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Managing the Paradox of Growth in Brand Communities Through Social Media


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Marketing in a

Post-Disciplinary Era


5-7 December

| University of Canterbury

Christchurch, New Zealand


2 First Published December 2016

By University of Canterbury, Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, College of Business and Law, 20 Kirkwood Ave, Ilam, Christchurch, 8041

New Zealand

For the ANZMAC 2016 Conference

This booklet contains papers and abstracts of the manuscripts which have been accepted as fully refereed for the ANZMAC 2016 Conference. All papers have been subject to a double-blind peer reviewing process in accordance with DIISR requirements.

ANZMAC Website: www.anzmac.org

Edited by: Dr David Fortin and Dr Lucie K. Ozanne, Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, University of Canterbury, New Zealand

ISBN 978-0-473-37660-4

The content and any opinions expressed represent the views of the authors only. Apart from fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced without prior written permission from the Publisher.



Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference

(ANZMAC) 2016

Marketing in a Post-Disciplinary Era

Hosted by


5-7 December 2016

University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand




Welcome from President 5

President Laszlo Sajtos

University of Auckland Vice-President Tania Bucic

University of New South Wales Secretary

Suzan Burton

University of Western Sydney Treasurer

Christine Eckert

University of Technology Sydney Committee Members

Robert Aitken University of Otago Kate Daellenbach

Victoria University of Wellington Stephen Dann

Australian National University Lucie K. Ozanne University of Canterbury Ian Phau Curtin University Michael Polonsky Deakin University Yelena Tsarenko Monash University Ian Wilkinson

The University of Sydney Welcome from Conference Chairs 6

Conference Committee 6 Sponsors 9 Keynote Speaker 10 Track Chairs 11 Paper Overview 14 2016 Reviewers 16 Social Programme 19

Full Papers and Abstracts by Track 20 Best Papers in Track

List of Participants

21 1089

Conference Chairs

Associate Professor Sussie Morrish Associate ProfessorJörg Finsterwalder

Associate Professor Girish Prayag Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship University of Canterbury Conference website:


Conference Organisers The Conference Team Unit 5 /337 Harewood Road, Bishopdale, Christchurch New Zealand

Phone: +64 3 359 2600 Fax: +64 3 359 2602 www.conferenceteam.co.nz





As the president of ANZMAC, I would like to welcome you all to the 2016 annual conference of the Australian & New Zealand Marketing Academy. This premier conference brings together both top and emerging academics from our region and across the globe. ANZMAC is a platform that creates a wonderful sense of belonging year after year and nurtures a collegial and scholarly atmosphere. I am very pleased with the high level of interest in our annual conference and thank you for your ongoing support of our academic community. I would like to thank our gracious host, the Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship at the University of Canterbury, for their excellent work without which this conference would not have been possible. I wish you have a rewarding and enjoyable experience at the 2016 ANZMAC Conference in Christchurch at the University of Canterbury.

Dr Laszlo Sajtos President, ANZMAC


6 Associate Professor

Sussie Morrish Associate Professor Girish Prayag Jörg Finsterwalder Associate Professor


Conference Chairs A/Prof Sussie Morrish A/Prof Girish Prayag A/Prof Jörg Finsterwalder Doctoral Colloquium A/Prof Ekant Veer Prof Paul Ballantine Poster Session Chair Dr Chris Chen Proceedings Editors A/Prof David Fortin A/Prof Lucie K. Ozanne Sponsorship

A/Prof Sussie Morrish Academic Programme Chair

A/Prof Jörg Finsterwalder Social Programme Chairs A/Prof Girish Prayag A/Prof Sussie Morrish Conference Secretariat The Conference Team Unit 5 /337 Harewood Road, Bishopdale Christchurch 8543 New Zealand Phone: +64 3 359 2600 Fax: +64 3 359 2602 www.conferenceteam.co.nz

A VERY WARM WELCOME FROM THE CONFERENCE CHAIRS Kia ora and welcome to the ANZMAC 2016 Conference in Christchurch, New Zealand.

On behalf of the University of Canterbury, the Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, and the local organising committee, we are delighted to have you with us for both the Doctoral Colloquium and the Main Conference. We would especially like to extend a warm welcome to all international delegates and those attending ANZMAC for the first time.

The conference attracted over 400 competitive paper submissions this year resulting in 301 paper presentations. Participants come from 28 different countries, making ANZMAC a truly global conference. A number of workshops as well as special sessions have been offered to reflect contemporary marketing issues. The ‘Meet the Editors’ session is certainly not to be missed! We have a number of top-tier marketing journals on the ABDC list represented at this conference. Furthermore, a range of these journals are also ANZMAC conference special issues. We hope that you find the oral presentations stimulating and the social events an opportunity to build or reinforce your existing networks in this part of the world.

ANZMAC 2016 is not only about academic presentations but also an opportunity for you to experience some of the best local foods and attractions in the region. With the welcome reception at The Christchurch Art Gallery and the Gala Dinner at The Tannery, we have brought together social events in themed venues that reflect ‘Art’ and ‘Retailing’. We hope that these venues engage you not only visually but also tantalise all your senses.

This year’s conference theme is ‘Marketing in a Post-Disciplinary Era’. This theme reflects the fact that marketing co-exists in an environment that is constantly evolving and the discipline interfaces with other social sciences


7 disciplines, such as psychology and sociology. Increasingly, the marketing discipline is becoming more relevant to other fields such as engineering and natural sciences that recognise business knowledge to contribute significantly to the success of new discoveries and innovation. Increasingly, governments and research bodies encourage collaborations between and amongst scholars in advancing new knowledge to benefit society. We hope that you find the sessions on the theme of the conference of interest. We would like to take this opportunity to thank all our sponsors and exhibitors for their generosity. Much gratitude also goes to all track chairs, reviewers, special session, and workshop coordinators for their tremendous effort. Finally, we would like to acknowledge the support of the UC School of Business and Economics in organising this conference. The assistance and support from the administrative and marketing staff have been invaluable.

We hope that the next few days you spend at UC and Christchurch are thought-provoking and rewarding. The Canterbury region is a beautiful part of New Zealand. Please take time to explore and enjoy what our region has to offer!

The ANZMAC 2016 Conference Co-Chairs,

A/Prof Sussie Morrish

A/Prof Girish Prayag and

A/Prof Jörg Finsterwalder


8 The Academy aims to provide an organisation for

educators and practitioners interested in marketing theory and research. More specifically, the Academy has the purpose to:

Provide an Australia/New Zealand network in the field of research in marketing;

Provide a forum for research presentations and evaluations;

Provide publication outlets for high quality research; Support young researchers in the marketing field;

Foster a broad variety of methodological approaches and research issues in marketing, and encourage cross-fertilisation between approaches;

Develop an agenda of research topics;

Recognise contributions to the marketing discipline; To carry out any activity which the Academy considers to promote any or all the purposes as set out above.






















































Professor Saras D. Sarasvathy is a member of the Strategy, Entrepreneurship and Ethics area. In addition to MBA and doctoral courses in entrepreneurship at Darden, she teaches in doctoral programs in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa. In 2007, Sarasvathy was named one of the top 18 entrepreneurship professors by Fortune Small Business magazine. In 2013, Babson College awarded her an honorary doctorate for the impact of her work on entrepreneurship education. In addition to the Jamuna Raghavan Chair at the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore, Sarasvathy currently holds a chair professorship from Nankai University in Tianjin, China and a jubilee professorship from Chalmers University in Gothenburg, Sweden. In addition to teaching awards from other universities, she won the 2015 Mead-Colley Honored Faculty Award from UVA for active engagement with students.

