Towards Sustainable Tourism Development Planning: The Case of Egypt

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TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

PLANNING: THE CASE OF EGYPT

EMAN MOHAMED

HELMY

A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bournemouth

University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

May 1999

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E. Helms Abstract

ABSTRACT

Sustainability has become critically important for the success of any balanced tourism development. This cannot be achieved without full consideration and integration of sustainable development principles into the planning mechanisms of the tourist destination/s.

This study was initiated to justify the role of planning as a tool for implementing sustainability in tourism. It has hypothesized that a complete evaluation of performance of the tourism planning

mechanism should be considered as a starting point, highlighting the needs, strengths, weaknesses and deficiencies. of tourism planning mechanisms adopted by tourist destinations. The research method proposed an assessment system for the different levels of the planning mechanism (policies, strategies, plans and techniques) from a sustainable point of view and thus contributed to the field of tourism planning assessment and evaluation.

The research divided sustainability in tourism into four main dimensions: economic, environmental (natural and manmade), socio - cultural and continuity of the development process. It developed a set of key criteria to assess each dimension at every level of the planning mechanism.

As Egypt was selected as a case study, the research offered an analysis of its tourism planning mechanism with a focus on points of strengths and weaknesses at each level. Primary data (face to face interviews) and secondary data (tourist policy and documented tourist plans) were employed to examine each element of sustainability. This was followed by recommendations and suggestions for enhancing the performance of Egyptian tourism planning to attain more sustainable development goals and to implement more efficient tools for the application of sustainable tourism.

The research also highlighted the role of assessment and evaluation in tourism studies and the importance of conducting an ongoing assessment of tourist planning and development processes. This in turn leads to improving the functions of each planning stage, monitoring the whole planning process and controlling deviations in the planning performance.

This study has directed attention towards the field of evaluation and assessment in tourism and has introduced a new path for sustainable tourism development planning.

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LIST OF CONTENTS

Abstract

List of contents

List of illustrations

List of tables

List of abbreviations

Acknowledgement

Introduction

2

3

12

23

26

27

28

Chapter 1: Sustainable tourism development

1.1 Introduction 31

1.2 Sustainable development roots -a historical global perspective 32

1.3 Sustainable development as a concept 40

1.4 Sustainability and the impacts of tourism 46

1.5 Sustainable development and tourism 54

1.5.1 The adoption of sustainable development in tourism 54

1.5.2 Sustainability as a concept in tourism 57

1.6 Issues to be discussed regarding sustainability in tourism 62 1.6.1 Sustainable tourism or sustainable tourism development 63

1.6.2 Sustainable tourism -all partial? 68

1.6.3 Sustainable tourism development and the different stakeholders 70 1.6.4 Small - scale alternative tourism forms versus large - scale mass tourism forms -

theoretically or practically? 75

1.6.5 Approaches to sustainable tourism development 78

1.7 Conclusion 81

Chapter 2: Sustainable tourism development planning and

developing countries

2.1 Introduction 83

2.2 Planning -a general perspective 85

2.3 Planning and tourism 87

2.4 Tourism planning types and paradigms 89

2.5 Sustainable tourism development and planning 93

2.6 Strategies for sustainable tourism development planning 96

2.7 Levels of tourism planning and sustainability 99

2.8 Techniques for sustainable tourism development evaluation 104

2.9 Tourism in developing countries 116

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2.9.1 Definition and concepts 116

2.9.2 Developing countries and international tourism 117

2.9.3 Developing countries in tourism studies 119

2.10 Obstacles to the task of sustainable tourism planning in developing countries 122

2.10.1 Challenges to the Third World tourism 122

2.10.2 Implication of sustainable tourism planning for developing countries 127

2.11 Conclusion 131

Chapter 3: Tourism development in Egypt

3.1 Introduction 133

3.2 Tourism activity in the Middle East region 134

3.3 Tourism activity in Egypt -a historical perspective 137

3.3.1 Egypt as a distinctive old tourist destination 137

3.3.2 Tourism activity in Egypt since the 1950's 139

3.4 The components of the Egyptian tourism industry 142

3.4.1 Tourism demand 142

3.4.1.1 International tourist traffic to Egypt during the 80s and 90s 143 3.4.1.2 Domestic tourist demand for the Egyptian tourist product 146

3.4.2 Elements of the Egyptian tourist supply 147

3.4.2.1 Tourist attraction 148

3.4.2.2 Infrastructure tourist facilities 153

3.4.2.3 Superstructure tourist facilities 156

3.4.2.3.1 Tourist accommodation 156

3.4.2.3.2 Transportation 161

3.4.2.3.3 Travel intermediaries 164

3.4.2.3.4 Supporting tourist services 167

3.4.2.4 Skilled human resources 168

3.4.2.5 Tourism organisations and administrations 170

3.4.2.5.1 National governmental tourist authorities 170

3.4.2.5.2 The business sector 175

3.5 Egyptian tourism development planning 175

3.6 The Egyptian concern for environmental conservation and sustainable development 179 3.6.1 An overview of the efforts of the Egyptian policies in adopting the concept

of sustainable development 179

3.6.2 The influence of environmental policies on Egyptian tourism development 181

3.7 Conclusion 185

Chapter 4: Methodology

4.1 Introduction 187

4.2 Topic selection and research problem 189

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4.3 Research hypotheses, aims and objectives 190

4.3.1 Hypotheses 190

4.3.2 Research aims 191

4.3.3 Research questions 191

4.4 Evaluating the relevant literature 192

4.5 Exploratory pilot survey 193

4.5.1 Aims of conducting an exploratory survey 194

4.5.2 Exploratory survey methods 194

4.5.3 Assessment of the exploratory survey task 195

4.6 Research methods 196

4.6.1 Assessment methods 196

4.6.1.1 Elements of tourist planning mechanism 197 4.6.1.2 Elements of sustainable tourism development 199 4.6.1.3 How can the assessment be executed? 203

6.4.1.3.1 Criteria to assess the economic dimension 205 6.4.1.3.2 Criteria to assess the environmental dimension 206 6.4.1.3.3 Criteria to assess the socio-cultural dimension 207 6.4.1.3.4 Criteria to assess the continuity of development process 209

4.6.2 What data? 210

4.6.2.1 The task of secondary data collection and analysis 211 4.6.2.1.1 Why is the assessment of secondary data significant for

the current research? 211

4.6.2.1.2 Which tourist policies and plans should be analysed and assessed? 212 4.6.2.1.3 How was the secondary data assessment undertaken? 216

