Environmental Impact Assessment for Highway Projects

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Date: - 12/03/2010 Date: - 12/03/2010

Health, Safety & Environment Management

Health, Safety & Environment Management

Assignment on

Assignment on

Environmental Impact Assessment for Highway

Environmental Impact Assessment for Highway

Projects

Projects

Submitted To Submitted To :-Prof. A.K.Garg Prof. A.K.Garg Submitted Submitted By:-Mr.

Mr. Ashish Ashish Salvi Salvi (P51018)(P51018) Miss.

Miss. Rashmi Rashmi Priya Priya (P51051(P51051)) Miss.

Miss. Samta Samta Mishra Mishra (P51054)(P51054) Mr.

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Environmental Impact Assessment for Highway P

Environmental Impact Assessment for Highway Projects

rojects

Introduction Introduction

Like people, most organizations are heavily dependant on roads to distribute Like people, most organizations are heavily dependant on roads to distribute their goods & to carry their executives & sales people. Yet, though once seen as the their goods & to carry their executives & sales people. Yet, though once seen as the engine of progress, roads are facing increasing criticism around the world. A

engine of progress, roads are facing increasing criticism around the world. A highwayhighway is a main road for travel by the public between important destinations, such as cities, is a main road for travel by the public between important destinations, such as cities, large towns, and states. Highway designs vary widely and can range from a two-lane large towns, and states. Highway designs vary widely and can range from a two-lane road without margins to a multi-lane, grade-separated expressway, freeway, or road without margins to a multi-lane, grade-separated expressway, freeway, or motorway.

motorway.

Impact due to construction of highways include the noise and dust from Impact due to construction of highways include the noise and dust from construction, the use of non-renewable aggregates, the loss of natural habitats and construction, the use of non-renewable aggregates, the loss of natural habitats and green space and increase in traffic (with all its impacts). The best practice is to green space and increase in traffic (with all its impacts). The best practice is to undertake an environmental impact assessment (EIA) before the road is

undertake an environmental impact assessment (EIA) before the road is designed.designed. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is defined as “

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is defined as “the process of the process of 

examining the environmental effects of the d

examining the environmental effects of the development – from consideration of theevelopment – from consideration of the

environmental aspects at design stage, through to the preparation of an

environmental aspects at design stage, through to the preparation of an

Environmental Impact Statement, evalu

Environmental Impact Statement, evaluation of the ation of the EIS by a competent authority andEIS by a competent authority and

the subsequent decision as to whether the development should be permitted to

the subsequent decision as to whether the development should be permitted to

proceed, also encompassing public response to

proceed, also encompassing public response to that decision”.that decision”.

The EIA methodology promotes a practical and dynamic process of 

The EIA methodology promotes a practical and dynamic process of 

environmental protection that allows significant adverse impacts to be avoided or

environmental protection that allows significant adverse impacts to be avoided or

mitigated throughout the entire planning and design process. Road planning and

mitigated throughout the entire planning and design process. Road planning and

design is an iterative process

design is an iterative process where planning and design evolve in response towhere planning and design evolve in response to

environmental and other considerations. This ensures that environmental

environmental and other considerations. This ensures that environmental

considerations become an integral part of the overall route corridor selection and

considerations become an integral part of the overall route corridor selection and

road scheme planning and design

road scheme planning and design process.process.

Anticipated Impacts Due To Highway Construction Project Anticipated Impacts Due To Highway Construction Project

Encroac

Encroachment on hment on precious ecology :precious ecology :

The proposed routing of the highway encroaches upon precious ecological The proposed routing of the highway encroaches upon precious ecological resources, including forests and swamps. This also disturbs the natural habitats of a resources, including forests and swamps. This also disturbs the natural habitats of a lot of creatures and animals leaving on t

lot of creatures and animals leaving on t he encroach land. The ecological disturbancehe encroach land. The ecological disturbance is likely to occur.

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The construction activities will drive some wildlife away from their habitats, The construction activities will drive some wildlife away from their habitats, particularly migratory birds. The construction period will last for quite a long time particularly migratory birds. The construction period will last for quite a long time (3–4 years) and many migratory birds within about 500 m of the proposed (3–4 years) and many migratory birds within about 500 m of the proposed expressway will leave their currently roosting and feeding places and move away. expressway will leave their currently roosting and feeding places and move away.

During road construction, the vegetation on the acquired land will be During road construction, the vegetation on the acquired land will be destroyed, and the local ecosystem is changed. In addition, the destruction and destroyed, and the local ecosystem is changed. In addition, the destruction and fragmentation effect of the road construction may diminish the habitats for some of  fragmentation effect of the road construction may diminish the habitats for some of  the animal species, so that there may not be enough roosting places any more for the animal species, so that there may not be enough roosting places any more for them to survive.

them to survive.

During operation, the traffic noise, traffic lights at night and vehicle emissions During operation, the traffic noise, traffic lights at night and vehicle emissions may cause some adverse impacts on the w

may cause some adverse impacts on the wildlife around the road.ildlife around the road.

Adverse impact on historical/cultural monuments : Adverse impact on historical/cultural monuments :

The nearby structures to highway projects are adversely affected due to the The nearby structures to highway projects are adversely affected due to the pollution and environmental disturbances created by the project. During the pollution and environmental disturbances created by the project. During the construction phase, huge amount of CO

construction phase, huge amount of CO22 (Carbon Dioxide) and CO (Carbon(Carbon Dioxide) and CO (Carbon

Monoxide) gases are released into the atmosphere. The gas p

Monoxide) gases are released into the atmosphere. The gas p oses a threat to ancientoses a threat to ancient monuments as they are made up of lime which reacts with these gases in presence monuments as they are made up of lime which reacts with these gases in presence of water/moisture. The most prominent example of

of water/moisture. The most prominent example of this is Taj-Mahal.this is Taj-Mahal.

Impairment of fisheries/ aquatic ecology and other beneficial water uses : Impairment of fisheries/ aquatic ecology and other beneficial water uses :

The water bodies like lake, pond or river which are close to the highway site The water bodies like lake, pond or river which are close to the highway site get affected by the construction activity. The workers and staff living near to the site get affected by the construction activity. The workers and staff living near to the site uses the water from these water bodies and in turn pollute them causing harm to uses the water from these water bodies and in turn pollute them causing harm to aquatic ecology. The rain water may wash away the chemicals and other hazardous aquatic ecology. The rain water may wash away the chemicals and other hazardous product to the water body affecting the oxygen content of it. This will lead to product to the water body affecting the oxygen content of it. This will lead to impairment of fisheries.

impairment of fisheries.

Water quality : