Safety Case for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel at Olkiluoto

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J a n u a r y 2 0 1 4

P O S I V A O Y O l k i l u o t o F I - 2 7 1 6 0 E U R A J O K I , F I N L A N D P h o n e ( 0 2 ) 8 3 7 2 3 1 ( n a t . ) , ( + 3 5 8 - 2 - ) 8 3 7 2 3 1 ( i n t . ) F a x ( 0 2 ) 8 3 7 2 3 8 0 9 ( n a t . ) , ( + 3 5 8 - 2 - ) 8 3 7 2 3 8 0 9 ( i n t . )

P o s i v a O y

Safety Case for the Disposal of

Spent Nuclear Fuel at Olkiluoto

Data Basis for the Biosphere Assessment BSA-2012

Appendices

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BIOSPHERE ASSESSMENT BSA-2012: DATA BASIS - APPENDICES

APP. A MAPS OF STUDY LOCATIONS ... 1091

 

REFERENCES ... 1111

 

APP. B

 

BACKGROUND REPORTS ON SITE AND REFERENCE AREA STUDIES ...

...

1113

 

REFERENCES ... 1121

 

APP. C

 

LIST OF PLANT AND ANIMAL SPECIES MENTIONED IN THE REPORT1129

 

APP. D

 

STONINESS CLASSIFICATION OF SEA BOTTOM AT OLKILUOTO ... 1137

 

REFERENCES ... 1139

 

APP. E

 

AVAILABLE DATA ON SOIL AND SEDIMENT PROPERTIES ... 1141

 

REFERENCES ... 1269

 

APP. F

 

LITERATURE DATA ON K

D

... 1275

 

REFERENCES ... 1301

 

APP. G

 

LITERATURE DATA ON CONCENTRATION RATIOS ... 1309

 

REFERENCES ... 1339

 

APP. H

 

CALCULATION OF PRESENT BIOTOPE AREAS... 1345

 

REFERENCES ... 1349

 

APP. I

 

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON DERIVATION OF PARAMETER

VALUES FOR AQUATIC SYSTEMS ... 1351

 

REFERENCES ... 1401

 

APP. J

 

DETAILS OF DERIVATION OF FAUNA POPULATIONS AND EDIBLES . 1405

 

REFERENCES ... 1423

 

APP. K

 

DERIVATION OF SITE-SPECIFIC VALUES FOR SEDIMENTATION IN LAKE

BASINS

...

1427

 

REFERENCES ... 1429

 

APP. L

 

DERIVATION OF TERRESTRIAL BIOTURBATION RATES ... 1431

 

REFERENCES ... 1445

 

 

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APP. A

MAPS OF STUDY LOCATIONS

This appendix presents maps on the study locations at the Olkiluoto site and in the

Reference Area referred to in this report. Also the relevant sampling point and area

codes are shown in the maps. The catchment areas presented in some of the maps have

been delineated based on the data in the topographical database of the National Land

Survey of Finland, originally for the work of (Haapanen et al. 2010).

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Figure A-1

. An overview map of the Olkiluoto site with most commonly used place

names. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy, based on the topographical database of

National Land Survey (2012).

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Figure A-2

. An overview map of the Reference Area with some place names. Map

layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy, based on the 1:1 000 000 topographical database of

the National Land Survey (2012).

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Figure A-3.

An overview map of the soil types in the Reference Area. Map layout by

Jani Helin, Posiva Oy, based on the soil map of the Geological Survey of Finland;

background the 1:1 000 000 topographical database of the National Land Survey

(2012).

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Figure A-4.

An overview map of the reference lakes (with their catchment areas

delineated) and mires with the terrestrial biotopes and land use in Reference Area. Map

layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy, based on the biotopes as reclassified from the soil map

of the Geological Survey of Finland, agricultural areas from the CORINE2000

database; background the 1:1 000 000 topographical database of the National Land

Survey (2012).

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Figure A-5.

An overview map of the Reference Area main rivers and their catchment

areas with the land use in the Reference Area. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy,

based on the CORINE database and the 1:1 000 000 topographical database of the

National Land Survey (2012).

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Figure A-6.

Lake Koskeljärvi and its catchment area. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva

Oy; biotopes based on the soil map of the Geological Survey of Finland; the depth

model interpolated from data of Ojala (2011) and the topographical database of the

National Land Survey (2012); background from the CORINE 2000 database and the

1:1 000 000 topographical database of the National Land Survey (2012).

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Figure A-7.

Lake Lutanjärvi and its catchment area. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva

Oy; biotopes based on the soil map of the Geological Survey of Finland; the depth

model interpolated from data of Ojala (2011) and the topographical database of the

National Land Survey (2012); background from the CORINE 2000 database and the

1:1 000 000 topographical database of the National Land Survey (2012).

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Figure A-8.

Reference lakes Kivijärvi, Poosjärvi, Valkjärvi, Lampinjärvi and

Suomenperänjärvi and their catchment areas. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy;

biotopes based on the soil map of the Geological Survey of Finland; background from

the CORINE 2000 database and the 1:1 000 000 topographical database of the

National Land Survey (2012).

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Figure A-9.

Lastensuo mire and its catchment area. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva

Oy; peat thickness interpolated from the survey data of the Geological Survey of

Finland; biotopes based on the soil map of the Geological Survey of Finland;

background from the CORINE 2000 database and the 1:1 000 000 topographical

database of the National Land Survey (2012).

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Figure A-10.

Pesänsuo mire and its catchment area. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva

Oy; peat thickness interpolated from the survey data of the Geological Survey of

Finland; biotopes based on the soil map of the Geological Survey of Finland;

background from the CORINE 2000 database and the 1:1 000 000 topographical

database of the National Land Survey (2012).

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Figure A-11.

Aquatic biotopes and sampling locations in the Olkiluoto area. Map

layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy; the biotopes based on the surface sediment map of

(Rantataro 2001, 2002; Rantataro & Kaskela 2009), and terrain and ecosystems

development modelling results (delineation of the open sea); background from the

topographical database of the National Land Survey (2012).

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Figure A-12.

Terrestrial soil types (upper) and biotopes (bottom) in Olkiluoto area.

Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy; soil types from (Rautio et al. 2004) and the soil

map of Geological Survey of Finland; biotopes based on the soil type data; background

from the topographical database of the National Land Survey (2012).

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Figure A-13.