4.6.2.2 Primary data collection 216

4.6.2.2.1 The first survey to collect primary data 216 4.6.2.2.1.1 An overview of the task of conducting

in - depth interviews 216

4.6.2.2.1.2 An overview of the task of distributing

questionnaires addressed to tourist guides 222 4.6.2.2.1.3 An overview of the task of case study / studies

selection and application 223

4.6.2.2.2 The second survey for primary data collection 224

4.6.3 Methods of primary data analysis and presentation 226

4.6.3.1 Methods to analyse primary data 226

4.6.3.2 Methods to present findings 227

4.7 Evaluating the research methods 227

4.8 Conclusion 228

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Chapter 5: Assessing the elements of sustainability: An analysis of

secondary sources relating to the Egyptian tourism

planning mechanism

5.1 Introduction 229

5.2 Tourist policies (1995 - 2012) 238

5.2.1 Evaluating the economic dimension 238

5.2.2 Evaluating the natural environment 239

5.2.3 Evaluating the manmade environment 241

5.2.4 Evaluating the socio-cultural dimension 242

5.2.5 Evaluating the continuity of the development process 243

5.3 Tourist plans 245

5.3.1 National tourist plans 245

5.3.1.1 The third five - year tourist plan (1992 - 1997) 245

5.3.1.1.1 Evaluating the economic dimension 245

5.3.1.1.2 Evaluating the natural environment 249

5.3.1.1.3 Evaluating the manmade environment 251

5.3.1.1.4 Evaluating the socio-cultural dimension 253

5.3.1.1.5 Evaluating the continuity of the development process 256 5.3.1.2 The fourth five - year tourist plan (1997 - 2002) 260

5.3.1.2.1 Evaluating the economic dimension 260

5.3.1.2.2 Evaluating the natural environment 262

5.3.1.2.3 Evaluating the manmade environment 264

5.3.1.2.4 Evaluating the socio-cultural dimension 266

5.3.1.2.5 Evaluating the continuity of the development process 268

5.3.2 Regional plans 272

5.3.2.1 The Red Sea regional tourist development plan 273

5.3.2.1.1 Evaluating the economic dimension 273

5.3.2.1.2 Evaluating the natural environment 276

5.3.2.1.3 Evaluating the manmade environment 278

5.3.2.1.4 Evaluating the socio-cultural dimension 281

5.3.2.1.5 Evaluating the continuity of the development process 283

5.3.3 Local plans 287

5.3.3.1 Mers Alain local tourist development plan 287

5.3.3.1.1 Evaluating the economic dimension 287

5.3.3.1.2 Evaluating the natural environment 290

5.3.3.1.3 Evaluating the manmade environment 293

5.3.3.1.4 Evaluating the socio-cultural dimension 294

5.3.3.1.5 Evaluating the continuity of the development process 296

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Chapter 6: Assessing the elements of sustainability of the economic dimension

in the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism

6.1 Introduction 300

6.2 Criteria to assess policies and strategies 301

6.2.1 Criterion 1: The rank of tourism among the other economic activities 301 6.2.1.1 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 1 301 6.2.2 Criterion 2: The significance of maximising the economic benefits of tourism

in the past, present and future 306

6.2.2.1 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 2 306

6.3 Criteria to assess plans 310

6.3.1 Criterion 3: The ability of the current tourist plans to maximise the economic

values of tourism 310

6.4 Criteria to assess techniques and programs 315

6.4.1 Criterion 4a: Techniques for achieving national economic benefits 315 6.4.1.1 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 4a. 1: techniques adopted

for creating flows of income to the destination 315

6.4.1.2 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 4a. 2: investment policies 323

6.4.2 Criterion 4b: Socio-economic benefits 329

6.4.2.1 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 4b 329 6.4.3 Criterion 4c: Economic research employment technique 335 6.4.3.1 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 4c 335 6.5 Criterion 5: Egyptian tourist planning mechanism outputs in the domain of

sustaining the economic benefits of tourism 337

6.5.1 Achievements and benefits 339

6.5.1.1 Achievements of the tourist policies & strategies 339

6.5.1.2 Achievements of the tourist plans 341

6.5.2 Pitfalls 342

6.5.2.1 Pitfalls of the tourist policies and strategies 342

6.5.2.2 Pitfalls of the tourist plans 343

6.5.2.3 Pitfalls of the current techniques 344

6.5.3 Suggestions and recommendations that should be considered in order to

avoid deviations in sustaining the economic benefits of tourism 345

6.6 Criterion 6: Implication 348

6.7 Conclusion 349

Chapter 7: Assessing the elements of sustainability for the natural

environment in the Egyptian tourism planning mechanism 7.1 Introduction

7.2 Criteria to assess policies and strategies

350 351

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7.2.1 Criterion 1: Agency - co-operation with authorities responsible for crafting natural

environment conservation policies 351

7.2.1.1 Analysis of the respondents' views to criterion 1 351 7.2.2 Criterion 2: Natural environmental conservation objectives, legislation

and plans in the past, present and future tourist policies 353 7.2.2.1 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 2 354 7.3 Criteria to assess techniques and programs of tourist plans 357 7.3.1 Criterion 3: Scientific research to measure the impacts of tourism development 357

7.3.1.1 Analysis of responses to criterion 3 358

7.3.2 Criterion 4: Environmental conservation management 363

7.3.2.1 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 4a: environmental

conservation programs 363

7.3.2.2 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 4b: natural environmental

carrying capacity 367

7.3.3 Criterion 5: Environmental education programs 371

7.3.3.1 analysis of responses and views to criterion 5 371

7.3.4 Criterion 6: Zoning 375

7.3.4.1 Analysis of responses to criterion 6a: protected areas and national parks 375

7.3.4.1.1 Qualitative analysis of criterion 6a 376

7.3.4.2 Analysis of responses to criterion 6b: natural sites and areas under tourist

pressure 380

7.4 Criterion 7: Egyptian tourist planning mechanism outputs in the area of

natural environmental conservation 389

7.4.1 Achievements and benefits 390

7.4.1.1 Achievements of the tourist policies & strategies 390

7.4.1.2 Achievements of the tourist plans 394

7.4.1.3 Achievements of the tourist techniques and programs 395 7.4.2 Pitfalls of the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism that can be considered as

challenges to natural environmental conservation 396

7.4.2.1 Pitfalls of the tourist policies and strategies 396

7.4.2.2 Pitfalls of the tourist plans 3 97

7.4.2.3 Pitfalls of the current techniques and programs used by the plans 398

7.5 Criterion 8: Implication 401

7.6 Conclusion 402

Chapter 8: Assessing the elements of sustainability for the manmade

&heritage environment in the Egyptian tourist planning

mechanism

8.1 Introduction 403

8.2 Criteria to assess policies and strategies 404

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8.2.1 Criterion 1: Agency - co-operation with authorities responsible for crafting

cultural heritage environment policies 404

8.2.1.1 Analysis of views to criterion 1 404

8.2.2 Criterion 2: Cultural and heritage environmental conservation objectives and

plans in the past, present and future tourist policies 406 8.2.2.1 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 2 406 8.3 Criteria to assess techniques and programs of tourist plans 409