A leading scholar on the cognitive basis for high-performance entrepreneurship, Sarasvathy serves on the editorial boards of top management journals and as Associate Editor of top entrepreneurship journals. Her scholarly work has won several awards, including the 2001 William H. Newman Award from the Academy of Management and the 2009 and 2015 Gerald E. Hills Best Paper Awards from the American Marketing Association. Her book Effectuation: Elements of Entrepreneurial Expertise was nominated for the 2009 Terry Book Award by the Academy of Management. Effectuation is widely acclaimed as a rigorous framework for understanding the creation and growth of new organizations and markets. The research program based on effectuation involves over a hundred scholars from around the world whose published and working papers can be found at www.effectuation.org. Sarasvathy has also developed several cases and other instructional materials to teach effectuation. Her co-authored textbook, Effectual Entrepreneurship won the Gold Medal in the 2012 Axiom Business Book Awards. In addition to a master's degree in industrial administration, Saras received her Ph.D. in information systems from Carnegie Mellon University. Her thesis on entrepreneurial expertise was supervised by Herbert Simon, 1978 Nobel Laureate in Economics. Sarasvathy serves on the board of LENDING TREE (NASDAQ TREE) and writes a monthly column for the CORPORATE DOSSIER section of THE ECONOMIC TIMES.

Keynote Address: Entrepreneurial Marketing in a Post-disciplinary Era


Through a series of actual stories of entrepreneurs co-creating different elements of their markets through the principles of effectuation, the keynote will present ways to bridge rigor and relevance in our cross-disciplinary research. In particular, the focus will be on intersubjective mechanisms that straddle social psychology, economics, education, public policy and history.




Track Chairs

The double-blind review process is an intense and time consuming task and the ANZMAC Conference Committee is most appreciative of the contribution made by these Track Chairs for 2016.

Climate Change & Marketing

Prof Michael Hall University of Canterbury

A/Prof Haywantee Ramkissoon Curtin University Consumer Behaviour Dr Joshua Newton Deakin University Dr Laszlo Sajtos University of Auckland Consumer Culture Theory

A/Prof Ekant Veer University of Canterbury

Dr Shelagh Ferguson University of Otago

Cross Disciplinary Impact of Marketing

A/Prof Sussie Morrish University of Canterbury

Dr Paul Harrigan University of Western Australia

Digital Marketing & Social Media

A/Prof David Fortin University of Canterbury

Dr Sven Tuzovic


12 Entrepreneurship &


Prof Aron O'Cass University of Tasmania

Dr Vida Siahtiri University of Tasmania

Industrial & Business Relationship Marketing

Dr Tony Garry

University of Otago Dr Sergio Biggemann

University of Otago

International & Intercultural Marketing

Prof Ian Phau

Curtin University Dr Isaac Cheah

Curtin University

Marketing Communication

Dr Lukas Parker

RMIT University of Queensland Dr Mark Brown

Marketing Education

Dr Agung Yoga Sembada


13 Marketing


Dr Bodo Lang

University of Auckland Dr Stanislav Stakhovych Monash University

Retailing & Distribution

Prof Paul Ballantine

University of Canterbury Auckland University of Technology Prof Andrew Parsons

Services Marketing & Customer Experience A/Prof Jörg Finsterwalder University of Canterbury Dr Alastair Tombs University of Queensland Social Marketing

A/Prof Lucie Ozanne

University of Canterbury Prof Sharyn Rundle-Thiele

Griffith University

Strategic Marketing & Branding

Prof Leyland Pitt

Simon Fraser University University of Malta Dr Joseph Vella

Tourism & Marketing

A/Prof Girish Prayag University of Canterbury

Dr Chris Chen University of Canterbury



Paper Overview

Special Sessions and Workshops

A total of nine selected special interest sessions will run throughout the conference with some of our Marketing community's most senior academics presenting and discussing topical issues in our field. Among these special sessions there will be a President’s Special Session that features a strategic review of the role and value of ANZMAC to members and other stakeholders. The conference also offers three workshops (Service Research Retreat Workshop, CCT & Interpretive Workshop and Case Teaching, Research, and Publishing Workshop). Keeping with usual practice, the conference will also have a “Meet the Editors” session for the latest news on the world of journal publications.

Competitive Papers

This year 301 papers are presented in 16 tracks. All of these papers underwent a formal double-blind review process and all papers which have passed the competitive review process are accepted for presentation at ANZMAC 2016. These papers conform to the academic research conference guidelines as set down by the Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research (DIISR), and other organisations. For Australian delegates, all such papers which have passed the competitive review process are accepted for presentation at ANZMAC 2016. Proceedings are Category E, Conference Publications: E1 * Full Written Paper * Refereed. ANZMAC 2016 also complies with the requirements of the Performance-Based Research Fund administered by the Tertiary Education Commission and other organisations. For New Zealand delegates, the Proceedings are classed as Quality-Assured Conference Papers (Refereed).

Competitive papers submitted in 2016 totalled 413 manuscripts with 301 papers accepted for presentation. A large number of high quality submissions were received and with a rejection rate of around 25%, the calibre of papers presented at the Conference is of a very high standard. These figures show the importance of the review process - not simply in helping us to select the best papers, but also in providing feedback for authors and assisting in the process of paper revision and re-submission.


15 Paper Submission & Review


All of the papers in this conference have been subjected to a double-blind refereeing process. Papers written by academic members of the ANZMAC 2016 Organising Committee and Track Chairs were also double-blind reviewed using the same refereeing process, with particular precautions taken to protect the anonymity of authors and reviewers. We gratefully acknowledge the 607 reviewers who contributed their time and experience to this process.

The information contained in this book of abstracts is correct as best we were able to determine at the time of publishing. Considerable effort was made to include all papers in the proceedings and the accompanying book of abstracts, and to the best of our knowledge all papers accepted for presentation at the conference are included. Author and paper details have been checked and edited with information provided to us by the authors.

Competitive papers submitted to the ANZMAC 2016 conference are required to adhere to strict style and length requirement. It should be noted that all successful authors were issued with guidelines for the preparation of the final electronic copy. The maximum length of all papers was seven (7) pages including a title page with abstract (inclusive of all references, figures, tables, etc.). This guideline was imposed throughout.

By submitting their work for presentation at the Conference, authors have assigned to ANZMAC and the University of Canterbury, a non-exclusive, royalty free copyright licence to use their work and publish it in full or in part in the proceedings and on the World Wide Web with the ANZMAC Conference papers or for any other purpose in connection with the ANZMAC Conference.

The ANZMAC 2016 Conference Proceedings will also be uploaded on the ANZMAC 2016 website:

http://www.mang.canterbury.ac.nz/ANZMAC/index.shtml and will also be available via the ANZMAC organisation website http://www.anzmac.org/conferences/view/2016-ANZMAC-Marketing-in-a-Post-Disciplinary-Era

The abstracts for these papers also appear in the printed "ANZMAC 2016 Book of Abstracts" provided to all delegates.





