Solid waste generation and disposal by Hotels in Coimbatore City

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Solid waste generation and disposal by Hotels in Coimbatore City

Donald M. Ephraim

Research Scholar, Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore, India

S. Boopathi

Reader, Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore, India

Abstract: Solid waste generation and disposal are of serious concern today in India. With growing

industrialization and emergence of many 2 and 3 – tier cities, government at various levels have taken measures to deal with this crises. Policies have been enacted, implemented and control mechanisms have been developed to manage this emergency. This study attempts to study generation and disposal of solid wastes in around 75 hotels regardless of the size or category. Objectives include quantum of solid generated by the hotels, and the factors that influence the quantum of solid waste generated,

In this article, an attempt has been made to analyse the solid waste generated by the hotels in Coimbatore city. For the purpose of the analysis, sample of 75 hotels were randomly selected for the present study. The analysis of the present article has been classified under the heads namely.

(i) Solid waste generation in hotels and its disposal.

(ii) Factors which influence the quantum of solid waste generated by the hotel under study. (iii) Solid waste generation in hotels and its disposal.

(iv) Factors that determine the quantum of solid waste generated by the selected hotels.

1. Solid Waste Generation in Hotels and its Disposal.

This section discusses about the sample hotels on the basis of number of tables, number of customers, number of employees, types of serving food and quantum of waste generated.

Table 1 indicates the classification of sample hotels on the basis of tables in five zones in Coimbatore city.

TABLE 1

CLASSIFICATION OF SAMPLE HOTELS ON THE BASIS OF NUMBER OF TABLES IN FIVE ZONES OF COIMBATORE CITY

Sl. No.

Number of tables

Number of Hotels

East Zone West Zone North Zone

South Zone

Central

Zone Total

1. Below 6 2

(13.33)

3 (20.00)

2 (13.33)

4 (26.67)

3 (20.00)

14 (18.67)

2. 6-8 3

(20.00)

4 (26.67)

2 (13.33)

4 (26.67)

2 (13.33)

15 (20.00)

3. 8-10 2

(13.33)

3 (20.00)

4 (26.67)

2 (13.33)

2 (13.33)

13 (17.33)

4. 10-12 4

(26.67)

2 (13.33)

1 (6.67)

3 (20.00)

3 (20.00)

13 (17.33)

5. Above 12 4

(26.67)

3 (20.00)

6 (40.00)

2 (13.33)

5 (20.00)

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Total 15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

75 (100.00) Source: Primary Data

Note: Figure in brackets represents percentage to total.

It is cleanly evident from Table 1 that in total, out of 75 Hotels, the majority of 20 (26.67 per cent) hotels have above 12 tables followed by 15 (20.00 per cent) hotels that have 6-8 tables, 14 (18.67 per cent) of them have below 6 tables and 13 (17.33 per cent) each of them have 8-10 and 10-12 tables respectively. In the case of East Zone, out of 15 hotels, maximum of 4(26.67 per cent) of the hotels have 10-12 and above tables followed by 3 (20.00 per cent) of the hotels that have 6-8 tables and 2(13.33 per cent) each of the hotels that have below 6 and 8-10 tables respectively. In the case of West Zone, out of 15 hotels, the majority of 4 (26.67 per cent) of the hotels have 6-8 tables followed by 3 (20.00 per cent) each of the hotels that have below 6, 8-10 and above 12 table and 2(13.33 per cent) that have 10-12 tables.

Out of 15 hotels in North Zone, the maximum of 6 (40.00 per cent) of the hotels have above 12 tables and the minimum of only one hotel (6.67 per cent) have 10-12 tables. Further it also shows that, out of 15 hotels in South Zone, the maximum of 4 (26.67 per cent) each of the hotels have below 6 and 6-8 tables and the minimum of 2 (13.33 per cent) each of the hotels have 8-10 and above 12 tables respectively. It is found that out of 15 hotels in Central Zone, the maximum of 5 (20.00 per cent) of the hotels have above 12 tables and the minimum of 2 (13.33 per cent) each of the hotels have 6- 8 and 8-10 tables respectively.

The classification of sample hotels on the basis of customers in five zones of Coimbatore city is shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2

CLASSIFICATION OF SAMPLE HOTELS ON THE BASIS OF CUSTOMERS IN FIVE ZONES OF COIMBATORE CITY

Sl. No.

Number of customers

Number of Hotels

East Zone West Zone

North Zone

South Zone

Central

Zone Total

1. 20-30 5

(33.33)

4 (26.67)

5 (33.33)

4 (26.67)

3 (20.00)

21 (28.00)

2. 30-40 3

(20.00)

3 (20.00)

4 (26.67)

3 (20.00)

5 (33.33)

18 (24.00)

3. 40-50 4

(26.67)

5 (33.33)

3 (20.00)

4 (26.67)

4 (26.67)

20 (26.67)

4. Above 50 3

(20.00)

3 (20.00)

3 (20.00)

4 (26.66)

3 (20.00)

16 (21.33)

Total 15

(100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

75 (100.00)

Source: Primary data.