8.3.1 Criterion 3: Conservation techniques for heritage and cultural

environments used by tourist plans 409

8.3.1.1 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 3a: management programs 409 8.2.1.2 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 3b: carrying capacity 416 8.3.2 Criterion 4: Education programs for cultural & heritage environment conservation 421 8.3.2.1 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 4 421 8.3.3 Criterion 5: Zoning - sites and areas under pressure due to tourist activities

and over - capacity 426

8.3.3.1 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 5 428 8.4 Criterion 6: Egyptian tourist planning mechanism outputs in the field of archaeological

site sustainability (manmade & heritage environment) 433

8.4.1 Achievements and benefits 433

8.4.1.1 Achievements of the tourist policies & strategies 433

8.4.1.2 Achievements of the tourist plans 440

8.4.1.3 Achievements of the current tourist techniques and programs 440 8.4.2 Pitfalls of the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism and challenges to

cultural heritage environmental conservation 441

8.4.2.1 Pitfalls of the tourist policies and strategies 441

8.4.2.2 Pitfalls of the tourist plans 443

8.4.2.3 Pitfalls of the current tourist techniques and programs 445

8.5 Criterion 7: Implication 448

8.6 Conclusion 449

Chapter 9: Assessing the elements of sustainability for the socio-cultural

values in the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism

9.1 Introduction 450

9.2 Criteria to assess policies and strategies 452

9.2.1 Criterion 1: Agency - authorities responsible for crafting socio-cultural

preservation policies 452

9.2.1.1 Analysis of the respondents' views to criterion 1 452 9.2.2 Criterion 2: Socio-cultural value preservation objectives and plans in

the past, present and future tourist policies 454

9.2.2.1 Analysis of responses and views to criterion 2 454

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9.3 Criteria to assess techniques implemented by the tourist plans 457 9.3.1 Criterion 3: Social impact assessment techniques (SIA) 457

9.3.1.1 Analysis of responses to criterion 3 457

9.3.1.1.1 Criterion 3a: assessing tourism impacts on communities 457 9.3.1.1.2 Criterion3b: assessing the indigenous people perception

about tourism 458

9.3.1.1.3 Criterion 3c: public involvement in decision -making on

tourism development 459

9.3.2 Criterion 4: Mitigating the negative social impacts on the community 461 9.3.2.1 Analysis of responses to criterion 4a: management activities 462 9.3.2.2 Analysis of responses to criterion 4b: carrying capacity consideration

and limits of acceptable change 463

9.3.3 Criterion 5: Educational programs about socio - cultural environment conservation 465 9.3.3.1 Analysis of responses to criterion 5 465

9.3.4 Criterion 6: Zoning 470

9.3.4.1 Analysis of responses to criterion 6a: regions under pressure due to

negative social impacts of tourism 470

9.3.4.1.1 Quantitative analysis & graphic presentations of criterion 6a 470

9.3.4.1.2 Qualitative analysis of criterion 6a 472

9.3.4.2 Analysis of responses to criterion 6b: regions recently approached by tourist development and needing to adopt cautious socio-cultural

conservation techniques 473

9.4 Criterion 7: Egyptian tourist planning mechanism outputs in the domain of

socio-cultural preservation and sustainability 475

9.4.1 Achievements and benefits 476

9.4.1.1 Achievements of the tourist policies & strategies 476

9.4.1.2 Achievements of the tourist plans 480

9.4.1.3 Achievements of the tourist techniques and programs 480

9.4.2 Pitfalls of the Egyptian planning mechanism 481

9.4.2.1 Pitfalls of the tourist policies and strategies 481

9.4.2.2 Pitfalls of the tourist plans 485

9.4.2.3 Pitfalls of the current techniques and programs 486

9.5 Criterion 8: Implication 487

9.6 Conclusion 489

Chapter 10: Conclusion

10.1 Introduction 490

10.2 Research methods to achieve aims and objectives 490

10.3 Implication of the study for Egypt 492

10.4 A framework of a sustainable development planning process for the Egyptian tourism 496

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10.5 Implication of the study for the subject area 499

10.6 Contribution of the research to the body of knowledge 502

10.7 Future research agenda 503

References

505

Appendixes

Chapter 1: Sustainable tourism development

Appendix 1.1- Goals and legal principles of sustainable development Appendix 1.2 - The potential effects of tourism on protected areas

Appendix 1.3 - Main environmental issues judged likely to affect the future of travel and tourism

Appendix 1.4 - The ten Rs criteria for environmental good practice in tourism business operations

Appendix 1.5 - The potential positive effects of interpretation

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4

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6

Chapter 2: Sustainable tourism development planning and developing

countries

Appendix 2.1 - Techniques for assessing the aspects of sustainability 8

Appendix 2.2 - Comparison between LAC, VIM and VERP 9

Appendix 2.3 - Sample evaluation matrix for environmental impact 10

Chapter 3: Tourism development in Egypt

Appendix 3.1: International tourist demand from 1986-1996 12

Appendix 3.1 - Costs of improving and creating airports 13

Appendix 3.2 - The expansion in accommodation capacity

from 1990 to 1995 14

Appendix 3.3 - Accommodation capacity according to category in 1996 15 Appendix 3.4 - Accommodation capacity under construction in 1996 16

Appendix 3.5 -Travel agencies by category 1985- 1996 17

Chapter 4: Methodology

Appendix 4.1 - Exploratory pilot survey 19

Appendix 4.2 - Interviews 24

Appendix 4.3 - Questionnaire addressed at tourist guides 35

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Chapter 1: Sustainable tourism development

Figure 1.1: Chapter 1 structure 32

Figure 1.2: The dimensions of the definition of sustainable development 35

Figure 1.3: The complexity of sustainable development 44

Figure 1.4: The concept of sustainable development 46

Figure 1.5: The basic impacts of tourism 47

Figure 1.6: Partners of sustainable tourism development 59

Figure 1.7: Tourism development's pentagon - Pyramid 60

Figure 1.8: The driving forces of the new tourism 65

Figure 1.9: Interpretation of sustainable tourism 68

Figure 1.10: Two alternative conceptual models of the sustainable tourism development /

sustainable development relationship 69

Figure 1.11: Local community role under the umbrella of sustainable tourism development 74

Chapter 2: Sustainable tourism development planning and

developing countries

Figure 2.1: Chapter 2 structure 84

Figure 2.2: Tourism planning process 89

Figure 2.3: Integrative systems model of tourism theory and planning 91 Figure 2.4: The four types of co-operation necessary for the development of

successful integrative tourism 92

Figure 2.5: Inter - relationships in planning 94

Figure 2.6: The EBT planning framework 102

Figure 2.7: Tools to assist sustainability analysis for sustainable tourism systems 105