The double-blind review process is an intense and time

consuming task and the ANZMAC Conference Committee is most appreciative of the contribution made by the following

reviewers for 2016. A Carlo Aall Hormoz Ahmadi Pervaiz Ahmed Tanvir Ahmed Jeremy Ainsworth Rob Aitken Bader Albatati Celeste Alcaraz Torgeir Aleti Saifeddin Alimamy Olayemi Aliyu Rad Almestahiri Frank Alpert Mohsin Altaf Teagan Altschwager Hayat Alzhrani Maria Ambartsumova Lynda Andrews Kirti Arekar Farah Arkadan Denni Arli B Abi Badejo Sara Bahnson Tim Baird Jonathan Baker M S Balaji Ravi Balasubramanian Paul Ballantine David Ballantyne Diptiman Banerji Emma Banister Álvaro Barbosa Verena Batt Stacey Baxter Virginia Beal Amanda Beatson David Bednall Russell Belk Constanza Bianchi Wayne Binney Panda Blair Amanda Blair Janneke Blijlevens Markus Blut Darren Boardman Svetlana Bogomolova Caroline Bommes Edward Boon Liliana Bove Jana Bowden Jan Brace-Govan Erica Brady Corina Braun Ilenia Bregoli Christoph Breidbach Linda Brennan Christian Brock Tania Bucic Jon Buckley Marion Burford Paul Burke Kara Burns Suzan Burton Luke Butcher Nuray Buyucek C Jack Cadeaux Adrian Camilleri Robin Canniford Julia Carins Jamie Carlson François Carrillat Riza Casidy Edgar Centeno Paul Chad Eugene Chan Kaye Chan Vivien Chanana Ishita Chatterjee Deborah Che Kathleen Chell Ning (Chris) Chen Helen Cherrier Lily Cheung P. Monica Chien Tung Moi Chiew Lindsey Chilek Danielle Chmielewski-Raimondo

Raeesah Chohan Yit Sean Chong Alain Chong Yit Sean Chong Cindy Yunhsin Chou Emily Chung Mathew Chylinski Jodie Conduit Denise Conroy Tony Cooper Leonard Coote David Corkindale Helen Cripps James Cronin Angela Gracia B. Cruz

D Amir Dabirian Kate Daellenbach Shanshan Dai Xianchi Dai Steven D'Alessandro Stephen Dann Susan Dann Hang Dao Biplab Datta Patricia David Pierre Desmet Anne-Marie d'Hauteserre Hoda Diba Sonia Dickinson-Delaporte Timo Dietrich Rita DiMascio Peiyi Ding Qing Shan Ding Tara Diversi Angela Dobele Sarah Dodds Rebecca Dolan Sara Dolnicar Songting Dong Evan Douglas Ross Dowling Judy Drennan Carl Driesner Abhishek Dwivedi E Toni Eagar Lynne Eagle Robert East Christine Eckert Fabian Eggers Chris Ellegaard Jonathan Elms Sean Ennis Shobhit Eusebius Brad Evans Uwana Evers F Mareike Falter Kim Fam Xiucheng Fan Yafeng Fan Marcela Fang Margaret Faulkner Syed Muhammad Fazal-e-Hasan Julia Fehrer Graham Ferguson Shelagh Ferguson Juan Fernandez Eduardo Ferreira Caitlin Ferreira Elizabeth Ferrier 'Ilaisaane Fifita Bernardo Figueiredo Raffaele Filieri Antoinette Fionda-Douglas Tracey Firth Sandy Fitzgerald David Fleischman Sabine Fliess Andrew Florstrand Jeff Foote Sharon Forbes Pennie Frow Marie-Louise Fry Haruka Fujihira G Ashish Galande Manish Gangwar Mingjie Gao Patrick Garcia Nitika Garg Tony Garry Aaron Gazley Phil Gendall Dominik Georgi Tanuka Ghoshal Marilyn Giroux Barbara Gligorijevic Mark Glynn Juergen Gnoth Maja Golf Papez Claudia Gonzalez Ross Gordon Rahul Govind Debra Grace Antje Graul David Gray Teegan Green Gary Gregory Kathleen Griffiths Nicholas Grigoriou Siggi Gudergan Paolo Guenzi Lauren Gurrieri H Fatemeh Habibi Michael Hall Paul Hansen Nicole Hartley Tracy Harwood Siobhan Hatton-Jones Wendy Hein Kristina Heinonen Nima Heirati Jonas Heller Louise Heslop Judith Holdershaw Linda Hollebeek Maria Holmlund Kim Huynh Kenneth Hyde I Ali Ibrahim Muhammad Ibrahim Jasmina Ilicic Salmi Isa Sebastian Isbanner J


17 Rod Brodie Richard Brookes Anne Brouwer Mark Brown Greg Brush June Buchanan Teresa Davis Robert Davis Svetlana de Vos Herb de Vries David Dean Kenneth Deans Giacomo Del Chiappa

David Fortin Jo Fountain David Fouvy Drew Franklin Lynne Freeman Linda French Catherine Frethey-Bentham Aliakbar Jafari Ana Jakic Wade Jarvis David Jaud CharlesJebarajakirthy Colin Jevons Lan Jiang Zixi Jiang Natalia Jiang Zixi Jiang Wei Jiang Xin Jin Raechel Johns Lester Johnson Micael-Lee Johnstone Stephanie Judd K Mohammad Kadir Djavlonbek Kadirov Eldrede Kahiya Yuanfei Kang Masoud Karami Ingo Karpen Uraiporn Kattiyopornpong Treasa Kearney

Hean Tat Keh Joya Kemper Ann-Marie Kennedy Joona Keränen Gayle Kerr Tamara Keszey Aila Khan Nida Khan Ghazala Khan Jashim Khan Tai Kieu Jungkeun Kim Russel Kingshott Michael Kirkwood Michael Kleinaltenkamp HB Klopper John Knight Kathy Knox Florian Kock Jirka Konietzny Scott Koslow Jacki Krahmalov Henning Kreis Ramaya Krishnan Stefan Kruger Krzysztof Kubacki Alicia Kulczynski Sony Kusumasondjaja Kyuseop Kwak Christina Kwai L Camille Lacan Bodo Lang Nicole Lasky Meredith Lawley Tri Le Civilai Leckie Jenny Lee Linda Lee Richard Lee Michael Lee Choi Lee Alvin Lee Vicki Little Fang Li Larry Lockshin Sandra Loureiro Jennifer Lowe Steven Qiang Lu Vinh Lu Lu Lu Edwina Luck Stephan Ludwig Ngoc Luu Michael Lwin M Jonathan Ma Martin MacCarthy Emma Macdonald Daniel Maduku Isabella Maggioni Amro Maher Tommi Mahlamäki Ashish Malik Michael Marck Diane Martin Graham Massey Margaret Matanda Damien Mather Shane Mathews Christine Mathies Chiara Mauri Felix Mavondo Cybele May Breda McCarthy Janet McColl-Kennedy Jean McGuire Lachie Mclaren Kylie McMullan Michael Mehmet Bill Merrilees Morgan Miles Kenneth Miller Rohan Miller Abas Mirzaei Dick Mizerski Jacky Mo Sussana Molander Erik Mooi Lara Moroko Sussie Morrish Stacey Morrison Gillian Mort Gary Mortimer Sophia Moshakis Simone Mueller Rory Mulcahy Virginia Munro Andrew Murphy N Sumesh Nair Kaushi Nallaperuma Julie Napoli Archana Narayanan Peter Naude Joshua Newton Liem Ngo Long Nguyen Phuong Nguyen Bang Nguyen Nguyen Nguyen Ho Thanh Tung Nguyen S.R Nikhashemi Gavin Northey Robin Nunkoo O Aron O'Cass Doina Olaru Harmen Oppewal Davide Orazi Jacob Ostberg Lucie Ozanne Julie Ozanne P Bill Page Angela Paladino Jason Pallant Jessica Pallant Stefanie Paluch Bo Pang Ravi Pappu Mathew Parackal Vipul Pare Eerang Park Lukas Parker Joy Parkinson Andrew G. Parsons Jeannette Paschen Paul Patterson Hugh Pattinson Adrian Payne Robin Pentecost Bruce Perrott Raja Peter Simone Pettigrew Cuong Pham Chi Pham The Anh Phan Ian Phau Heather Philip Marcus Phipps Peilin Phua Doreén Pick Steven Pike Christine Pitt Joseph Pitt Kirk Plangger Carolin Plewa Michael Polonsky Ari Pramono Girish Prayag David Priilaid JJ Prinsloo Sharon Purchase Yenny Purwati Petteri Puska Haywantee Ramkissoon Yong Rao