The regular 100 × 100 m² forest monitoring network (OL-FET) in

Olkiluoto and the sub-set of sampling plots overlaid on the terrestrial biotope map. The

numbering on the left and upper border of the map is the coding key for the plot id

numbers (beginning and end parts, respectively). Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy;

biotopes based on (Rautio et al. 2004) and the soil map of Geological Survey of

Finland; background from the topographical database of the National Land Survey

(2012).

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Figure A-14.

Forest deposition (OL-MRK) and intensive monitoring plots (OL-FIP) in

Olkiluoto overlaid on the terrestrial biotope map; each OL-FIP plot includes also an

OL-MRK plot of the same number. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy; biotopes

based on (Rautio et al. 2004) and the soil map of Geological Survey of Finland;

background from the topographical database of the National Land Survey (2012).

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Figure A-15.

Soil sampling locations at Olkiluoto mentioned in the report, overlaid on

the terrestrial biotope map. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy; biotopes based on

(Rautio et al. 2004) and the soil map of Geological Survey of Finland; background from

the topographical database of the National Land Survey (2012).

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Figure A-16.

The

area of the five municipalities used for the estimation of the mass

balances and fluxes of agriculture (section 4.7), and the sampling locations of the crop

samples in the (Helin et al. 2011) study. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy; biotopes

based on the soil map of the Geological Survey of Finland; background from the

CORINE 2000 database and the 1:1 000 000 topographical database of the National

Land Survey (2012).

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Figure A-17.

River monitoring locations (cf. e.g. Appendix I) and the catchment areas

of Eurajoki and Lapijoki Rivers. Map layout by Jani Helin, Posiva Oy; biotopes based

on the soil map of the Geological Survey of Finland; background from the CORINE

2000 database and the 1:1 000 000 topographical database of the National Land

Survey (2012).

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Figure A-18.

Sea bottom surface sediments off the Olkiluoto Island (Rantataro 2001,

2002, Rantataro & Kaskela 2009). Map layout Jani Helin, Posiva Oy; the border of the

open sea biotope from the terrain and ecosystems development modelling; background

from the topographical database of the National Land Survey (2012).

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REFERENCES

Haapanen, R., Aro, L., Kirkkala, T., Koivunen, S. & Lahdenperä, A.-M. 2010. Potential

reference mires and lakes for biosphere assessment of Olkiluoto site. Working Report

2010-67. Posiva Oy, Eurajoki, Finland. 218 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Helin, J., Ikonen, A.T.K. & Salo, T. 2011. Crops and garden products near Olkiluoto

repository site. Radioprotection 46(6): S35-S41. http://www.radioprotection.org/

Ojala, A.E.K. 2011. Sedimenttistratigrafia ja sedimentaatioympäristön muutokset

Itämerestä kuroutuneissa järvissä Satakunnassa (in Finnish with an English abstract:

Sediment lithostratigraphy and past changes in sedimentary environment in isolated

lakes in Satakunta region). Working Report 2011-87. Posiva Oy, Eurajoki, Finland. 64

pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Rantataro, J. 2001. Akustis-seismiset tutkimukset Olkiluodon läheisellä merialueella

vuonna 2000 (in Finnish with English abstract: Acoustic-seismic research in the sea

area near Olkiluoto in the year 2000). Working Report 2001-11. Posiva Oy, Helsinki. 62

pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Rantataro, J. 2002. Sedimenttikivialueen rajaus ja Olkiluodon merialueen

akustis-seismisten luotausten täydentävä tulkinta (in Finnish with an English abstract: The

estimation of sedimentary rock covered areas as well as supplementary interpretation of

acoustic-seismic research in Olkiluoto area). Working Report 2002-38. Posiva Oy,

Olkiluoto, Finland. 17 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Rantataro, J. & Kaskela, A. 2009. Acoustic seismic studies in the sea area close to

Olkiluoto in 2008. Working Report 2009-112. Posiva Oy, Eurajoki. 32 pp.

http://www.posiva.fi/

Rautio, P., Latvajärvi, H., Jokela, A. & Kangas-Korhonen, P. 2004. Forest resources on

Olkiluoto Island. Working Report 2004-35. Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, Finland. 109 pp.

http://www.posiva.fi/

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1113

APP. B

BACKGROUND RE

PORTS ON SITE

AND REFE

RE

NCE ARE

A

STUDIE

S

Table B-1.

Background reports and publications on studies

commissioned by Posiva

at Olkiluoto and in the Re

ference Area and their use

in the present assessment. Table will be finalis

ed after the report and references are completed.

Repor t to pic (tit le) Repor t n u m b er Referen ce Use in the pres ent ass essm ent Loca tio n Descrip tion

Soil properties and constructabilit

y of the O lkiluoto investigation site – Hagros 1999 Section 1.4.2 O verbu rden, f o u ndation engineeri ng, till, final di sposal plant, Olkiluoto

Acoustic-seismic research in the s

ea area n ear Olkiluoto in the year 2000 (i n Finn ish w ith an English abstract)) WR 2001-11 Rantatar o 2001 Sections 1.4.2, 3.1.1, 3.2.1, 3. 1. 1, 3.2.1, 8.2, 12. 1, 13.3, 15.1.3, Marine geolog y, echo sounding, a coustic reflection

seismic sounding, surface seafloor

sediments, offshore, nea r sh ore, Olkiluoto, Bo thnian Sea Surve y w ith g rou nd-penet rating ra dar at the Olkiluodonjärvi area WR 2001-27 Leino 2001 Sections 3.7.2, 11.6, Grou nd penet rati ng rada r, thickness, stratigraph y, peat, g yttja, till, O lkiluodonjärvi mire, O lkiluoto On migration of r adionuclides in a peat y e nvironme nt and on geochemi str y of Olkiluodonjärvi w etland WR 2002-14 Ikonen 2002 Sections 3.7.2, 4.5.3, 14.1, 1 4.1 1, 14.11.5 Geochemistr y of w etlan d Olkiluodonjärvi, soil samples, activity concentrat ions of U-238, Cs-134, Cs-137, Olkiluoto The estimation of sedimentar y roc k covered areas as w ell as suppleme ntar y inte rpr etation of acoustic-seismi c r esear ch WR 2002-38 Rantatar o 2002 Sections 1.4.2, 3.1.1, 3.2.1, 8. 2, 15.1.3, Marine geolog y, echo sounding, a coustic reflection