Figure 2.8: The limits of acceptable change (LAC) process 109

Figure 2.9: EA and instrumental linkage 114

Chapter 3: Tourism development in Egypt

Figure 3.1: Chapter three structure 133

Figure 3.2: Attractions and the development of destinations 149

Figure 3.3: The position of travel intermediaries 164

Figure 3.4: The role of travel agents 165

Figure 3.5: The Egyptian national governmental tourist authorities 170

Figure 3.6: The structure of the Ministry of Tourism 174

Figure 3.7: Designated tourism areas 177

Chapter 4: Methodology

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Figure 4.1: The research method procedures followed in the current research 188 Figure 4.2: The relationship between the three main issues implied and

investigated by the literature 194

Figure 4.3: Steps followed by the research for approaching the assessment methods 197 Figure 4.4: A tiered system of sustainable tourism development planning mechanism 198

Figure 4.5: Dimensions of sustainable tourism development 199

Figure 4.6: The concept of tourist development continuity 203

Figure 4.7: Criteria to assess the continuity of the development process 209

Figure 4.8: The raw data needed for assessment 210

Chapter 5: Assessing the elements of sustainability: An analysis of secondary sources relating to the Egyptian tourism

planning mechanism

Figure 5.1: Methods used to analyse the sustainability dimensions in the tourist

Planning mechanism through secondary data 230

Figure 5.2: The regional tourist development plan of the Red Sea coast 272

Chapter 6: Assessing the elements of sustainability of the economic

dimension in the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism

Figure 6.1: The current rank of tourism among other economic activities according to

responses of all groups 302

Figure 6.2: The current rank of tourism among other economic activities according to

the official tourist authority group 302

Figure 6.3: The current rank of tourism among other economic activities according to

the private sector group 302

Figure 6.4: The current rank of tourism among other economic activities according to

the environmental affairs agency group 302

Figure 6.5: The current rank of tourism among other economic activities according to

the archaeological authority group 302

Figure 6.6: The current rank of tourism among other economic activities according to

the tourist consultants and planners group 302

Figure 6.7: The current rank of tourism among other economic activities according to

the tourist academic staff group 302

Figure 6.8: The current rank of tourism among other economic activities according to

the archaeological academic staff group 302

Figure 6.9: The significance of maximising the economic benefits of tourism in the past 306 Figure 6.10: The significance of maximising the economic benefits of tourism in the present 306 Figure 6.11: The significance of maximising the economic benefits of tourism in the future 306 Figure 6.12: The success of the current tourist plans in maximising the economic benefits

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of tourism according to responses of all groups

Figure 6.13: The success of the current tourist plans in maximising the economic benefits of tourism according to the official tourist authority group

Figure 6.14: The success of the current tourist plans in maximising the economic benefits of tourism according to the private sector group

Figure 6.15: The success of the current tourist plans in maximising the economic benefits of tourism according to the environmental affairs agency group

Figure 6.16: The success of the current tourist plans in maximising the economic benefits of tourism according to the archaeological authority group

Figure 6.17: The success of the current tourist plans in maximising the economic benefits of tourism according to the tourist consultants and planners group

Figure 6.18: The success of the current tourist plans in maximising the economic benefits of tourism according to the tourist academic staff group

Figure 6.19: The success of the current tourist plans in maximising the economic benefits of tourism according to the archaeological academic staff group

Figure 6.20: Techniques adopted for creating flows of income to the destination according to responses of all groups

Figure 6.21: Techniques adopted for creating flows of income to the destination according to the official tourist authority group

Figure 6.22: Techniques adopted for creating flows of income to the destination according to the private sector group

Figure 6.23: Techniques adopted for creating flows of income to the destination according to the environmental affairs agency group

Figure 6.24: Techniques adopted for creating flows of income to the destination according to the archaeological authority group

Figure 6.25: Techniques adopted for creating flows of income to the destination according to the tourist consultants & planners group

Figure 6.26: Techniques adopted for creating flows of income to the destination according to the tourist academic staff group

Figure 6.27: Techniques adopted for creating flows of income to the destination according to the archaeological academic staff group

Figure 6.28: Techniques used by the national tourist plans to create flows of income to the destination

Figure 6.29: Two techniques to be added to the other schemes used by the tourist plans to create flows of income to the destination

Figure 6.30: Techniques of encouraging tourist projects and offering incentives to investors according to responses of all groups

Figure 6.31: Techniques of encouraging tourist projects and offering incentives to investors according to the official tourist authority group

Figure 6.32: Techniques of encouraging tourist projects and offering incentives

311 311 311 311 311 311 311 311 316 316 316 316 316 316 316 316 323 324 325 325 14

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to investors according to the private sector group

Figure 6.33: Techniques of encouraging tourist projects and offering incentives to investors according to the environmental affairs agency group

Figure 6.34: Techniques of encouraging tourist projects and offering incentives to investors according to the archaeological authority group

Figure 6.35: Techniques of encouraging tourist projects and offering incentives to investors according to the tourist consultants & planners group Figure 6.36: Techniques of encouraging tourist projects and offering incentives

to investors according to the tourist academic staff group

Figure 6.37: Techniques of encouraging tourist projects and offering incentives to investors according to the archaeological academic staff group

Figure 6.38: Techniques implemented for achieving socio-economic benefits according to responses of all groups

Figure 6.39: Techniques implemented for achieving socio-economic benefits according to the official tourist authority groups

Figure 6.40: Techniques implemented for achieving socio-economic benefits according to the private sector group

Figure 6.41: Techniques implemented for achieving socio-economic benefits according to the environmental affairs agency group

Figure 6.42: Techniques implemented for achieving socio-economic benefits according to the archaeological authority group

Figure 6.43: Techniques implemented for achieving socio-economic benefits according to the tourist consultants & planners group

Figure 6.44: Techniques implemented for achieving socio-economic benefits according to the tourist academic staff group

Figure 6.45: Techniques implemented for achieving socio-economic benefits according to the archaeological academic group

Figure 6.46: Techniques of conducting economic research according to responses of all groups

Figure 6.47: Techniques of conducting economic research according to the official tourist authority group

Figure 6.48: Techniques of conducting economic research according to the private sector group

Figure 6.49: Techniques of conducting economic research according to the environmental affairs agency group

Figure 6.50: Techniques of conducting economic research according to the archaeological authority group

Figure 6.51: Techniques of conducting economic research according to the tourist consultants and planners group

Figure 6.52: Techniques of conducting economic research according to the tourist

325 325 325 325 325 325 330 330 330 330 330 330 330 330 336 336 336 336 336 336 15

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academic staff group 336 Figure 6.53: Techniques of conducting economic research according to the archaeological

academic staff group 336

Figure 6.54: Methodology used to synthesise achievements and pitfalls of the tourist