Sally Rao Hill Mohammed Razzaque Helen Reijonen Michelle Renton Simon Restubog Aimee Riedel Diego Rinallo Mark Ritsn Cheryl Rivers Thomas Robbert Nichola Roberston John Roberts Kirsten Robertson Linda Robinson Jenni Romaniuk Philip Rosenberger III Stefan Roth Gabriel Rousseau Sanjit Roy Subhadip Roy Sharyn Rundle-Thiele Rebekah Russell-Bennett Nimish Rustagi S László Sajtos Thomas Salzberger Spring Sampson Sean Sands Dessy Kurnia Sari Stephen Saunders Rens Scheepers Steffen Schmidt John Schouten Lisa Schuster Miriam Seifert Harjit Sekhon Agung Sembada Rahul Sen Yuri Seo Felix Septianto Shabnam Seyedmehdi Avi Shankar Piyush Sharma Byron Sharp Anne Sharp Ifan Shepherd Marianna Sigala Bell Simon Jenni Sipilä Helen Siuki Felicity Small Sandra Smith Hannah Snyder Rana Sobh Agus Soehadi Phrya Sok Christine Soo Anne Sorensen Geoffrey Soutar Daniela Spanjaard Wendy Spinks



Thomas Lee Kim Lehman Cheryl Leo

Patrick L'Espoir Decosta Kate Letheren Yiyan Stella Li Fan Liang Tahmid Nayeem Michael Naylor Jacques Nel Keren Nelson-Field Suvi Nenonen Magda Nenycz-Thiel Fiona Newton Q Shanshan Qi R Maria Raciti Kamal Rahmani Yael Ram Amanda Spry Srinivas Sridharan Richard Starr, Jr. Constantino Stavros Philip Stern Beate Stiehler Lara Stocchi Kaj Storbacka Carola Strandberg Lennart Straus Parves Sultan Billy Sung Sivakumari Supramaniam Ekaterina Surovaya Elaine Sutrisna Jillian Sweeney Joseph Sy-Changco T Preeti Tak Ali Tamaddoni Alex Tai Loong Tan LayPeng Tan Min Teah Mohamed Temerak Theresa Teo Kaarina Tervo Park Thaichon Nguyen Thong Simon Thornton Maree Thyne Fandy Tjiptono Dewi Tojib Alastair Tombs Emily Treet Jakob Trischler Yelena Tsarenko Oliver Tucker Sokkha Tuy Sven Tuzovic V

Patrick van Esch Dorian van Freyhold Harald van Heerde Tom van Laer Rohit Varman Elena Vasilchenko Ekant Veer Danie Venter Rene Versteegh Kirsten Victory Debbie Vigar-Ellis Luca Visconti Peter Vitartas Andrea Vocino Sudhir Voleti Tania von der Heidt Ranjit Voola W David Waller Ann Wallin Yue Wang Paul Wang Shasha Wang Lu Wang Ying Wang Leah Watkins Rebecca Watkins Cynthia Webster Clinton Weeks Jay Weerawardena Yunbo Wei Liyuan Wei Kate Westberg Martin Wetzels Sarah Wheeler Arifiani Widjayanti RiaWiid Ian Wilkinson Janine Williams John Williams Charlotta Windahl X Cici Xiao He Yingzi Xu Y Xin Yang Jun Yao Paul Yeow Vignesh Yoganathan William Young Kangkang Yu Xiaojuan Yu Ting Yu Ruizhi Yuan Ameli Yue Z Katayoun Zafari Alec Zuo

RMIT’s School of Economics, Finance and Marketing are proud to be the

hosts of ANZMAC 2017,

Marketing for Impact


The conference will be held 4 - 6 December

2017, at RMIT Melbourne City


For more information, visit:





Monday 5 December 2016

*ANZMAC 2016 Hotels BreakFree on Cashel Chateau on the Park

Rendezvous Hotel Christchurch Rydges Latimer

Welcome Reception

18:30 to 20:30 Christchurch Art Gallery, Worcester Boulevard, Christchurch

Please join us for a special opportunity to renew old acquaintances or make some new friends in the stunning Christchurch Art Gallery. The venue is the public art gallery for the city of Christchurch. It has its own substantial art collection. Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu was designed by the Buchan Group. Enjoy some light refreshments andenjoy some surprise entertainment.

Coach transportation will depart the Business and Law car park for the Art Gallery at 18:00 on Monday after the AGM. You will need to make your own way back to your hotel/home after the event. For those staying in town, the venue is within walking distance from the conference hotels (Breakfree, Rendezvous and Rydges).

Cost included in full delegate registration (not in student registration). If you have indicated your attendance, you will find a ticket in your registration pack.

Wednesday 7 December 2016

If you are staying in one of the ANZAMC hotels your transportation for the conference dinner will have been allocated from the hotel and will depart at 18:30.

If you are not staying in one of the ANZMAC hotels, you will need to be at the following pick-up points at 18: 30 sharp.(Chateau on the Park, Rydges Latimer, Rendezvous and Breakfree)

Buses will also depart from the Business and Law car park at UC at 18:30

Gala Dinner –

19:00 to 23:30

The Tannery, 3 Garlands Road, Woolston

Get your dancing shoes on! The gala ANZMAC conference dinner caps off a great conference with delicious food, sumptuous wine, fantastic music, and an array of awards. In ANZMAC tradition, the flag will be handed on to next year’s host and then the dancing begins.

Coach transportation will depart the ANZMAC hotels* at 18:30 on Wednesday. Coaches will depart the venue at 23:00 and 23:30 for the ANZMAC hotels, the central city, and the university. Cost included in full delegate registration (not in student registration). If you have indicated your attendance, you will find a ticket in your registration pack.