seismic sounding, surface seafloor

sediments, sedimentary rocks, gaseous sedi ments, offshore, near

shore, Olkiluoto, Bothnian Sea

Vegetation t

yp

es on Olkiluoto Is

land

WR 2002-54

Miettinen & Haap

anen 2002 Sections 3.7.2, Vegetation t yp e

classification, aerial photograph,

plygon, succession

Soil sample analy

ses

WR 2003-01

Lintinen et al. 2003

Sections. 1.4.2, 4.5.3, 14.11.1

,

Deep soil pits, geotechnical and geochemical soil surve

y, gr

ain size distribut

ion, specific

surface are

a,

mineralog

y, Olkiluoto

Environmental studies in the Olkiluoto

area

WR 2003-15

Ikonen et al. 200

3

Section 14.10

Birds, mammals, endanger

ed spe cies, w at er q uality, ph yt oplankton, a

quatic vegetation, benthic fauna, fish,

fishing, environmental impacts, wells

Soil sample analy

ses

WR 2003-38

Lintinen & Kahelin 2003

Sections,1.4.2, 4.5.3, 14.11.1

,

Deep soil pits, geotechnical and geochemical soil sur

vey , grain siz e distr ibution, permeability , O lkiluoto Forest resou

rces on Olkiluoto Island

WR 2004-35 Rautio et al. 200 4 Sections 3.7.2, 3.8.1, 3.8.2, 4. 6. 3, 8.2, Gro w ing stock, forestr y, soil type s, special biotop e, Olkiluoto Studies of Quate rnar y deposits of investigation trenches OL -TK8 and OL -TK9 WR 2005-20 Huhta 2005 Section 1.4.2, O verbu rden, glac ial geology , till, st ratigraph y,

investigation trench, grain size, Olkiluoto

Summar y of over burden studies at Olkiluoto w ith th e emphasis on geosphere-biosphe re interface WR 2005-11 Lahdenpe rä et al . 2005 Sections 1.4.2, 4.5.3, 4.6.3, Ov erbur d en , de ep soi l p its , soil a n d pea t s a mp le s, str a tigra p hy , ge oc hemi stry , hy draul ic p ro p er tie s, Ol kil u ot o

Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2004 - environment

WR 2005-31

Haapanen

2005

Section 19.1.5

Envir

onmental monitoring, ecos

ys

tem, baseline

condition, change, Olkiluoto

Meteorological data at Olkiluoto in period of 20

02-WR 2005-35 Ik onen 2005 Sections 10.3, 10.5 Weather, sno w c over, groun d fros t, surface runoff

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1114

Repor t to pic (tit le) Repor t n u m b er Referen ce Use in the pres ent ass essm ent Loca tio n Descrip tion 2004 State of the fo

rest on Olkiluoto Island in 2004.

Comparisons bet w e en Olkiluoto a nd the rest of South w est Finlan d WR 2005-39

Saramäki & Korh

onen 2005 Sections 4.5.3, 4.6.3, 14.11.6 , 14.11.7, 14.2, 14 .3, 14.4, 17.1.1, 17. 3.1, 17.9,

Environmental monitoring, perma

nent sample plots,

forest condition, Olkiluot

o,

South-w

este

rn Finland

Slug tests in PP- and PVP-holes a

t Olkiluoto in 2004 WR 2005-76 Ta mmisto et al. 2005 Section 14.7, Shallow g round water holes, h ydra ulic conductivity ,

slug tests, disposal of spent

nuclear fuel, h ydrolog y, Olkiluoto Permanent veget ation quadran ts on Olkiluoto Island.

Establishment and results from th

e first inventor

y

WR 2006-33

Huhta & Korp

ela 2006 Sections 3.7.2, 4.5.3, 4.6.3, 3. 8. 2, 4.5.3, 17.1.1, 17. 4.1, 17.12.1,

Plant cover anal

ysis, alder

forest vegetation, birch

forest vegetation, Nor w a y spruce f orest vegetation,

Scots pine forest vegetation, mire

vegetation,

Olkiluoto

Methodolog

y

for

calculation of doses to man and

implementation in PANDORA

WR-2006

-56

Avila & Bergsröm 2006

Section 5.7,

Dose assessment, exte

rnal dose coefficients, age

dependent inte rn al dose coe fficie nts, PANDORA t ool

Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2005 - environment

WR 2006-68

Haapanen

2006

Section 15.2.1,

Envir

onmental monitoring, ecos

ys

tem, baseline

condition, change, Olkiluoto

Slug tests in PP- and PVP-holes a

t Olkiluoto in 2005

WR 2006-10

0

Tammisto & Leht

inen 2006 Section 14.7 Shallow g round wate r holes, h ydra ulic conductivity ,

slug-test, disposal of spent

nuclear fuel, h ydrolog y Overall strateg y f or handling par a m

eters and dat

a

in

the Posiva biosp

here assessment WR 2006-10 9 Hjerpe 2006 Chapter 2, Safet

y case, biosphere assessment, kno

w ledge quality assessment, paramet ers, Summar y of futur e development of

the Baltic Sea and

recommendation s for safet y mod e lling WR 2006-11 1 Lahdenpe rä 200 6 Section 12.1 Baltic S

ea, shoreline development, climate, sea-bed

sediments, geosphere-bi osphere interface zone , past and fu tu re dev e lo pmen t Studies of Quate rnar y deposits of investigation trench OL-TK 13 WR 2007-34 Huhta 2007 Sections 1.4.2, 14.11.1 O verbu rden, glac ial geology , till, st ratigraph y,

investigation trench, grain size, Olkiluoto

Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2006

WR 2007-52

Haapanen

2007

Section 15.2.1

Environmental monitoring, ecos

ys

tem, baselin

e

condition, change, Olkiluoto

Future vege tatio n t ypes and relat ed main processes WR 2007-60 Haapanen 2007 Sections 3.7.2,

Land up-lift, succession, vegetatio

n, GIS anal

ys

es

Forest soil survey and ma

pping of

the nutrient stat

us of the vegetation WR 2007-78 Tamminen et al. 2007 Sections 1.3, 4.5.8, 4.6.3, Chapt er 7, 14.5, 14.11.1, 17.12.1, 17.1 3.1, Bioindicators, co nifers, dec

iduous trees, nutrition, s

oil pr ofile descr iption, soil properties, understore y description,

Slug tests in PP- and PVP-holes a

t Olkiluoto in 2006

WR 2007-93

Ke

skitalo & Lind

gren 2007 Section 14.7 Shallow g round water hole s, h ydra ulic conductivity ,

slug-test, disposal of spent

nuclear fuel, h

ydrolog

y

Models for assessment of doses fr

om underg round releases of C-14 WR 2007-10 7 Avila & Pröhl 2007 Sections 5.6.1, 14.1, 17.2, C-14 r

elease, biosphere assessment, dose,

uncertaint y a nal ysis, sensitivity an aly sis Landscape mode l configurati on for biosphere anal ysis

of selected cases in TILA-99 and

in KBS-3H safet y evaluation, 2007 WR 2007-10 8 Broed 2007 Chapter 2, Bios

phere assessment, radionuclide transport

,

sensitivity

anal

ys

is, dose, landsca

pe-specific dose conversion factor Biosphere anal ys is for selected ca ses in TILA-99 a nd in the KBS-3H sa fet y evaluation, 2 007 WR 2007-10 9 Broed et al. 200 7 Section 1.3.2, chapter 2,