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From Table 2, it has been observed that in total, out of 75 hotels, the maximum of 21 (28.00 per cent) of the hotels have 20-30 customers followed by 20 (26.67 per cent) of the hotels that have 40-50 customers. In the case of East Zone, out of 15 hotels, the maximum of 5 (33.33 per cent) of the hotels have 40-50 customers, followed by 4 (26.67 per cent) of the hotels that have 20-30 customers and 3 (20.00 per cent) each of the hotels that have 30-40 customers and above 50 customers respectively. In the case of West Zone, out of 14 hotels, the majority of 5 (35.71 per cent) of the hotels have 40-50 customers followed by 4(26.67 per cent) of the hotels that have 20-30 customers, 3 (20.00 per cent) each of the hotels that have 30- 40 and above 50 customers respectively.

Out of 15 hotels in North Zone, the maximum of 5 (33.33 per cent) of hotels have 20-30 customers followed by 4 (26.67 per cent) of the hotels that have 30-40 customers and 3 (20.00 per cent) each of the hotels that have 40-50 and above 50 customers respectively. Further it also shows that in the case of South Zone, out of 15 hotels, the maximum of 4 (26.67 per cent) each of the hotels have 20-30, 40-50 and above 50 customers followed by 3 (20.00 per cent) hotels 30-40 customers.

Table 3 shows the classification of sample hotels on the basis of number of staff in five Zones in Coimbatore city.

TABLE 3

CLASSIFICATION OF SAMPLE HOTELS ON THE BASIS OF NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN FIVE ZONES OF COIMBATORE CITY

Source: Primary data.

Note: Figures in brackets represent percentage to total.

It is clearly evident from Table 3 that in total, out of 75 hotels selected in Coimbatore Municipal Corporation, the maximum of 18 (24.00 per cent) of the hotels have 12-14 employees

Sl. No.

Number of employees

Number of Hotels

East Zone West Zone North Zone

South Zone

Central

Zone Total

1. 8-10 3

(20.00)

2 (13.33)

2 (13.33)

4 (26.67)

3 (20.00)

14 (18.67)

2. 10-12 3

(20.00)

2 (13.33)

4 (26.67)

2 (13.33)

2 (13.33)

13 (17.33)

3. 12-14 4

(26.67)

5 (33.33)

2 (13.33)

3 (20.00)

4 (26.67)

18 (24.00)

4. 14-16 2

(13.33)

2 (13.33)

3 (20.00)

4 (26.67)

3 (20.00)

14 (18.67)

5. 16 and above

3 (20.00)

4 (26.67)

4 (26.67)

2 (13.33)

3 (20.00)

16 (21.33)

Total 15

(100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.000

15 (100.00)

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followed by 16 (21.33 per cent) of the hotels that have 16 and above employees, 14 (18.67 per cent) each of the hotels that have 8-10 employees and 14-16 employees and 13 (17.33 per cent) that have 10-12 employees respectively.

In the case of East Zone, the maximum of 4 (26.67 per cent) of the hotels have 12-14 employees, whereas in the case of West Zone, the maximum of 5 (33.33 per cent) of the hotels have 12-14 employees. Out of 15 hotels in North Zone, the maximum of 4 (26.67 per cent) each of the hotels have 10-12 employees and 16 and above employees while minimum of 2 (13.33 per cent) each of the hotels have 8-10 and 12-14 employees. Further it also shows that, in the case of South Zone, the maximum of 4 (26.67 per cent) each of the hotels have 8-10 employees and 14-16 employees while minimum of 2 (13.33 per cent) each of the hotels have 10-12 and and 16 and above employees respectively. In case of Central Zone, the maximum of 4 (26.67 per cent) of the hotels have 12-14 employees and 14-16 employees while minimum of 2 (13.33 per cent) of the hotels have 10-12 employees respectively.

Table 4 shows the classification of sample hotels on the basis of types of serving food in five zones of Coimbatore city.

TABLE 4

CLASSIFICATION OF SAMPLE HOTELS ON THE BASIS OF TYPES OF SERVING FOOD IN FOUR ZONES OF COIMBATORE CITY

Sl. No.

Types of serving

food

Number of Hotels

East Zone West Zone North Zone

South Zone

Central

Zone Total

1. Plate 8

(53.33)

9 (60.00)

9 (60.00)

7 (46.67)

6 (40.00)

39 (52.00)

2. Leaf 7

(46.67)

6 (40.00)

6 (40.00)

8 (53.33)

9 (60.00)

36 (42.00)

Total 15

(100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

75 (100.00) Source : Primary data

Note: Figures in brackets represent percentage to total.