The Tannery is a Boutique Retail & Arts Emporium with over 60 retail stores, arts & crafts, fashion & shoes, books. The Tannery has evolved unassumingly into Christchurch’s premier retail destination. Locals and tourists alike describe it as “Quirky, eclectic and worth finding” and “Old-time charm meets modern attraction”.



Full Papers



Best Track Papers 21

Track Papers and Abstracts (alphabetical presenting author)

1 Climate Change & Marketing 22

2 Consumer Behaviour 48

3 Consumer Culture Theory 227 4 Cross Disciplinary Impact of Marketing 256 5 Digital Marketing & Social Media 276 6 Entrepreneurship & Innovation 385 7 Industrial & Business Relationship Marketing 403 8 International & Intercultural Marketing 457 9 Marketing Communication 520 10 Marketing Education 555 11 Marketing Research 630 12 Retailing & Distribution 701 13 Services Marketing & Customer Experience 737

14 Social Marketing 838

15 Strategic Marketing & Branding 904 16 Tourism & Marketing 1008

17 Posters 1080



ANZMAC 2016 – Best Papers in Track

Tracks Title Authors

Consumer Behaviour The Need for Smell Instrument: Development and Cross-National Validation

Thomas Salzberger, Monika Koller (WU Vienna)

Arne Floh (University of Surrey) Alexander Zauner (WU Vienna) Maria Sääksjärvi and Hendrik Schifferstein

(Technische Universiteit Delft)

Digital Marketing & Social Media Emotional Contagion in Computer-Mediated Communication: The Effects of Smileys on Receivers’ Emotions

Katja Lohmann, Sebastian Pyka, Cornelia Zanger (Chemnitz University of Technology)

Entrepreneurship & Innovation Consumer Motivations to Switch to Disruptive Technology Products

Apinya Kamolsook, Yuosre Badir (Asian Institute of Technology) and Frank Björn (Sophia University)

Industrial & Business Relationship Marketing

Emergent versus planned supplier segmentation in the retail sector

William Newell and Chris Ellegaard (Aarhus Universitet)

International & Intercultural Marketing Consumer Motivations for Pursuing Loyalty Program Rewards: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

Chan, Haksin; Yang, Xin; Yu, Yang; Hang Seng Management College, and Fock, Henry, Hong Kong Baptist University

Marketing Communications Testing the Validity of the Phillips and McQuarrie (2004) Typology of Visual Rhetoric: Some Preliminary Findings

Anurag Hingorani , Paul Wang (University of Technology Sydney)

Marketing Education Marketing education in a post-disciplinary era: What do employers want from marketing graduates?

Ellen McArthur, Krzysztof Kubacki, Bo Pang and Celeste Alcaraz (Griffith University)

Marketing Research Repurchase Acceleration – A Method to Remedy Hypothetical Bias and Projection Bias in Intention-Based Loyalty Measurement

Songting Dong (University of New South Wales)

Ping Zhao (Tsinghua University) and Deqiang Zou (Fudan University)

Services Marketing & Customer Experience

Consumer engagement in online communities – a practice based approach

Hoda El Kolaly, Heidi Winklhofer and Linda Peters (University of Nottingham)

Retailing & Distribution Beware of Strangers … unless you’re looking at making connections for shopping tips

Thomas Tabitha, Kirsten Jane Robertson, Maree Thyne (University of Otago) Preeti Krishnam Lyndem (Indian Institute of Management)

Social Marketing Not All Narrative Thoughts Are Created Equal: Narrative Closure and Counterfactual Thinking in

Responsible Drinking Narratives

Davide Christian Orazi, Jill Lei and Liliana Bove

(University of Melbourne)

Strategic Marketing & Branding A True Measure of Equivalence? Brand Equity from the Financial Perspective

Amanda Blair (Royal Institute of Technology), Caitlin Ferreira, Elsamari Botha (University of Cape Town Ringgold) and Kirk Plangger (King's College London)



The Salience of Environmental Sustainability Knowledge Sharing among Nature-Based Tourism Operators.

Jean Marie Ip Soo Ching, Cambridge International College, jean-marie.ip@cambridgecollege.com.au

Tahmid Nayeem, Charles Stuart University, tnayeem@csu.edu.au


Knowledge Management (KM) favours knowledge as an asset that organizations must proactively share with all stakeholders. However, in reality managers are fearful of their firm’s core competency knowledge being exploited by competitors. This restriction presents KM as a “romantic” business strategy, because cases of unrestricted knowledge-sharing among stakeholders such as managers, staff, customers, and business partners, the public and competitors are rare. This study provides an empirical qualitative analysis of knowledge-sharing. Empirical data were collected through in-depth interviews with senior executives and specialist staff, field observations and analysis of company documents. Results found that managers are passionate advocates of environmental sustainability and therefore ardently share their knowledge and beliefs to promote and achieve environmental sustainability objectives. The findings support the notion that environmental sustainability knowledge is a strategic organizational resource that enables NTOs to implement environmental sustainability practices and to achieve their marketing objectives.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Environmental Sustainability, Nature-based Tourism, Green Marketing

Track: Climate Change and Marketing




Knowledge Management (KM) theory posits that knowledge is the most valuable of all organizational assets in the current knowledge economy (Barney, 1991). Core competency knowledge (Leonard-Barton, 1992) must be shared internally and externally in order for knowledge to be considered as the most critical business asset (Grant, 1996). This form of knowledge provides firms with sustainable competitive advantage and the ability to innovate processes and products (Leonard-Barton, 1992). In reality, managers are reluctant to share specific business and technical knowledge openly, both within and beyond their organizational boundaries. Cases of open, core competency knowledge dissemination with staff, customers, business partners, competitors and the public (hereafter referred to as ‘stakeholders’) are extremely rare in the KM and Marketing literature. In the current era of increased environmental concern, environmental sustainability is becoming a strategic marketing imperative for business and research, especially in the context of depleted resources, increased energy costs, increased level of pollution, and damage to the natural environment (Ip-Soo-Ching & Zyngier, 2014). The sharing of environmental sustainability knowledge demonstrates that knowledge from a KM paradigm can be shared generously and effectively among stakeholders because the aim of Nature-Based Tourism Operators (NTOs) is to care for and protect the natural environment. This research investigates environmental sustainability knowledge using a KM approach among NTOs because they depend on the sustained quality of the natural environment for their existence and success.

The Knowledge-Based View (KBV) of the firm suggests that intellectual resources are the most valuable organizational assets because they generate sustainable competitive advantage (Alavi, Kayworth, & Leidner, 2005). In the current era of greater focus by businesses on environmental sustainability strategies, the KBV of the firm has developed to encompass environmental sustainability (Ip-Soo-Ching & Zyngier, 2014). Nature-based Tourism Operators (NTOs) operate and depend on the natural environment for ongoing success. They create knowledge of environmental sustainability (hereafter, Environmental Sustainability Knowledge) which is defined in this research as knowledge of protecting the natural environment within an environmentally-focused mindset. NTOs rely on their environmental sustainability knowledge to operate in the natural environment. It allows them to reduce their impact on the natural environment, attain competitive advantage, and added benefits such as recognition for promoting environmental causes. Environmental sustainability knowledge resides within individuals at NTOs (leaders, specialist staff, and team members who are focused on managing environmental sustainability programs), where their primary role is the sharing and application of the knowledge that is created within the firm. Most organizations now recognize the critical importance of sharing knowledge within their value chain but are reluctant to do so (Spender 1993). This attitude prevents firms in many industries access to a unified knowledge base. By sharing their environmental sustainability knowledge with stakeholders, NTOs are able to integrate their knowledge. The findings of this research reveal that environmental sustainability knowledge is benevolently shared by NTOs among stakeholders, including local communities.