Biosphere assessment, radionuclide transport

,

radiation dose

Terrain and ecosy

st em developm ent model of WR 2007-11 0 Ikonen 2007 Sections 12.1, 13.3,

Land uplift, elevation data, field ob

se

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1115

Repor t to pic (tit le) Repor t n u m b er Referen ce Use in the pres ent ass essm ent Loca tio n Descrip tion

Olkiluoto site, version 2006

14.11, 14.11.

5

vegetation succession and type,

w at er bo d y fo rec ast, ground water ta

ble, land use,

The age a nd gro w th of peat in mir es in south-w estern

Finland (in Finnish w

ith

a

n English abstract)

WR 2008-12

Mäkilä & Grundst

röm 2008 Sections 3.7.2, Peat gro w th , mir e, age, Refe renc e area, south -w este rn Finland

Surface and nea

r-surface h ydrolo gical model WR 2008-17 Karvonen 2008 Sections 5.4.4, 5.5, 11.1, Precipitation, surface h ydrolog y, runoff, evapotranspiratio n, infiltra

tion, recharge, discharge

, ground water, u n certaint y, Olkiluoto

Slug tests in PP- and PVP-holes a

t Olkiluoto in 2007 WR 2008-21 Keskitalo 2008 Section 14.7 Shallow g round water holes, h ydra uli c conductivity ,

slug-test, disposal of spent

nuclear fuel, h

ydrolog

y

Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2007 - environment

WR 2008-25

Haapanen

2008

Sections 4.3.2, 15.2.1, 19.1.5

,

Environmental monitoring, ecos

ys

tem, baseline

condition, change, Olkiluoto

Studies of Quate rnar y deposits of investigation trench OL-TK 14 WR 2008-31 Huhta 2008 Sections. 1.4.2, 14.11.1 O verbu rden, glac ial geology , till, st ratigraph y,

investigation trench, grain size, Olkiluoto

A h

ydro

d

yn

amic modelling study

on spreading of

sediments from rivers Eurajoki and Lapijoki (in Finnish)

WR 2008-81 Lauri 2008 Sections 3.2.1,10.8, Sedim ent transp ort, thre e differen t sediment t ypes,

rivers Eurajoki and Lapijoki

, numerical 3 dimensio nal h ydr od yn

amic model, meteorologi

cal data, Hertta

database Areal changes in w a ter qu alit y (in Finnish) WR 2008-86 Lindfors et al. 20 08 Sections 3.2.1, 3.1.3 Water qualit y, flo w t hroug h m appi ng, areal variabilit y Incr easing the r el iability of the O lkiluoto sur face and near-sur face h yd rological model WR 2009-07 Karvonen 2009 a Sections 5.4.4, 5.5, 11.1, 14.7, 14 .11 H ydr olog y, infiltr ation, recharge, anisotrop y, ONK A LO, bedrock, groun d w at er, f racture z

one, particle trac

king Eurajoki Olkiluot o birdlife surve y WR 2009-14 Y rjölä 200 9 Secti ons 1.2, 20.1 Bird surve y, line tr

ansects, birdlife, Olkiluoto,

Review

of B

othnian Sea shore

-level displacement

data and use

GI

S tool to estimate isostatic uplift

WR 2009-17 Vuorela et al. 20 09 Sections 3.7.2, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3 Glacio-isostatic u plift, isosta

tic uplift, glacial isostatic

adjustment,

post-glacial rebound, shoreline

displacement, sh

ore-level displacement, isolation,

sea-level index p oint, 14C, Bothni an Sea, eustas y, GIS, palaeoge og raph y Studies of Quate rnar y deposits of investigation trenches OL -TK1 5 and OL-TK1 6 WR 2009-25 Huhta 2009 Sections 1.4.2, 14.11.1 O verbu rden, glac ial geology , till, st ratigraph y,

investigation trench, grain size, Olkiluoto

Chemical and ge

otechnical analy

ses of soil sample

s

from Olkiluoto for

studies on sorption in soils

WR 2009-33

Lusa et al. 2009

Section 15.2.1

Soil, deep soil pit

s, soil w ater, geo technical characteristics, sequentia l extr actions, sorption Development of

SVAT model for

computing water

and

energ

y balance o

f the forest intens

ive monitoring plots

WR 2009-35 Karvonen 2009 b Sections 5.4.4, 5.5, 14.3, 14.4, 14 .7, 14.11 Precipitation, transpiration, sap flow , interception, w at er balance, e nerg

y balance, stem flow

, infiltrati

on,

surface runoff, s

oil moisture

Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2008 - environment

WR 2009-45 Haapanen 2009 Sections 1.4.2, 15.2.1, 17.3.1 , 17.12.1

Environmental monitoring, ecos

ys

tem, baseline

condition, change, Olkiluoto

Creating

high-res

olution digi

tal ele

vation model using

thin plate spline interpolation and

Monte Carlo simulation WR 2009-56 Pohjola et al. 2009 Section 8.1 Digital el evation

model, thin plate spline interpolation,

Monte Carlo sim

ulation

Summar

y

of over

burden studies of

soil pits

OL-KK14…O L -KK19 WR 2009-10 9 Lahdenpe rä 200 9 Sections 1.4.2, 4.5.3, 4.6.3, 1 4.1 1.1 Overbu rden, de e

p soil pits, geoch

emistr y, grain size distribution, catio n exchange cap a city , element solubility , O lkiluoto Small mammals,

ants, snails and earth

w o rms on t he WR 2009-11 2 Niem inen et al. 2009 Section 17.8 Ants, earth w o rm s, monitoring, O lk iluoto, small