It has been inferred from Table 4 that in total, out of 75 hotels, 39 (52.00 per cent) of the hotels serve the food by plate while 36(42.00 per cent) of the hotels serve the food by leaf. In the case of East Zone, out of 15 hotels, 8 (53.33 per cent) of the hotels serve the food by plate while 7(46.67 per cent) of the hotels serve the food by leaf. In the case of West Zone, Out of 15 hotels, 9 (60.00 per cent) of the hotels serve the food by plate while 6(40.00 per cent) of the hotels serve the food by leaf. Further it also shows that, out of 15 hotels in North Zone, 9 (60.00 per cent) of the hotels serve the food by plate while 6(40.00 per cent) of the hotels serve the food by leaf. Whereas in the case of South Zone, out of 15 hotels, 8(53.33 per cent) of the hotels serve the food by leaf and 7 (46.67 per cent) of the hotels serve the food by plate. In case of Central Zone, out of 15 hotels, 9 (60.00 per cent) of the hotels serve the food by leaf and 6 (40.00 per cent) of the hotels serve the food by plate.

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TABLE 5

QUANTUM OF WASTES GENERATED BY SAMPLE HOTELS IN FIVE ZONES OF COIMBATORE CITY

Sl. No.

Quantum of waste per day (in kg)

Numbers of Hotels

East Zone West Zone North Zone

South Zone

Central

Zone Total

1. 20-30 5

(33.33)

5 (33.33)

3 (20.00)

4 (26.67)

4 (26.67)

21 (28.00)

2. 30-40 3

(20.00)

4 (26.67)

5 (33.33)

5 (33.33)

2 (13.33)

19 (25.33)

3. 40-50 4

(26.67)

4 (26.67)

4 (26.67)

3 (20.00)

5 (33.33)

20 (26.67)

4. 50 and above

3 (20.00)

2 (13.33)

3 (20.00)

3 (20.00)

4 (26.67)

15 (20.00)

Total 15

(100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

15 (100.00)

75 (100.00) Source: Primary data.

Note: Figures in brackets represent percentage to total.

It is clearly evident from Table 5 that in total, out of 75 hotels, maximum of 21 (28.00 per cent) of the hotels have wastage between 20-30 kgs per day followed by 20 (26.67 per cent) of the hotels that have wastage between 40-50 kgs, 19 (25.33 per cent) have wastage between 30-40 kgs and 15(20.00 per cent) have wastage between 50 and above kgs respectively.

In the case of East Zone, out of 15 hotels, the maximum of 5 (33.33 per cent) of hotels have wastage between 20-30 kgs followed by 4(26.67 per cent), 3(20.00 per cent) and 3 (20.00 per cent) of the hotels that have wastage between 40-50 kgs, 30-40 kgs and 50 and above kgs respectively. Out of 15 hotels in West Zone, the maximum of 5 (33.33 per cent) of the hotels have 20-30 kgs of wastages followed by 4 (26.67 per cent) each of the hotels that have 30-40 kgs and 40-50 kgs of wastages and 2(13.33 per cent) of the hotels have 50 and above kgs of wastages.

In the case of North Zone, out of 15 hotels, the maximum of 5 (33.33 per cent) of the hotels have wastage between 30-40 kgs followed by 4 (27.67 per cent), 3(20.00 per cent ) and 3 (20.00 per cent ) of the hotels that have 20-30 kgs, 40-50 kgs and 50 and above kgs of wastages respectively. Further it also shows that, in the case of South Zone out of 15 hotels, the maximum of 5(33.33 per cent) of the hotels have 30-40 kgs of wastages followed by 4(26.67 per cent) that have 20-30 kgs. 3 (20.00 per cent) each of the hotels that have 40-50 kgs and 50 and above kgs. of wastages. In the case of Central Zone out of 15 hotels, the maximum of 5(33.33 per cent) of the hotels have 40-50 kgs of wastages followed by 4(26.67 per cent) each of the hotels have 20-30 kgs. and 50 kgs. and above and 2 (13.33 per cent) of the hotels that have 30-40 kgs of wastages.

2. FACTORS WHICH IN INFLUENCE THE QUANTUM OF SOLID WASTE GENERATED BY THE HOTELS

In this section, an attempt has been made to analyse the factor which influences the quantum of solid waste generated by the hotels in Coimbatore city. For this a multiple log linear regression model of the following form has been used

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Where

Y = Quantum of solid waste generated per day (in kgs) X1 = Number of tables in the hotels

X2 = Number of customers per day X3 = Number of employees U = Disturbance term

βo , β1 , β2 , and β3 are the parameters to be estimated.

The above model was estimated by the method of least squares. The computed results are given in Table 6.