The environmental impacts of tourism on the natural environment

The tourism industry is dependent on the ongoing quality of the natural environment in which it operates (Williams & Ponsford, 2009). In particular, tourism activities such as scuba diving and coastal activities are heavily dependent on the natural environment for sustainable success (Flagestad & Hope, 2001). The favorable natural environmental quality of beaches, coral reefs, mountains, deserts, forests and other types of wilderness areas form the key attractions of destinations that tourists have come to enjoy (Hall, 1998). Mathison and Walls (1982)



demonstrated that the natural environment is the foundation of a tourism destination because in the absence of an attractive environment, there would be very few tourism attractions. Environmental sustainability knowledge provides NTOs with the awareness of the impact of their business operations on the natural environment, combined with their belief in and passion for environmental sustainability.

Research methodology

Research in environmental sustainability knowledge-sharing in the fields of Knowledge Management, Environmental Sustainability and Tourism is underdeveloped (Ruhanen and Cooper 2004). We believe that it would be inappropriate to design and implement a quantitative research methodology to investigate the phenomena of open knowledge-sharing of environmental sustainability. A quantitative research methodology was initially considered to investigate environmental sustainability knowledge-sharing activities among stakeholders on account of ease-of-access to these research populations. However, approaching competitors of NTOs and the general public would have presented accessibility and privacy issues. As such, an interpretative and qualitative research approach was deemed to be more appropriate to investigating the phenomena of environmental sustainability knowledge-sharing. Information and insights from the research population, comprising of senior management and technical staff, were collected through on-site in-depth interviews. Ethnographical observations were necessary to investigate environmental sustainability knowledge-sharing. Ethnography provides researchers the opportunity to observe a phenomenon unhindered and with the participants’ trust (Rakic and Chambers 2009; O’Gorman). Employing a qualitative and case study research method is highly applicable in Knowledge Management, Environmental Sustainability and Tourism (Mason & Pauleen, 2003). Furthermore, the case study approach is a valid research method when seeking answers to questions of “why” and “how” associated with investigator(s) who have little control over events of contemporary phenomenon within a real-life context (Yin, 1984). Eisenhardt and Graebner (2007) provide further support by suggesting that case studies provide richness in data collection, analysis and discussion that support the building of a new theory based on emergent phenomena in a particular context, such as environmental sustainability knowledge-sharing. For the nature of this research, it was important for the researchers to have contextual materials to describe the particular setting of each case and access to a wide array of information, in order to provide an in-depth illustration for the reader (Creswell, 1998).

Research propositions

This research presents the following two research questions:

Q1: Why is environmental sustainability knowledge a core capability of Nature-Based Tourism Operators (NTO)?

Q2: How NTO managers share their environmental sustainability knowledge with stakeholders (staff, customers, business partners, competitors and the public)?


The importance of environmental sustainability knowledge for Nature-based Tourism Operators (NTOs)

The natural environments in which NTOs operate are recognized as vital to their success. NTO leaders believe that they are responsible for the maintenance and protection of the natural environment. Consequently, NTO leaders recognize environmental sustainability knowledge as a strategic resource that allows them to operate responsibly and successfully in the natural environment. Therefore, NTOs benefit from environmental sustainability knowledge as a



strategic asset. NTO leaders identified environmental sustainability knowledge as a resource that is integral to their overall business operations. Based on the combined responses from NTO leaders, environmental sustainability knowledge serves their organizations in their environmental sustainability implementations, business operations, marketing, publicity, customer satisfaction and preservation the natural environment for future generations. In addition, environmental sustainability knowledge enables NTOs to choose the right technology and processes to implement environmental sustainability programs efficiently. Evidence obtained from the respondents reveals the critical importance of environmental sustainability knowledge for NTOs in their operation within the natural environment. Respondents at the Great Barrier Reef explained that they would not be able to operate within the Great Barrier Reef without this knowledge, as there are heavy penalties for not complying with environmental laws. Since environmental sustainability knowledge is a critical knowledge resource for NTOs, self-interest for business survival in the competitive tourism industry should prevent managers from sharing critical knowledge with stakeholders. However, the respondents all agreed that without environmental sustainability knowledge, an NTO would not be able to operate sustainably and efficiently. NTOs managers do share environmental sustainability knowledge with stakeholders, demonstrating that managers can indeed share knowledge openly within a competitive industry, to the benefit of all.

Knowledge-sharing of environmental sustainability with staff

The notion of knowledge-sharing with staff seems self-evident, however many organizations experience significant difficulties in generating the enthusiasm and trust needed to effectively share knowledge among staff (Husted & Michailova, 2002; Iskoujina & Roberts, 2015). NTOs dedicate themselves in educating their staff in environmental sustainability through education and training. Often staff have a lack of environmental sustainability motivation and knowledge upon commencing their employment, therefore NTOs are obliged to educate them to ensure their organisation’s survival and sustained competitive advantage. Critics may caution such open knowledge-sharing among staff. The argument may also be made that NTOs do not openly share their environmental sustainability knowledge in a benign environment but are forced to do so due to lack of staff motivation and education, and for business survival. Nevertheless, the authors found that managers and staff do indeed share environmental sustainability knowledge openly within an organizational environment in which the enrichment of environmental knowledge is highly valued. NTO staff vary in their level of environmental sustainability motivation and education upon commencing their employment. Their managers believe that they should be trained in environmental sustainability; thus NTOs share environmental sustainability openly among staff by educating them about CO2 emissions,

resource consumptions and nature documentaries and having Organisational structure and teams such as Green Teams.

Knowledge-sharing of environmental sustainability with customers

Organisations share knowledge with customers for the purpose of providing product information, building brands, delivering customer satisfaction and maintaining relationship (Sveiby 2001; Im & Rai 2007). There is no question that NTOs build their brands, reputations and market positioning through their active environmental sustainability knowledge-sharing activities with customers. As environmental sustainability knowledge is a core competency for NTOs, questions could be raised as to why they freely share their environmental sustainability knowledge of operating in the natural environment. Some critics may say this is for the self-serving purpose of NTOs positioning themselves as responsible environmental sustainability stewards in their customers’ minds. However, NTOs have additional objectives that compel them to openly and generously share their core competency knowledge with customers. The



NTO owners in this research are passionate believers of environmental sustainability while at the same time being tourism entrepreneurs who want their customers to experience and enjoy the natural environment during their sojourn (Lundberg, Friedman & Wall-Reinius, 2014). NTOs believe they should educate customers about how to appreciate and maintain the natural environment. They are aware that most of their customers live in urbanized areas and have sparse interaction with the natural environment which is usually only experienced during holidays. Therefore, NTO owners take the opportunity to educate customers about reducing CO2 emissions, recycling, gardening, biodiversity and living sustainably. The authors find

ample evidence that NTOs openly share their environmental sustainability with customers, and not from motivations that could be associated with branding, market positioning and publicity objectives. The knowledge that customers obtain from their vacations enables them to understand, appreciate and even become advocates of environmental sustainability. Experiential tourism (Curtin, 2005) is reinforced by the environmental sustainability knowledge provided by NTOs.