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1116

Repor t to pic (tit le) Repor t n u m b er Referen ce Use in the pres ent ass essm ent Loca tio n Descrip tion island of Olkiluot o in 2009 mammals, snails Acoustic-seismic studies in

the sea area close to

Olkiluoto WR 2009-12 2 Rantatar o & Kaskela 2009 Sections 1.4.2, 3.1.1, 3.1.2, 3. 2. 1, 8.2, 15.1.3 Marine geolog y, echo sounding, a coustic reflection

seismic sounding, side scan sonar, multibeam, sur

face seafloor

sediments, sedi

mentary

r

ocks,

gaseous sediments, offshore,

ne

ar shore,

Olkiluoto,

Bothnian Sea

Fine roots on int

ensive forest ecosy

stem m

onitorin

g

plots FIP4, FIP1

0 and FIP11 WR 2009-12 7 Helmisaari et al. 2009b Chapter 7, sections 17.1.1, 17.9

Betula spp., biomass, ectomy

co

rr

hiza, fine roots,

minirhizotron technique, Pic

ea abies, Pinus sy lvestris, rhizomes, turnov er time, unde rstore y, ve rtical distribution H ydr

ological modelling in terrain and ecos

ys tem forecast 2009 ( T ESM-2009) WR 2009-12 8 Karvonen 2009c Sections 3.2.3, 5.4.4, 5.5, 11. 1, 11.4,14.11.8

Radionuclide, biosphere, assessment, surface hydr

olog y, pa rticle tracking, water flux, transpiration , interception, surf

ace runoff, soil moisture

Site and regional

data for biosphe

re assessment

BSA-2009: Suppleme

nt to Olkil

uoto biosphere description

2009 WR 2010-36 Ikonen et al. 201 0 Chapter 2, sections 4.4.2, 4.5.3, 1 2.1 , 13.1, 13.3, 13.4,14.4, 14. 5, 14.11.8, 16.1. 1, 16.1.2, 16.1.3 , 16.3.1, 16.3.2 , 16.3.3, 17.1.1 , 17.1.2, 17.1.3 , 17.1.4, 17.3.1 , 17.3.2, 17.3.3 , 17.3.4, 17.4.2 , 17.4.3, 17.4.4 , 17.6.1, 17.6.2 , 17.6.3, 17.6.4 , 1 7.7, 17.8, 17.9, 17 .12 .1, 17.13.4, 19.1. 1, 19.1.2, 19.1.3 , 19.1.5, 19.2.9 Biosphere, safet y assessment, sit e and regional paramete r v al ues Review of eleme nt-spec

ific data for biosphere

assessment BSA -2009 WR 2010-37 Helin et al. 2010 Chapter 2, sections 15.2.5, 16.2, 19. 2.1, 19.2.2

Biosphere, distribution coeffi

cient (Kd), concentr ation ratio, aggre gated concentration ra tio, Ba yesian updating. Studies of Quate rnar y deposits of investigation trench OL-TK 17 WR 2010-40 Huhta 2010 Sections 1.4.2, 14.11.1 O verbu rden, glac ial geology , till, st ratigraph y,

investigation trench, grain size, Olkiluoto

Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010 - environment

WR 2010-45

Haapanen

2010

Sections 15.2.1, 19.1.5

Environmental monitoring, ecos

ys

tem, baseline

condition, change, Olkiluoto

Prediction of long-term influence

of ONKAL

O and

Korvensuo Rese

rvoir on grou

nd

water level and

w a ter balance components WR 2010-55 Karvonen 2010 Sections 5.5, 11.1 H ydr ol og y, water

balance, infiltration, recharg

e,

ground

water, f

ra

cture zone, run

of

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1117

Repor t to pic (tit le) Repor t n u m b er Referen ce Use in the pres ent ass essm ent Loca tio n Descrip tion Potential referen

ce mires and lakes for biosphere

assessment WR 2010-67 Haapanen et al. 2010 Sections 1.4.2, 3.4.2, 3.7.1, 3. 7. 2, chapter 7, sections 8.1, 16.1.1 Reference a rea, analogue site, pa rameter, classification, mo delling, ecosy ste m, mire, lakes

Results of forest monitoring on

Olkiluoto Island in 2009 WR 2010-65 Aro et al. 2010 Sections 1.4.2, 14.11.3, 14.1 1.4 Bulk deposition,

defoliation, fine root elongation an

d

longevity

, fo

rest

ecosy

stems, litterfall production, soil

solution chemistr

y, stand th

roughf

all, tree stand,

transpiration

Radionuclide tra

nsport and dose

assessment

modeling in biosphere assessment BSA-2009

WR 2010-79

Hjerpe & Broe

d 2 010 Chapter 2, section 12.2 Safet y case, safe ty assessment, biosphere

assessment, radionuclide transpor

t, dose assessm

ent

Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2009: H

ydrolo g y WR 2011-43 Vaittinen et al. 2010 Section 14.11.10 Grou nd w ate r, gr ound w ate r level, h ydr aulic head, ground water flo w , h ydr aulic conductivity , salinity ( in situ EC)

Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010: Environment

WR 2011-45 Haapanen 2011 Sections 1.2, 1.4.2, 4.3.2, 10.2, 1 4.1 1.2, 14.11.7, 19.1. 5

Environmental monitoring, ecos

ys

tem, baseline

condition, change, Olkiluoto

Olkiluoto surface and near

-surfac e h yd rological modelling in 2010 WR 2011-50 Karvonen 2011 Sections 5.5, 8.2, 14.11.10 H ydr olog y, p alae oh yd rolog y, g eosphere-biosphere interface, rechar ge, groun d w ate r, fracture zone, leakage, repositor y pa nel, optimization, monitoring net w ork

Results of forest monitoring on

Olkiluoto Island in 2010 WR 2011-61 Aro et al. 2011 Sections 14.1, 14.11.9 Bulk deposition,

defoliation, fine root elongation an

d

longevity

, fo

rest

ecosy

stems, litterfall production, soil

solution chemistr

y, stand th

roughf

all, tree stand

transpiration The inventor y of the terr estrial par t of land-to-sea transects on Olkiluot

o Island in 2008 and the

investigations of

reedbeds sur

rou

nding Olkiluoto

Island carried out

in 2007–2008 WR 2011-67 Haapanen & Lah denperä 2011 Section 10.8 Overbu rden, veg

etation, shoreline, common reed,

continuum, succession, Olkiluoto Island, Lake Koske

ljärvi,

Lake Lutanjärvi

Chemical and ph

ys

ical prope

rties of the surface an

d

sediments at the Olkiluoto offshore

WR 2011-80 Lahdenpe rä & K eskinen 2011 Sections 1.4.1, 14.5, chapter 7

Land uplift, Olkiluoto sea area,

su

rface sea sediments,

geochemistr y Sediment lithostratigraph y and pa st changes in sedimentar y e

nvironment in isolated lakes in

Satakunta region (in Finnish w ith an English abstract)) WR 2011-87 Ojala 2011 Chapter 7, section 12.1

