?


Research Problem

What is the gap in knowledge that you hope to address? Why is this problem significant for your population?


Theory Development

Describe which method of theory development you used. What are the theories from which you are drawing your concepts and theoretical statements?


Model of Framework

Present a schematic diagram of your research framework. 15

Framework Description

Define the concepts. Cite literature support for these definitions.

Describe the relationships among concepts. Cite literature support for these relationships.

What points of intervention are presented by this model?


Evaluation What are the strengths and weaknesses of the model?

Is the evidence for the theoretical relationships strong? What do you need to do to increase your knowledge of the research problem, the selected population, and the theoretical basis for your framework?


Format Body of the paper is 10 to 20 pages.

APA format for referencing in the text and in the reference list was correctly followed.

Correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling.

Adequacy of literature and other knowledge sources will be evaluated in each content section.



Fall 2006, Nursing 6301 14

Course Calendar

Week Read prior to Class [Complete citations on Reference List] Class Date Topics Assignments Due Aug. 27 to Sept. 2

Flaskerud & Winslow(1998) Meleis (2007), Chap. 1-3

Walker & Avant (2005) Chap. 1, 2

Sept. 1 Introduction to Course

Review syllabus Assignments Nursing science Vulnerable Populations

Sept. 3-9 Meleis (2007), Chap. 4-6, 17

Ponterotto (2005) [selected sections]

Rutty (1998)

Sept. 8 Nursing's theoretical heritage

Philosophical overview

Mini-Paper #1

Sept. 10-17 Rutty (1998) Sept. 15 Philosophy of Science


Feedback on scholarly writing Sept. 17-23 Meleis (2007), Chap. 8

Morse et al. (1996) Ridner (2004) Rodgers (1989)

Walker & Avant (2005), Chap. 3, 4, 5

Sept. 22 Philosophy of Science


Strategies for Concept Analysis and Clarification

Mini-Paper #2

Sept. 24-30 Henderson (2006) Hilton (1997)

Sept. 29 Philosophy of Science


Domain concepts: nursing, patient

Oct. 1-7 Kulig (2000)

Smith (1981)

Van Ryn & Fu (2003)

Oct. 6 Domain concepts: health,

environment Health Disparities

Mini-Paper #3

Oct. 8-14 Barrett (2002)

Readings related to own concept and framework

Oct. 13 No Class- Dr. Gray out of

town, attending nursing science conference Discussion board topic: Is nursing a science?

Oct. 15-21 Meleis (2007), Chap. 9,10

Walker & Avant (2005), Chap. 9 and 10

Oct. 20 Theory Construction

Methods: Walker & Avant’s process

Research/theory methods

Concept Paper Due

Oct. 22-28 Cody (2003)

Gather references for framework paper

Oct. 27 No Class- Dr. Gray out of

town, attending national HIV/AIDS meeting Discussion board topic: Is theory disconnected from practice?

Oct. 29-Nov. 4

Andreshed & Ternestedt (2000) Nov. 3 Theory Synthesis


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Week Read prior to Class [Complete citations on Reference List] Class Date Topics Assignments Due

Nov. 5-11 Readings related to own


Nov. 10 Theoretical Structures

IMB: Information, Motivation, Behavior SPO: Structure, Process, Outcome

Nov. 13-19 Readings related to own framework

Nov. 18 Theory Construction

Methods: Stinchcombe’s method

Gibbs’ s method

Nov. 20-26 Work on framework Nov. 24 Thanksgiving Holiday

Nov. 27-Dec. 2

Meleis (2007), Chap. 11

Walker & Avant (2005), Chap. 8 and 11

Dec. 1 Theory of Chocolate Chip


Statement analysis

Theory Evaluation Methods

Dec. 3-9 Flaskerud & Winslow (1998) Dec. 8 Congruency of available

theories for problems of vulnerable populations Review of key principles learned

Group work on frameworks

Dec. 11 Research Framework Papers Due by



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