Knowledge-sharing of environmental sustainability with competitors

Organizations are disposed to resist sharing core competency knowledge with competitors on account of legitimate or perceived threats of losing competitive advantage (Bock, Zmud, Kim & Lee, 2005). Examples of competing organizations preventing their knowledge from being appropriated by rival firms are well documented in academic and general literature (Leibeskind, 1996; Brown & Duguid, 2001; Farley 2016; Battersby & Danckert 2016). Through acquiring the core competency knowledge of competing organizations, a firm can obtain critical knowledge of providing superior quality, value and satisfaction to its customers (Crane 2005; Jones 2008). The concept of coopetition views rival firms constantly engaged in competitive and collaborative activities (Tsai 2002). Unlike other industries, where firms are secretive in sharing their core competency knowledge with rivals, this research demonstrates that NTOs freely share core competency knowledge of environmental sustainability among competing NTOs. The knowledge that is shared keeps the NTOs in the knowledge loop of each other’s environmental sustainability activities even though projects, activities and processes can be copied. It is clear that NTOs engage in coopetition while they also share environmental sustainability knowledge for the sake of collectively protecting the natural environment on which they all depend for success. Despite the criticism that NTOs share environmental sustainability with rival firms based on collaboration to enlarge their customers’ base and market, NTOs openly share their knowledge with their competitors. This therefore cannot be dismissed as simply as coopetition.

Knowledge-sharing of environmental sustainability with communities and the public

Studies on KM activities between firms and their local communities are limited. NTOs who participated in this study stressed that educating the public about environmental sustainability is essential because of a general lack of environmental literacy and concern. Local habitants are often nonchalant about the natural beauty of their environment. Littering, pollution, environmental damage and over-fishing are major environmental problems that are encountered by NTOs. NTOs view “the public” as the population of the country in which their operations are located, who must not only be educated about environmental sustainability but also understand the reasons for learning about environmental sustainability. The respondents at Borneo Divers, Explore Asia Tours and Pulau Tiga believed that the public in Malaysia must be educated about environmental issues such as littering and illegal fishing. Soneva also educates the public about environmental sustainability in the Maldives and Thailand. However, the relevancy of environmental sustainability, while gaining recognition in developed



economies, is not yet relevant to the public in developing economies such as Malaysia, Thailand and Maldives.

Limitations and future research directions

This study has several limitations which could be valuable as avenues for future research. A qualitative case study research approach and open-ended in-depth interviews were used in this study to identify NTO strategies and practices of environmental sustainability and KM. However, qualitative research follows the tradition of impartial observation, analysis and reporting of findings; it relates to specific instances and provides a rich understanding of these specific instances and cannot be easily generalized in relation to other environments (Schofield, 2002; Denzin & Lincoln, 2005). Therefore, it is suggested that future research use a mixed method approach, using quantitative scale across industry sectors which will test and strengthen the enhanced framework outlined in Figure 1 above. Furthermore, this research was unable to clearly quantify all of the nature-based tourism components. Further research in this area requires a more precise definition to be broadly accepted and for this definition to be operationalized to provide the basis of some measurement procedure.

Conclusion and Managerial Implications

NTOs want to transform stakeholders into environmental advocates by openly sharing their environmental sustainability knowledge; thus protecting the natural environment and ensuring ongoing business and ecological success. Despite NTOs being open to criticism that they share environmental sustainability knowledge simply to educate unmotivated and uneducated staff, for branding and publicity advantages, coopetition, and corporate social responsibility, the study’s findings provide evidence that NTOs share their knowledge openly in the benign environment in which environmental sustainability knowledge flourishes. Counter to other types of business knowledge (e.g. R&D, manufacturing and financial) which is jealously guarded and shared only among trusted stakeholders, environmental sustainability knowledge is benevolently shared among stakeholders by NTOs. Knowledge-sharing of environmental sustainability in NTOs is driven by their leaders’ belief in, and passion for, the natural environment. As NTOs hold deep convictions about environmental sustainability, they believe that the associated knowledge must be openly shared among stakeholders for the successful implementation of environmental sustainability initiatives. Environmental sustainability processes form NTOs core competency knowledge and enable them to, differentiate their brands, attract tourists, reduce costs and protect their natural environment, including reducing CO2 emissions. In addition, specific to NTOs, environmental sustainability is an ideology and

objective that requires passion and belief to influence staff, customers and communities. This is only possible when managers are passionate believers of environmental sustainability themselves and are therefore willing to openly share their knowledge.




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Shaping Brand Image through Social and Environmental CSR: The Roles of CSR Image and CSR Information Sources

Björn Frank*, Sophia University, frank@genv.sophia.ac.jp

Shane J. Schvaneveldt, Weber State University, schvaneveldt@weber.edu Boris Herbas Torrico, Bolivian Catholic University San Pablo,herbas@ucbcba.edu.bo


In recent years, scholars and practitioners have come to regard corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a way of building brand value by tackling climate change and other social/environmental challenges. This study uses international consumer data to test a number of novel hypotheses about the effectiveness of distinct CSR types in building brand value, the exact effects of CSR on distinct dimensions of brand image, and the effectiveness of distinct marketing channels in distributing CSR information. The results indicate that CSR image influences all dimensions of brand image. Social CSR activities appear to be more influential than environmental CSR activities, which still are relevant to consumers. While CSR information from brand-internal sources effectively builds CSR image, it suffers from lack of credibility and thus tends to negatively affect brand image. By contrast, CSR information from external sources comes with credibility benefits and thus positively affects all dimensions of brand image.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, environmental sustainability, customer loyalty, brand image, information sources



What Influences Australians to Buy Eco-Friendly FMCGs? – An Integrated Model

Rumman Hassan*, University of Southern Queensland, Rumman.Hassan@usq.edu.au Jane Summers, University of Southern Queensland, Jane.Summers@usq.edu.au Ranga Chimhundu, University of Southern Queensland, Ranga.Chimhundu@usq.edu.au

Fredy Valenzuela, University of New England, fvalenz2@une.edu.au


This paper aims to understand Australian consumers’ purchase intentions towards eco-friendly fast moving consumer goods and whether the existing green marketing activities have an impact on consumers’ psyche. Most importantly, it seeks to use an integrated model that will better explain the factors that affect purchase intention since previous research in the field has come up with varying results. The purpose of employing an integrated model is to incorporate variables that better explain the effect of these factors on consumers’ green product purchase intentions. The study seeks to closely examine the mediating role of green trust on consumers’ purchase intentions. This research will not only have practical implications for the marketers of such products, but will also contribute significantly to the body of knowledge on this subject.

Keywords: green marketing, eco-friendly, green trust, FMCG, purchase intention Track: Consumer Behaviour, Climate Change and Marketing



Characterising the green consumer: who wastes food and what are the potential solutions to household food waste?