Reference lakes, lacustrine sedim

ent, isolation, sedimentation, stratigraph y, past and present sedimentar y e nvironment, g round penetrating radar ,

sediment coring and ph

ys

ical sedimentological

applications

Selection of real-life analogues for future lakes and mires at the repo

sitor y site Radioprotection 46(6) Haapanen et al. 2011 Sections 3.4.2, 3.7.2,11.3, 16 .1. 2, 16.1.6, 16.3.1 , 16.3.2

Reference lakes and mires, land u

plift, analogue sites,

radionuclide tran sport, Crops and ga rde n products near Olkiluoto repositor y site Radioprotection 46(6) Helin et al. 2011 Sections 4.7.3, 14.11.10, 15. 2.2, 17.12.2, 17.1 3.2, 19.2.3, 21.1.6 Reference a rea,

crops and gard

e

n products, soil

samples, geochemistry

, concentra

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1118

Repor t to pic (tit le) Repor t n u m b er Referen ce Use in the pres ent ass essm ent Loca tio n Descrip tion Concentration rat

ios to aquatic plants at and near

Olkiluoto repositor y site Radioprotection 46(6) Kangasniemi et al. 2011 Sections 17.1.3, 17.1.4, 17.12. 4, 21.1.6

Aquatic plants, macroph

yt

es, sea and lake water,

anal

ys

is, concentration rates,

Olkiluoto, Refe

rence

area

Models of bedroc

k surface and overburd

en thickness

over Olkiluoto and nearb

y sea ar e a WR 2012-15 Mönkkönen 2012 Section 8.2 Bedrock su rface, overburde n thickness, stratigraph y, Olkiluoto

Simulations of hydrogeological evolution

WR 2012-35

Löfman & Karvo

nen 2012 Section 14.11.10 H ydr olog y, p

ostglacial crustal upl

ift, ground water fl ow , salt transport, pe rmafros t, glaciation, numerical

modelling, spent nucl

ear fuel, Olkiluoto

Distribution coefficients of

caesiu

m, chlorine, iodine,

niobium, selenium and technetiu

m WR 2012-38 Söderlund et al. 2012 Section 15.2.1, 15.2.5 Distribution coefficient (K d

), caesium, chlorine, iodine,

technetium, sorpt

ion, soil, organic

matter

 

Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2011: H

ydrolo g y WR 2012-43 Vaittinen et al. 2013 Section 14.11.10 Grou nd w ate r, gr ound w ate r level, h ydr aulic head, ground water flo w , h ydr aulic conductivity , salinity (in situ EC)

Resuspension and transport

of suspended solids in Eurajoensalmi Ba y – Final r eport of monitoring activit ies 2009-2011 WR 2012-78 M ykkänen et al. 2012 Sections 3.3.1,14.1 Sedimentation, r

esuspension, suspended solids,

w at er qu ality   Statistical e stima

tion of land uplift model paramete

r

based on archae

ological and geological shore level

displacement data

WR 2012-86

Pohjola et al. 2012

Sections 8.1, 9.2

Glacio-isostatic u

plift, Monte Carlo

simulation,

radiocarbon da

ting, shore-level displacement,

BSA-2012

Results of forest monitoring on

Olkiluoto Island in 2011 WR 2012-87 Aro et al. 2012 Sections 4.5.3, 4.5.8, chapter 7, 17.1.1, 17.2 Bulk deposition, f

ine root elongatio

n and longevit

y,

forest ecos

ys

tem

s, litterfall production, sample tree

anal

ys

es, soil solution chemistr

y, stand throughf all, tree stand tr ansp iration, vegetation inventor y Stud y notes on b err y and mush ro om monitoring in 2009-201 1 WR 2012-97 Helin 2013a Sections 19.1.1, 19.2.1 Berr y, mushroom , monitoring, yi el d, s ystematic sampling, O lkiluo to Stud y notes of c hemical analy ses of fauna in 2008 -2009 WR 2012-98 Helin 2013b Sections 19.2.2, 21.1.6

Small mammal, rodent, bird, de

er, element concentration, concentra tion ratios , Olkiluoto Studies of Quate rnar y deposits of investigation trench OL-TK 19 WR 2012-10 1 Huhta 2013 Section 1.4.1 O verbu rden, glac ial geology , till, st ratigraph y,

investigation trench, grain size, Olkiluoto

Studies on refere

nce mires: 1. Lastensuo and

Pesänsuo in 2010-2011 WR 2012-10 2 Haapanen et al. 2013 Sections 1.4.2, 3.7.2, 4.5.3, 1 1.3 , 15.2.2, 17.1.1 , 19.1.1, 19.2.1 , 21.1.6 Reference mires,

biomass, stand volume, peat pro

file, surface peat, de ep peat coring, b erries, mushroo m s,

plant dimensions, distributi

on coefficient (K), element

anal

ys

es

Sea bottom sedi

ments developing into future soils at

Olkiluoto, a spent nuclear

fuel rep

ositor

y site. In:

Österholm, P.,

Y

li-Halla, M. & Edén, P. (eds.). 7

th

International Acid Sulphate Soil Conference in V

aasa,

Finland 2012:

Geological Survey of Finland 2012, Guide 56

Lahdenpe

rä & Ikonen

2012

Section 3.1.2

Crustal uplift, acid su

lfur-rich soils, naturall

y occur

ring

sulfide-bearing sediments, wester

n coast of the Ba

ltic

Sea, sea sediments, Li

ttorina and recent cla y and g yttja, geochemi str y Stud y notes on sampling of the aq uatic environment at

Olkiluoto and in Reference lakes, 2010-201

1

WR 2013-65

Kangasniemi & Helin 2013

Sections 3.2.2, 3.4.2, 3.5.2, 1 6.3 .1, Depth distribution , w ater q ualit y, surface sediment, macroph yt

es, fish, macrobenthos

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1119

Repor t to pic (tit le) Repor t n u m b er Referen ce Use in the pres ent ass essm ent Loca tio n Descrip tion 16.3.2, 16.3.3 , 17.1.3, 17.1.4 , 17.13.3, 17.1 3.4, 19.2.1, 21.1.6 dimensions, ele ment conc entrati on, concentration rati o Geochemical and ph ys ical proper ties, distribution

coefficients of soils and sediments

WR 2013-66

Lahdenpe

rä 201

3

Sections 14.11.1, 15.2.2

Soil, sediments, chemical and

ph ys ical prope rt ies, distribution coefficient (K d

values), cation excha

nge capacity , Olkiluoto, Refere nce are a

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http://www.posiva.fi/

Löfman, J. & Karvonen, T. 2012. Simulations of hydrogeological evolution at

Olkiluoto. Working Report 2012-35. Posiva Oy, Eurajoki, Finland. 190 pp.

http://www.posiva.fi/

Lusa, M., Ämmälä, K., Hakanen, M., Lehto, J. & Lahdenperä, A-M. 2009. Chemical

and geotechnical analysis of soil samples from Olkiluoto for studies on sorption in soils.