TABLE 6

ESTIMATED REGRESSION RESULTS FOR HOTELS

Variables

Parameter Estimates

East Zone West Zone

North Zone

South Zone

Central

Zone Total

Intercept (β0) 1.0172 0.9847 1.2147 1.0672 0.9214 1.2067

Log X1 (β1) 0.0472 (0.9701)

0.0097 (0.0043)

0.1071 (0.0782)

0.0792 (0.0471)

0.0107 (0.1078)

0.1079 (0.1047) Log X2 (β2) 0.3817*

(3.0721)

0.3363* (2.9314)

0.2972* (2.0671)

0.3015* (2.6671)

0.3297* (4.1067)

0.2301* (3.1667) Log X3 (β3) 0.0761

(1.0172)

0.1210* (3.9847)

0.0942 (0.0611)

0.1014 (0.0712)

0.2094* (3.2061)

0.2101 (30.071)

R2 0.5831 0.6510 0.5747 0.5517 0.6547 0.5917

F - value 18.71 27.12 30.16 24.31 32.21 28.13

Number of

observations 15 15 15 15 15 75

* Indicates that the co-efficient is statistically significant at 5 per cent level. Figures in brackets represent t-value.

It is inferred from Table 6 that the independent variables included in the model for all five zones in Coimbatore city have accounted for more than 50 per cent variation in the quantum of solid waste generated by the sample hotels. In East Zone, the co-efficient of multiple determinations R2 indicates 58.31 per cent variations in quantity of solid waste generated by the hotels. Among the independent variables, the variable namely the number of customers per day was statistically significant at 5 per cent level. It means that with one per cent increase in this variable, solid waste could be generated by 0.3817 per cent. The other variables namely number of tables and number of employees were found to be insignificant. In the case of West Zone, all the independent variables included in the regression model jointly accounted for 65.10 per cent variation in the quantum of solid waste generated. Among the variables, the variable namely the number of customers per day and number of employees were found to be statistically significant. It indicates that an addition of one percentage to this variable could affect 0.3363 and 0.1210 per cent increase in quantum of solid waste generation.

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statistically significant at 5 per cent level. All the variables included in the model jointly accounted for 55.17 per cent variation in solid waste generation. In the case of Central Zone, among the variables included in the regression model, the number of customers per day and number of employees were statistically significant at 5 per cent level. All the variables included in the model jointly accounted for 65.47 per cent variation in solid waste generation. The F-test tests in all the five zones indicated that the model fitted was statistically significant at 5 per cent level.

Patten of Solid Waste Disposable among the Selected Hotels

The waste generated by the sample hotels under study from each zone has to be dumped and disposed of at a particular place by the corporation vehicles. All the sample hotels have collected and stored the waste generated in their premises in two separate bins / containers and dump them into the two separate dumpers in the street into the collection vehicles as per the collection schedule.

The hotel wastes were yet another important source of waste generation in the study area and are shown in Table 7.

TABLE 7

COMPONENTS OF HOTEL WASTES

(Wastes/ grams/ day) Components of

Hotel Wastes

East Zone

West Zone

North Zone

South Zone

Central

Zone Total

Waste papers 8900 9508 8683 9725 9204 46020

Cotton wastes 5886 6494 5669 6711 6190 30950

Shopping wastes 7466 8074 7249 8291 6770 37850

Other types of

wastes 8246 10854 7029 8071 9550 43750

Total of hotel

wastes 30498 34930 28630 32798 31714 158570

Source: Computed from field survey

The hotel wastes included waste papers, cotton wastes, shopping wastes and, the other types of wastes. The other types of wastes included the wastes collected from stores, hotels, repair workshops and such other places. The waste papers had contributed the largest quantity of the hotel wastes which constitute 46020 gms. per day followed by other types of waste, shopping wastes and cotton wastes had accounted 43750 gms. per day, 37850 gms. per day and 30950 gms. per day respectively.

Two-Way Analysis of Variance

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TABLE 8

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HOTEL WASTE GENERATION AMONG THE TYPE OF HOTEL WASTES AND THE SELECTED FIVE ZONES

IN COIMBATORE CORPORATION

Source of Variation Sum of

Squares DF Mean Square F-Value

Signifi-cance of F

Type of Wastes 27263335 3 9087778.333 17.878* 0.000

Zones 5626856 4 1406714.000 2.767 0.077

Interaction

Type of Wastes Vs. Zones 32890191 7 4698598.714 9.243* 0.001

Residual 6100000 12 508333.333

Total 38990191 19 2052115.316

* Significant at 5 per cent level.

It is observed from Table 8 that F-values indicate that the type of wastes alone has significant role in explaining the variation in hotel waste generation in Coimbatore Municipal Corporation because the respective F-values are statistically significant at 5 per cent level. Moreover there is also interaction between type of hotel wastes and zones in causing variation in hotel waste generation in Coimbatore Municipal Corporation.

Conclusion

Figure

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References

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