Planning mechanism regarding the sustainability of the economic values 338 Figure 6.55: How the current tourist policy sustains the economic benefits of tourism 340 Figure 6.56: Tasks that should be considered to guarantee more sustainable economic benefits 341

Chapter 7: Assessing the elements of sustainability for the natural

environment in the Egyptian tourism planning mechanism

Figure 7.1: The systematic change that has occurred in the structure of environmental

agency in Egypt. 352

Figure 7.2: The efficiencies of the past tourist policies to implement strategies, legislation

and plans for natural environmental conservation 354

Figure 7.3: The efficiencies of the present tourist policies to implement strategies, legislation

and plans for natural environmental conservation 354

Figure 7.4: The efficiencies of the future tourist policies to implement strategies, legislation

and plans for natural environmental conservation 354

Figure 7.5: Techniques of adopting scientific research to measure the environmental

impacts of tourism development according to responses of all groups 358 Figure 7.6: Techniques of adopting scientific research to measure the environmental

impacts of tourism development according to the official tourist authority group 358 Figure 7.7: Techniques of adopting scientific research to measure the environmental

impacts of tourism development according to the private sector group 358 Figure 7.8: Techniques of adopting scientific research to measure the environmental impacts

of tourism development according to the environmental affairs agency group 358 Figure 7.9: Techniques of adopting scientific research to measure the impacts of tourism

development according to the tourist consultants and planners group 359 Figure 7.10: Techniques of adopting scientific research to measure the environmental impacts

of tourism development according to the tourist academic staff group 359 Figure 7.11: Environmental conservation programs according to responses of all groups 363 Figure 7.12: Environmental conservation programs according to the official tourist

authority group 363

Figure 7.13: Environmental conservation programs according to the private

sector group 364

Figure 7.14: Environmental conservation programs according to the environmental affairs

agency group 364

Figure 7.15: Environmental conservation programs according to the tourist consultants &

planners group 364

Figure 7.16: Environmental conservation programs according to the tourist academic

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staff group 364 Figure 7.17: Techniques of carrying capacity consideration according to responses

of all groups 368

Figure 7.18: Techniques of carrying capacity consideration according to the official

tourist authority groups 368

Figure 7.19: Techniques of carrying capacity consideration according to the private

sector group 368

Figure 7.20: Techniques of carrying capacity consideration according to the environmental

affairs agency group 368

Figure 7.21: Techniques of carrying capacity consideration according to the tourist

consultants and planners group 368

Figure 7.22: Techniques of carrying capacity consideration according to the tourist

academic staff groups 368

Figure 7.23: Techniques of environmental education according to responses of all groups 371 Figure 7.24: Techniques of environmental education according to the official tourist

authority group 371

Figure 7.25: Techniques of environmental education according to the private sector group 371 Figure 7.26: Techniques of environmental education according to the environmental affairs

agency group 371

Figure 7.27: Techniques of environmental education according to the tourist consultants &

planners group 372

Figure 7.28: Techniques of environmental education according to the tourist academic

staff group 372

Figure 7.29: The success of Hurghada tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the official tourist authority group 384 Figure 7.30: The success of Sharm El-Sheikh tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the official tourist authority group 384 Figure 7.31: The success of Nile cruise tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the official tourist authority group 384 Figure 7.32: The success of Sahl Hasheesh tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the official tourist authority group 384 Figure 7.33: The success of Ras Abou Soma tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the official tourist authority group 384 Figure 7.34: The success of Hurghada tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the private sector group 385 Figure 7.35: The success of Sharm EI-Sheikh tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the private sector group 385 Figure 7.36: The success of Nile cruise tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the private sector group 385 Figure 7.37: The success of Sahel Hasheesh tourist plan in implementing environmental

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conservation techniques according to the private sector group 385 Figure 7.38: The success of Ras Abou Soma tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the private sector group 385 Figure 7.39: The success of Hurghada tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the environmental affairs agency group 386 Figure 7.40: The success of Sharm El-Sheikh tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the environmental affairs agency group 386 Figure 7.41: The success of Nile cruise tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the environmental affairs agency group 386 Figure 7.42: The success of Sahl Hasheesh tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the environmental affairs agency group 386 Figure 7.43: The success of Ras Abou Soma tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the environmental affairs agency group 386 Figure 7.44: The success of Hurghada tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the tourist consultants & planners group 387 Figure 7.45: The success of Sharm El-Sheikh tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the tourist consultants & planners group 387 Figure 7.46: The success of Nile cruise tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the tourist consultants & planners group 3 87 Figure 7.47: The success of Sahl Hasheesh tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the tourist consultants & planners group 387 Figure 7.48: The success of Ras Abou Soma tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the tourist consultants & planners group 387 Figure 7.49: The success of Hurghada tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the tourist academic staff group 388 Figure 7.50: The success of Sharm El-Sheikh tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the tourist academic staff group 388 Figure 7.51: The success of Nile cruise tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the tourist academic staff group 388 Figure 7.52: The success of Sahl Hasheesh tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the tourist academic staff group 388 Figure 7.53: The success of Ras Abou Soma tourist plan in implementing environmental

conservation techniques according to the tourist academic staff group 388 Figure 7.54: Methodology used to synthesise achievements and pitfalls of the tourist

planning mechanism regarding the sustainability of the natural environment 3 90 Figure 7.55: The significance of natural environmental conservation in the Egyptian

national policy 392

Figure 7.56: How the Egyptian tourist policy handles natural environmental conservation 393 Figure 7.57: Suggested tourist sub - policy for natural environmental conservation 394

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Chapter 8: Assessing the elements of sustainability for the manmade &heritage environment in the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism

Figure 8.1: The current situation in the historical & archaeological sites

Figure 8.2: A suggested structure of co-operative work crafting conservation policy for cultural and historical archaeological sites

Figure 8.3: The ability of the past tourist policies to include strategies and plans for cultural-heritage environment conservation

Figure 8.4: The ability of the present tourist policy to include strategies and plans for cultural-heritage environment conservation

Figure 8.5: The ability of the future tourist policies to include strategies and plans for cultural-heritage environment conservation

Figure 8.6: A suggested model for a network planning system to save the cultural historical environment from degradation

Figure 8.7: Management program techniques for the conservation of the manmade environment according to responses of all groups

Figure 8.8: Management program techniques for the conservation of the manmade environment according to the official tourist authority group

Figure 8.9: Management program techniques for the conservation of the manmade environment according to the private sector group

Figure 8.10: Management program techniques for the conservation of the manmade environment according to the environmental affairs agency group

Figure 8.11: Management program techniques for the conservation of the manmade environment according to the archaeological authority group

Figure 8.12: Management program techniques for the conservation of the manmade environment according to the tourist consultants & planners group

Figure 8.13: Management program techniques for the conservation of the manmade environment according to the tourist academic staff group

Figure 8.14: Management program techniques for the conservation of the manmade environment according to the archaeological academic staff group