Working Report 2009-33. Posiva Oy, Eurajoki, Finland. 151 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Mäkilä, M. & Grundström, A. 2008. Turpeen ikä ja kerrostumisnopeus

Lounais-Suomen soilla (in Finnish with an English abstract: The age and growth of peat in mires

in south-western Finland). Working Report 2008-12. Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, Finland. 30

pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

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Miettinen, N. & Haapanen, R. 2002. Vegetation types on Olkiluoto Island. Working

Report 2002-54. Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, Finland. 54 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Mönkkönen, H. 2012. Models of bedrock surface and overburden thickness over

Olkiluoto Island and nearby sea area. Working Report 2012-15. Posiva Oy, Eurajoki,

Finland. 75 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Mykkänen, J., Kiirikki, M. & Lindfors, A. 2012. Resuspensio ja kiintoaineen

kulkeutuminen Eurajoensalmessa - Vesistömittausten loppuraportti. (in Finnish with

and englisg extended summary: Resuspension and transport of suspended solids in

Eurajoensalmi Bay – Final report of monitoring activities in 2009-2011) Working

Report WR 2012-78. Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, Finland. 54 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Nieminen, M., Ikonen, H. & Koivunen, A. 2009. Small mammals, ants, snails and

earthworms on the island of Olkiluoto in 2009. Working Report 2009-112. Posiva Oy,

Eurajoki, Finland. 84 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Ojala, A.E.K. 2011. Sedimenttistratigrafia ja sedimentaatioympäristön muutokset

Itämerestä kuroutuneissa järvissä Satakunnassa (in Finnish with an English abstract:

Sediment lithostratigraphy and past changes in sedimentary environment in isolated

lakes in Satakunta region). Working Report 2011-87. Posiva Oy, Eurajoki, Finland. 64

pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Pohjola, J., Turunen, J. & Lipping, T. 2009. Creating high-resolution digital elevation

model using thin plate spline interpolation and Monte Carlo simulation. Working

Report 2009-56. Posiva Oy, Eurajoki, Finland. 56 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Pohjola, J., Turunen, J. & Lipping, T. 2012. Statistical estimation of land uplift model

parameters based on archaeological and geological shore level displacement data.

Working Report 2012-86. Posiva Oy, Eurajoki, Finland. 41 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Rantataro, J. 2001. Acoustic-seismic research in the sea area near Olkiluoto in the year

2000 (in Finnish with an English abstract). Eurajoki, Finland: Posiva Oy, Working

Report 2001-11. p. 6 p.

Rantataro, J. 2002. Sedimenttikivialueen rajaus ja Olkiluodon merialueen

akustis-seismisten luotausten täydentävä tulkinta (in Finnish with an English abstract: The

estimation of sedimentary rock covered areas as well as supplementary interpretation of

acoustic-seismic research in Olkiluoto area). Working Report 2002-38. Posiva Oy,

Olkiluoto, Finland. 17 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Rantataro, J. & Kaskela, A. 2009. Acoustic seismic studies in the sea area close to

Olkiluoto in 2008. Working Report 2009-112. Posiva Oy, Eurajoki. 32 pp.

http://www.posiva.fi/

Rautio, P., Latvajärvi, H., Jokela, A. & Kangas-Korhonen, P. 2004. Forest resources on

Olkiluoto Island. Working Report 2004-35. Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, Finland. 109 pp.

http://www.posiva.fi/

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Saramäki, J. & Korhonen, K. 2005. State of the forests on Olkiluoto in 2004:

Comparisons between Olkiluoto and the rest of Southwest Finland. Working Report

2005-39. Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, Finland. 79 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Söderlund, M., Lusa, M., Virtanen, S., Välimaa, I., Hakanen, M., Lehto, J. &

Lahdenperä, A-M. 2012. Distribution coefficients of caesium, chlorine, iodine, niobium,

selenium and technetium on Olkiluoto soils. Working Report 2012-38. Posiva Oy,

Eurajoki, Finland. 98 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Tamminen, P., Aro, L. & Salemaa, M. 2007. Forest soil survey and mapping of the

nutrient status of the vegetation on Olkiluoto Island. Working Report 2007-78. Posiva

Oy, Olkiluoto, Finland. 109 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Tammisto, E. & Hellä, P. and Lahdenperä, J. 2005. Slug tests in PP- and PVP-holes at

Olkiluoto in 2004. Working Report 2005-76. Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, Finland. 87 pp.

http://www.posiva.fi/

Tammisto, E. & Lehtinen, A. 2006. Slug tests in PP- and PVP-holes at Olkiluoto in

2005. Working Report 2006-100. Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, Finland. 93 pp.

http://www.posiva.fi/

Vaittinen, T., Ahokas, H., Klockars, J., Nummela, J., Pentti, E., Penttinen, T.,

Tammisto, E., Karvonen, T. & Lindgren, S. 2010. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in

2009: Hydrology. Working Report 2010-43. Posiva Oy, Eurajoki, Finland. 272 pp.

http://www.posiva.fi/

Vaittinen, T., Ahokas, H., Nummela, J., Pentti, E., Penttinen, T., Pöllänen, J., Turku, J.,

Karvonen, T. & Aro, S. 2013. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2011: Hydrology.