B. McCarthy*, James Cook University, breda.mccarthy@jcu.edu.au H. Liu, James Cook University, hongbo.liu@jcu.edu.au


This paper reports data from a group of ‘green consumers’. Use of the ordered probit model suggests that green consumers are not dissimilar from the general population; wealthy younger males, who have young children and who eat out frequently, are more likely to waste food. Older females who worry about the cost of food waste and who know the difference between “use by” and “best before” dates are less likely to waste food. Hence, effective communications and waste intervention strategies need to focus on the “worst” offenders in terms of food waste. The survey showed that a wide variety of measures to reduce food waste were acceptable to the respondents, including the development of renewable energy, funding of infrastructure to support centralised composting and price incentives for home composting. Education and marketing campaigns promoting second-grade produce was also acceptable to respondents. The main contribution of this study is to provide practical information for local government on the acceptability of policy measures to reduce food waste.

Keywords: food waste, socio-demographics, policy measures, probit model. Track: Climate Change and Marketing



Background and conceptual foundations

Agriculture is, arguably, the most influential anthropogenic force acting on the Earth’s climate (Tilman et al., 2002). The goal of sustaining and increasing agricultural yields; minimising the harmful effects of industrial agriculture (Horrigan et al., 2002); while also reducing food waste, lies at the heart of sustainable development. A large amount of food waste is lost throughout the entire food supply chain, causing serious environmental, economic and social issues. There is a growing literature on household food waste (Lea & Worsley, 2008; Koivupuro et al., 2012; Reynolds et al., 2014; Jörissen et al., 2015; Parizeau et al., 2015; Principato et al., 2015; Stancu et al., 2016; Thyberg et al., 2016). Consumers waste food due to a variety of behavioural factors, such as shopping, eating, meal planning, food preparation and food storage habits. Food waste is also linked to demographic factors such as age and household size (Wassermann & Schneider, 2005). Single households waste the most and households with children waste food due to the preferences of children (Jorisson et al., 2015). Food waste increases with higher educational qualifications as well as family size (Marangon et al., 2014). Studies have found that price-conscious consumers are less likely to waste food due to budget contracts and/or thriftiness (Koivupuro et al., 2012). Cecere et al., (2014) note that green consumers or recyclers are also waste producers and waste reduction behaviour is reliant on altruistic social attitudes. ‘Green’ consumers are conventionally defined as consumers who engage in green consumption which might extend to a range of activities, such as recycling, buying products with less packaging, buying local and organic food, fair-trade items and products that have a reduced environmental impact (Gilg et al., 2005). This research is important since food waste is a relatively new research field.

There is a substantial literature on the role of policy making in sustainable food consumption (Reisch et al., 2013). Secondi et al., (2015) found that awareness campaigns have grown markedly in EU countries (2015) and are underpinned by EU legislation and polices on food waste. In Australia, several initiatives have been undertaken to raise public awareness on food waste. The Queensland Government (2014) is committed to reducing the amount of waste sent to landfill by 50% in the next decade and action plans include charging a waste disposal levy, optimising the capture of re-use of gas from landfill and reducing household organic waste by kerbside green/food waste pilot bins, incentives, community gardens and education. The UK not-for-profit organisation, WRAP (Waste and Resources Action Program) launched a “love food, hate waste” campaign based on its research (WRAP, 2007; 2009) which was adopted in New South Wales and Victoria (EPA NSW, 2016; Sustainability Victoria, 2014). It is important to identify consumers who have similar characteristics in order to target messages at them. Sound understanding of different segments is needed if local public policy interventions are to succeed.


The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of food waste. For the purpose of the survey, the following definition of food waste was selected: “avoidable” food waste refers to products that are still fit for human consumption at the time of discarding, or products that would have been edible if they had been eaten in time (Jörissen et al., 2015). The research question is what factors influence food waste practices? Based on the literature review, the following hypotheses have been advanced:

H1:Food waste behaviouramongst green consumersis influenced by demographic factors H2: Food waste behaviour is influenced by green consumption habits and attitudes.

The population of interest was households in Townsville and Cairns, North Queensland. The survey contained a section on socio-demographic information and it included questions on the



amount of food wasted in a regular week, sustainable food-related behaviours, reasons for discarding food or avoiding food waste and level of acceptance for various policy measures. Scales to measure sustainable food behaviour were taken from the literature (Lea and Worsley, 2008). An online and paper-based survey was conducted in May, 2016. In order to reach green consumers, the survey was distributed face-to-face at two eco-festivals in Cairns and Townsville. It was expected that these participants would have some prior interest in food waste reduction. The internet was used to save time and money and access a larger number of participants (Sue and Ritter, 2007). To aid recruitment, snowballing and the professional networks of the authors were used. An incentive was used to encourage completion of surveys. A total of 350 consumers responded to the survey, but this paper is based solely on the analysis of the ‘green’ consumers (field work was ongoing at the time of paper submission). The data was analysed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 software and cross tabulations, frequency distributions and probit modelling were performed.

2.1 The ordered probit model

An ordered regression method is a suitable and practical technique to analyse the effects of multiple, explanatory variables on an ordinal outcome (Chen and Hughes, 2004; Green, 2002). It has some drawbacks, such as the complexity of method and the issue of how to handle missing data (Chen and Hughes, 2004).

The dependent variable


in the ordered probit model used here refers to the different percentages of food and drink wasted in a week, in accordance with the survey. In the survey, consumers were presented with a Likert scale and were asked to respond to the question: “how much of the food and drink that you buy do you throw away in a regular week?” The answers (ranging from ‘not at all’ to ‘greater than 30 per cent’) indicated the propensity for wasting food and drink. The variables for this study, as shown in Table 1, are mostly measured in ways that make them consistent with those used in other studies (Engle and Kouka 1995; Foltz, Dasgupta and Devadoss 1999; Curtis, Mccluskey and Wahl 2007).

Table 1: Categories and definitions of independent variables used in the probit regression model

Socio-economic category

Income Annual household income

Age Respondent’s age

Gender Dummy variable; 1 if the respondent is a male Household size Consumer’s household size

Presence of young

children Dummy variable; 1 if the respondent has young children

Regional category

Urban / Rural Dummy variable; 1 if consumer is in urban areas

Consumer food consumption habits and attitudes

Eatout Frequency of eating out

Effort Dummy variable; 1 if A good deal of effort is put into reducing food waste

Diff Different degrees of knowing the difference between the “use by” and “best before”



3.0 Results

The following section presents the results relating to demographics, food consumption habits and attitudes, propensity to waste food and attitudes towards policy measures designed to reduce food waste.

3.1 Influence of demographic factors on food waste

Table 2 presents the results of the ordered probit model for propensity to waste food. Income, age, being a male, presence of young children, frequency of eating out, efforts to reduce food waste, worrying about the cost of food waste, and knowledge of difference between the “use by” and “best before” are significant at 5% level. Income, being a male, presence of young children, and frequency of eating out are positively related to food waste. While age, efforts to reduce food waste, and worrying about the cost of food waste and knowledge of difference between the “use by and best before” are negatively related to food waste. Rich younger males, who have young children with frequent eating-out habits, are more likely to waste food. On the contrary, older females who worry about the cost of food waste, and know the difference between the “use by and best before”, make an effort to reduce food waste, are more unlikely to waste food.

Table 2: Esti


Table 2 presents the results of the ordered probit model for propensity to waste food
Figure  1:  Green  consumption
Figure 1: Theoretical Framework
Table 4. Summary of the correlation of each scale with a separated origin variable


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