Figure 8.15: Management program techniques for the conservation of the manmade environment according to the tourist guides group

Figure 8,16: Techniques of maximum carrying capacity consideration according to responses of all groups

Figure 8.17: Techniques of maximum carrying capacity consideration according to the official tourist authority group

Figure 8.18: Techniques of maximum carrying capacity consideration according to the private sector group

Figure 8.19: Techniques of maximum carrying capacity consideration according to the environmental affairs agency group

405 406 407 407 407 408 409 409 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 416 416 416 416 19

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Figure 8.20: Techniques of maximum carrying capacity consideration according to

the archaeological authority group 416

Figure 8.21: Techniques of maximum carrying capacity consideration according to

the tourist consultants and planners group 416

Figure 8.22: Techniques of maximum carrying capacity consideration according to

the tourist academic staff group 417

Figure 8.23: Techniques of maximum carrying capacity consideration according to

the archaeological academic staff group 417

Figure 8.24: Techniques of maximum carrying capacity consideration according to

the tourist guides group 417

Figure 8.25: Techniques of educational programs for cultural environment conservation

according to responses of all groups 421

Figure 8.26: Techniques of educational programs for cultural environment conservation

according to the official tourist authority group 421

Figure 8.27: Techniques of educational programs for cultural environment conservation

according to the private sector group 421

Figure 8.28: Techniques of educational programs for cultural environment conservation

according to the environmental affairs agency group 421

Figure 8.29: Techniques of educational programs for cultural environment conservation

according to the archaeological authority group 422

Figure 8.30: Techniques of educational programs for cultural environment conservation

according to the tourist consultants & planners group 422 Figure 8.31: Techniques of educational programs for cultural environment conservation

according to the tourist academic staff group 422

Figure 8.32: Techniques of educational programs for cultural environment conservation

according to the archaeological academic staff group 422 Figure 8.33: Techniques of educational programs for cultural environment conservation

according to the tourist guides group 422

Figure 8.34: Historical sites under tourist pressure according to responses of all groups 429 Figure 8.35: Historical sites under tourist pressure according to the official

tourist authority group 429

Figure 8.36: Historical sites under tourist pressure according to the private sector group 429 Figure 8.37: Historical sites under tourist pressure according to the environmental

affairs agency group 429

Figure 8.38: Historical sites under tourist pressure according to the archaeological

authority group 429

Figure 8.39: Historical sites under tourist pressure according to the tourist consultants &

planners group 429

Figure 8.40: Historical sites under tourist pressure according to the tourist academic staff 430 Figure 8.41: Historical sites under tourist pressure according to the archaeological

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academic staff group 430 Figure 8.42: Historical sites under tourist pressure according to the tourist guides group 430 Figure 8.43: Methodology used to synthesise achievements and pitfalls of the tourist

planning mechanism regarding the sustainability of the manmade environment 434 Figure 8.44: The significance of cultural heritage conservation in the Egyptian

archaeological conservation policy 435

Figure 8.45: What should be included in the action policy for the sustainability of

archaeological cultural sites 437

Figure 8.46: How the Egyptian tourist policy handles the issue of historical site protection 438 Figure 8.47: A suggested tourist policy for cultural historical environmental conservation 439 Figure 8.48: A suggested network system for the tourist authorities and the archaeological

authorities 444

Chapter 9: Assessing the elements of sustainability for the socio-cultural

values in the Egvntian tourist planning mechanism

Figure 9.1: A suggested structure of the co-operation needed to approach tourism planning with a community - based concept.

Figure 9.2: Socio-cultural value preservation objectives and plans in the past tourist policies Figure 9.3: Socio-cultural value preservation objectives and plans in the present tourist policy Figure 9.4: Socio-cultural value preservation objectives and plans in the future tourist policies Figure 9.5: Methods to bridge the gap between developers and local communities

Figure 9.6: Social carrying capacity consideration according to responses of all groups Figure 9.7: Social carrying capacity consideration according to the official

tourist authority group

Figure 9.8: Social carrying capacity consideration according to the private sector group Figure 9.9: Social carrying capacity consideration according to the environmental

affairs agency group

Figure 9.10: Social carrying capacity consideration according to the archaeological authority group

Figure 9.11: Social carrying capacity consideration according to the tourist consultants & planners group

Figure 9.12: Social carrying capacity consideration according to the tourist academic staff group

Figure 9.13: Social carrying capacity consideration according to the archaeological academic staff group

Figure 9.14: Techniques of educational programs for socio-cultural environment conservation according to responses of all groups

Figure 9.15: Techniques of educational programs for socio-cultural environment conservation according to the official tourist authority group

Figure 9.16: Techniques of educational programs for socio-cultural environment

454 455 455 455 461 464 464 464 464 464 464 464 464 466 466 21

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conservation according to the private sector group

Figure 9.17: Techniques of educational programs for socio-cultural environment conservation according to the environmental affairs agency group

Figure 9.18: Techniques of educational programs for socio-cultural environment conservation according to the archaeological authority group

Figure 9.19: Techniques of educational programs for socio-cultural environment conservation according to the tourist consultants & planners group Figure 9.20: Techniques of educational programs for socio-cultural environment

conservation according to the tourist academic staff group

Figure 9.21: Techniques of educational programs for socio-cultural environment conservation according to the archaeological academic staff group

Figure 9.22: Areas suffering negative social impacts of tourism according to responses of all groups

Figure 9.23: Areas suffering negative social impacts of tourism according to the tourist authority group

Figure 9.24: Areas suffering negative social impacts of tourism according to the private sector group

Figure 9.25: Areas suffering negative social impacts of tourism according to the environmental affairs agency group

Figure 9.26: Areas suffering negative social impacts of tourism according to the archaeological authority group

Figure 9.27: Areas suffering negative social impacts of tourism according to the tourist consultants & planners group

Figure 9.28: Areas suffering negative social impacts of tourism according to the tourist academic staff group

Figure 9.29: Areas suffering negative social impacts of tourism according to the archaeological academic staff group

Figure 9.30: Direction of tourist development on the Red Sea

Figure 9.31: Methodology used to synthesise achievements and pitfalls of the tourist planning mechanism in the sustainability of the socio-cultural values

Figure 9.32: How the Egyptian tourist policy handles the social impacts of tourism Figure 9.33: A suggested tourist sub-policy for socio-cultural preservation

Figure 9.34: A suggested strategy to investigate socio-cultural issues in the big cities Figure 9.35: A suggested strategy to investigate the socio-cultural impacts of tourism

in new regions recently developed as tourist destinations

Figure 9.36: A suggested strategy to investigate socio-cultural issues in the new regions that will be approached as tourist destinations

Chapter 10: Conclusion

Figure 10.1: Challenges to the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism

466 466 466 466 466 466 471 471 471 471 472 472 472 472 474 476 478 479 482 483 484 493 22