Working Report 2012-43. Posiva Oy, Eurajoki, Finland. 400 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Vuorela, A., Penttinen, T. & Lahdenperä, A-M. 2009. Review of Bothnian Sea

shore-level displacement data and use of a GIS tool to estimate isostatic uplift. Working

Report 2009-17. Posiva Oy, Eurajoki, Finland. 191 pp. http://www.posiva.fi/

Yrjölä R. 2009. Eurajoki Olkiluoto birdlife survey 2008. Eurajoki, Finland: Posiva Oy,

Working Report 2009-14 75 p. http://www.posiva.fi/

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APP. C

LIST OF PLANT AND ANIMAL SPECIES MENTIONED IN THE

REPORT

English common name Alternative common English names Scientific name Finnish common name

adder common European adder, common European viper Vipera berus kyy

alder Alnus spp. lepät

aniseed toadstool Clitocybe odora vihertuoksumalikka

apple Malnus domestica omena

aquatic pulmonate

gastropod Radix peregra muunnoslimakotilo

aquatic sowbug Asellus aquaticus vesisiira

arctic hare Lepus arcticus napajänis

arctic raspberry Rubus arcticus mesimarja

ash Fraxinus spp. saarnet

aspen Populus spp. haapa

Atlantic salmon Salmo salar lohi

Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras silakka

Baltic isopod Idotea baltica leväsiira

Baltic macoma Baltic telling Macoma balthica liejusimpukka Baltic sphagnum Sphagnum balticum silmäkerahkasammal bank vole Myodes glareolus, Clethrionomys glareolus metsämyyrä

barley Hordeum vulgare ohra

bay bolete Boletus badius ruskotatti

bean goose Anser fabalis metsähanhi

bearberry kinnikinnick, pinemat manzanita Arctostaphylos uva-ursi sianpuolukka beard lichen

old man's beard, tree's dandruff, woman's long hair, tree moss

Usnea spp. naavat bearded couch grass bearded wheatgrass Elymus caninus koiranvehnä

beetles Coleoptera spp. kovakuoriaiset

bentgrass bent Agrostis spp. röllit

bilberry blueberry (confusing, cf. blueberry) Vaccinium myrtillus mustikka

birch Betula spp. koivut

birch bolete Leccinum scabrum lehmäntatti

biting midges Ceratopogonidae polttiaiset

black alder Alnus glutinosa tervaleppä

black spruce Picea mariana mustakuusi

blackcurrant black currant Ribes nigrum mustaherukka

blackworm Lumbriculus variegatus harvasukasmato

bladder wrack bladderwrack Fucus vesiculosus rakkolevä

bleak Alburnus alburnus salakka

blue bream Abramis ballerus, syn. Ballerus ballerus sulkava

blue mussel Mytilus edulis sinisimpukka

blueberry common blueberry, velvetleaf huckleberry, velvetleaf blueberry, sourtop blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium; Vaccinium myrtilloides

bluegrass meadow-grass Poa spp. nurmikka

blue-green-algae cyanobacteria Anabaena Aphanizomenon spp., spp. sinilevät bog arum marsh calla Calla palustris suovehka

bog bilberry Vaccinium uliginosum juolukka

bog rosemary Andromeda polifolia; Andromeda glaucophylla suokukka bog-laurel swamp laurel Kalmia polifolia varpukalmia bracken brake, common bracken Pteridium aquilinum sananjalka bream

common

bream, freshwater bream, bream, bronze bream, carp bream

Abramis brama lahna

bristle worms Marenzelleria spp. amerikansukasmadot

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English common name Alternative common English names Scientific name Finnish common name

broccoli Brassica oleracea parsakaali

brown bear Ursus arctos karhu

brown hare european hare Lepus europaeus rusakko bullhead European bullhead Cottus cobio kivisimppu

burbot bubbot Lota lota made

bur-reed Sparganium gramineum siimapalpakko

buttercup meadow buttercup, tall buttercup, giant buttercup Ranunculus acris niittyleinikki

cabbage Brassica oleracea keräkaali

caddisfly Trichoptera vesiperhoset

calanoid Acartia spp. hankajalkainen

canada goose Branta canadensis kanadanhanhi

Canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis vesirutto capercaillie Western capercaillie, wood grouse, heather cock Tetrao urogallus metso carabid beetles ground beetles Carabidae maakiitäjäiset caraway meridian fennel, Persian cumin Carum carvi kumina

Carex Carex spp. sarat

Carex Carex rostrata pullosara

caribou reindeer Rangifer tarandus poro

carrot Daucus carota porkkana

cauliflower Brassica oleracea kukkakaali

celeriac turnip-rooted celery, knob celery Apium graveolen var. Rapaceum mukulaselleri chaffinch common chaffinch Fringilla coelebs peippo

chameleon shrimp Praunus flexuosus rantamassiainen chanterelle golden chanterelle, girolle Cantharellus cibarius kantarelli, keltavahvero

chicken Gallus gallus domesticus kana

chickweed wintergreen arctic starflower Trientalis europaea metsätähti Chinese cabbage Brassica rapa pekinensis and chinensis subsp. kiinankaali

chive Allium tuberosum ruohosipuli

chrinomids Chironomidae surviaissääsket

cladocerans Chydorus spp., Bosmina spp. cladophora green macrophyte algae Cladophora spp.

clasping-leaf pondweed perfoliate pondweed Potamogeton perfoliatus ahvenvita

cloudberry Rubus chamaemorus suomuurain, hilla, lakka club rush

tule, hardstem tule, tule rush, hardstem bulrush, viscid bulrush

Schoenoplectus acutus,

Schoenoplectus lacustris järvikaisla

cock's-foot cocksfoot grasses Dactylis spp. koiranheinät

coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch hopealohi

common bleak Alburnus alburnus salakka

common carder-bee brown-banded carder bee Bombus pascuorum peltokimalainen common cattail bulrush, common bulrush, broadleaf cattail, common cattail, great reedmace, cooper's reed, cumbungi

Typha latifolia leveäosmankäämi common cottongrass Eriophorum angustifolium luhtavilla common dace Eurasian dace, dace Leuciscus leuciscus seipi common eider eider duck Somateria mollissima haahka common frog European common (brown) frog Rana temporaria sammakko common green peat moss Sphagnum girgensohnii korpirahkasammal common heather ling, heather Calluna vulgaris kanerva

common lizard Zootoca vivipara sisilisko

common reed Phragmites australis järviruoko

common sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos rantasipi

common shrew Sorex araneus metsäpäästäinen

common teal Eurasian teal Anas crecca tavi

common toad European toad Bufo bufo rupikonna (rupisammakko, korpisammakko)

common tule

tule, hardstem tule, tule rush, hardstem bulrush, viscid bulrush

Schoenoplectus acutus,

Figure

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References

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