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LIST OF TABLES

Chapter 1: Sustainable tourism development

Table 1.1: The four groups of topics considered in Agenda 21

Table 1.2: The differences between the first and the second environmental revolution Table 1.3: The economic benefits and costs of tourism

Table 1.4: Green's checklist of the environmental impacts caused by tourism Table 1.5: Potential social impacts of tourism

Table 1.6: The charter for sustainable tourism

Table 1.7: Sustainable tourism definition and benefits

Table 1.8: what makes achieving sustainable tourism development so difficult Table 1.9: Main sub-issues implied by the literature to be discussed under the

title sustainability and tourism

Table 1.10: The wide margin of sustainability in tourism interpretation and perspective Table 1.11: Agenda 21 - public sector role

Table 1.12: Agenda 21 - Private sector role

Table 1.13: Examples of names used refer to nature - based tourism Table 1.14: Attributes of mass and alternative tourism

Table 1.15: A framework of approaches to sustainable tourism Table 1.16: A guideline for sustainable tourism

Chapter 2: Sustainable tourism development planning and

developing countries

Table 2.1: Interactive planning vs. conventional planning Table 2.2: Diversity of tourism planning

Table 2.3: Dowling's examination of the literature on environmental planning, tourism planning and environmental - tourism planning

Table 2.4: Principles

for sustainable

tourism to be used by local planners

Table 2.5: Successive steps for private and public development strategies for sustainable tourism development

Table 2.6: The progress of the scientific research on tourism in developing countries Table 2.7: characteristics of the two tourism sectors

Table 2.8: The three major sets of problems, which militate against achieving sustainable tourism in the Third World

Table 2.9: Four major policy considerations that should be regarded by LDC's for achieving sustainability in tourism

Chapter 3: Tourism development in Egypt

Table 3.1: Positive factors of tourism development in the Middle East region

37 39 49 50 52 56 58 62 63 67 72 72 76 78 79 80 86 89 92 95 98 121 123 128 129 136 23

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Table 3.2: Elements of tourism supply

Table 3.3: An inventory of the Egyptian tourist attractions

Table 3.4: The type of flight operation the Egyptian airports receive Table 3.5: An inventory of the Egyptian national tourist plan

Table 3.6: An inventory of the plans prepared by the TDA in the areas designated as prior tourist development zones

Chapter 4: Methodolo2y

Table 4.1: The research techniques of linking the tourist planning mechanism with the sustainability dimensions through a series of criteria

Table 4.2: A list of criteria developed to assess the performance of the tourist planning mechanism regarding the economic aspect of sustainability

Table 4.3: A list of criteria developed to assess the performance of the tourist planning mechanism regarding sustainability of the natural environmental assets

Table 4.4: A list of criteria developed to assess the performance of the tourist planning mechanism regarding sustainability of manmade environment

Table 4.5: A list of criteria developed to assess the performance of the tourist planning mechanism regarding sustainability of the socio-cultural values

Table 4.6: A breakdown of the sample size employed by the research methods

Chapter 5: Assessing the elements of sustainability: An analysis of

secondary sources relating to the Egyptian tourism

planning mechanism

Table 5.1: A comparison between the tourist policy, strategies, national plans, the Red Sea regional plan, Mersa Alam local plan regarding the

sustainability of economic values

Table 5.2: A comparison between the tourist policy, strategies, national plans, the Red Sea regional plan, Mersa Alam local plan regarding

sustainability of the natural environmental assets

Table 5.3: A comparison between the tourist policy, strategies, national plans, the Red Sea regional plan, Mersa Alam local plan regarding

sustainability of the manmade environment

Table 5.4: A comparison between the tourist policy, strategies, national plans, the Red Sea regional plan, Mersa Alam local plan regarding

sustainability of the socio-cultural values

Table 5.5: A comparison between the tourist policy, strategies, national plans,

the Red Sea regional plan, Mersa Alain local plan regarding continuity of the development process

148 151 163 176 178 204 205 206 207 207 219 231 232 233 234 235 24

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Chapter 6: Assessing the elements of sustainability of the economic dimension

in the Egyptian tourist Planning mechanism

Table 6.1: Criteria to assess the performance of the tourist planning mechanism regarding

the economic dimension of sustainability 300

Table 6.2: Characteristics of past, present and future Egyptian tourism development 310 Table 6.3: Success of the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism in sustaining

the economic benefits of tourism in terms of figures (quantitative measures) 348 Table 6.4: Success of the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism in sustaining

the economic benefits of tourism in terms of qualitative measures 348

Chapter 7: Assessing the elements of sustainability for the natural

environment in the Egyptian tourism planning mechanism

Table 7.1: Criteria to assess the performance of the tourist planning mechanism regarding sustainability of the natural ecological environment

Table 7.2: Protected areas & national parks in the Egyptian tourist plans

Table 7.3: Regions under tourist pressure and needing management efforts according to views of each group of respondents

Table 7.4: Virgin areas that need sustainable tourism planning selected by each group of respondents

Table 7.5: Success of the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism in sustaining the natural environmental assets

Chapter 8: Assessing the elements of sustainability for the manmade

&heritage environment in the Egyptian tourist plannin

mechanism

Table 8.1: Criteria to assess the performance of the tourist planning mechanism regarding sustainability of the manmade environment

Table 8.2: Success of the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism in sustaining . the manmade environment

Chapter 9: Assessing the elements of sustainability for the socio-cultural

values in the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism

Table 9.1: Criteria to assess the performance of the tourist planning mechanism regarding sustainability of socio-cultural values

Table 9.2: Success of the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism in sustaining the socio-cultural values

350 379 381 382 401 403 448 450 488 25

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

cc CEA EA EEAA EIA EIS EMS ES GATS IUCN Km LAC LDCs MDCs MOT NGOs NTOs PI PPPs ROS/ROG SD SEA SIA SS STD TDA UNEP USA VERP VIM LACED

wcs

ws

wTo

wTTc

Carrying Capacity

Cumulative Effects Assessment Environmental Assessment

Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency Environmental Impact Assessment

Environmental Impact Statement

Environmental Management System Environmental Statement

The General Agreement on Trade in Services The World Conservation Union

Kilometre

Limits of Acceptable Change Less Developed Countries

More Developed Countries

Egyptian Ministry of Tourism

Non - Governmental organizations National Tourism Organizations

Public Involvement

Policies, Plans and Programs

Recreation Opportunity Spectrum / Recreation Opportunity Guide Sustainable Development

Strategic Environmental Assessment Social Impact Assessment

Strong Sustainability

Sustainable Tourism Development

Egyptian Tourist Development Authority

The United Nations Environmental Programme United States of America

Visitor Experience & Resource Protection Visitor Impact Management

The World Commission on Environment and Development The World Conservation Strategy

Weak Sustainability

World Tourism Organization

The World Travel and Tourism Council

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, I would like to thank my sponsor, the Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education for granting me the scholarship.

Many thanks are owed to Professor Chris Cooper, my first supervisor, for guidance, help and technical advice. I am enormously indebted to all the support and encouragement I received from him for three and half years throughout this work. Professor Cooper's generous personality and unconditional support helped me to overcome the difficulties and stress of the PhD.

I would also like to thank Professor John Fletcher, the Head of the International Centre of Tourism and Hospitality Research at Bournemouth University and my second supervisor for all the facilities he offered me as a PhD. researcher in the centre.

A special thank you to Lorraine Brown for assistance and support and to Karen Ward and Diane Hibbert for their encouragement.

This thesis could not have been written without the assistance of different individuals and organisations during field survey and data collection tasks. I gratefully acknowledge the help of all respondents whose replies were critically important for this study and their help is very much appreciated. As the researcher worked with "anonymous" data for confidentiality, no names will be mentioned in acknowledgement.

I would also like to acknowledge Professor Hazim Attiatalla, the Vice Head of Helwan University in Cairo, and Professor All Omar Abdalla, the Dean of the Faculty of Tourism at Helwan University, for facilitating the routine procedures relevant to my scholarship.

I also wish to thank Professor Salah Wahab and Mrs Wahab for encouragement and Mr Sayed Moussa for support.

Finally, many thanks to Mum, Dad and sister Nahla for the continuous psychological encouragement I received through warm phone calls and letters.

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E. Helme Introduction

Introduction

Sustainable tourism development is one of the most significant topics discussed by tourist planners and researchers during the last decade of the 20`h century. All studies and researches on sustainable tourism

imply that by the beginning of the new millennium, any destination that depends (or intends to depend) on tourism as a major source of income and is looking forward to achieving long term economic benefits of tourism should be able to:

1- Formulate appropriate policies in order to guarantee sustainable economic benefits.

2- Adopt efficient strategies in order to guarantee the sustainability of the development process.

3- Implement compatible plans for the environment and natural and man made attractions in order to sustain the contribution of these resources to tourism activities for the following generations.

4- Co-ordinate and harmonise tourist policies and plans with the other national policies and plans which support tourist development.

5- Integrate regional and local tourist plans into the other activities in each tourist destination in a way that guarantees public community welfare and the sustainability of socio-economic benefits.

6- Balance the benefits and costs of tourism for public communities. This should result in a complete consideration of the social carrying capacities of the local community in order to guarantee the sustainability of local identity, traditions, culture and social satisfaction.

The elements mentioned above have become prerequisites that should be adopted by any tourist destination that wants to compete in the international tourist market in the 21" century. However, the level of preparedness to implement and achieve sustainability is not the same among tourist destinations. For example, it is expected that developed countries will have better opportunities for adopting the sustainability principles than developing countries. However, strong international competition amongst tourist destinations does not consider the internal obstacles of tourist development in one destination or another. Related to this is the fact that tourist demand is very sensitive and flexible. As clients have the right to select the destination that satisfies their needs, desires and expectations, sustainable tourist development is expected to become an important element of these needs.

Accordingly, all states, regardless of whether they are developed or developing should plan for sustainability and formulate adequate policies, strategies, plans and programs in order to approach the principles of sustainable development. This should be followed by the implementation of efficient techniques. However, pillars of sustainable tourist development may place pressures on tourist development in those developing countries that promote tourism solely for short- term economic gains.

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the adequacy of the Egyptian planning mechanism from a sustainable development point of view. This task has entailed the evaluation of Egyptian tourist policies, strategies, plans and techniques, as these are considered to be the key elements forming the planning mechanism. The study has attempted to explore how far the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism is able to encompass the different dimensions of sustainable development and to investigate its points of strengths

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E. Helme Introduction

and weaknesses. Moreover, identifying gaps in the levels of the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism and offering appropriate recommendations are two of the main tasks that the current research has achieved.

Research objectives

The research has three main objectives:

I- To highlight the role of planning in implementing sustainability. The research approaches the analysis of tourist policies, strategies, plans and techniques as a coherent mechanism in which planning objectives, functions and instruments should be considered.

2- To shed light on the field of assessment and evaluation in tourism studies and to justify its role in offering a comprehensive analysis of tourism development.

3- The third objective is related to the case study of Egypt. This objective investigates the Egyptian tourist planning mechanism from a sustainable point of view, which in turn leads to suggesting appropriate actions and instruments that need to be considered by the different stages and functions of the tourist planning system.

Research outline

The current research consists of ten chapters: three reviewing the relevant literature, one presenting the methodology developed by the study, another chapter analysing secondary data, four chapters for primary data analyses and finally a conclusion chapter.

The first chapter is concerned with sustainability in tourism. It offers an overview of the concept of sustainable tourism development with a focus on its goals, principles and challenges. This chapter also highlights the needs of the tourism industry to adopt sustainability principles in its development and planning contexts and investigates the main issues to be considered in the "sustainable tourism

development" subject.

Chapter two has been broken down into two main sections: sustainable tourism planning; and developing countries. The first section offers an overview of the different tourism planning paradigms and offers approaches to sustainable tourism development planning. The second section reviews the concept of developing countries with a focus on the different challenges and pressures on their tourism development and planning contexts. The discussion ends with the implications of sustainable tourism planning for developing countries.

Chapter three begins with an overview of tourism development activity in the Middle East region and then moves onto investigate tourism development in Egypt, offering a comprehensive analysis of both supply and demand. It also reviews the reaction of Egypt to the global concern for sustainable tourism development.

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E. Helme Introduction

The methodology chapter provides a full presentation of the research problem, hypotheses, aims and objectives. It also offers a debate on the research methods developed for evaluating the tourism planning mechanism and shows the role of secondary and primary data in reaching findings. An explanation of the procedures and steps of the field survey and data analysis is also presented in the methodology chapter.

As the research method has implied the use of secondary data as an auxiliary tool for evaluating tourist Planning, an analysis of a selected sample of Egyptian tourist policies, strategies, plans and techniques is presented in chapter five with the aim of analysing continuity in the development process.

The present research has divided sustainability in tourism into main areas and the four primary data analyses chapters reflect this by covering the assessment of the Egyptian tourism planning mechanism with regard to each sustainability dimension. Accordingly, the evaluation of the economic dimension is presented in chapter six while chapter seven investigates the natural environmental aspect and chapter eight looks at the manmade environmental dimension. The socio-cultural dimension of sustainability is evaluated in chapter nine.

Chapter ten draws a conclusion by synthesising findings of the research with a focus on the different implications

of the study and linking the findings to the literature review. It also offers an overview of the contribution of the research to the body of knowledge and introduces an agenda of issues relevant to the fields of sustainability planning and evaluation to be investigated by the future research.

Figure

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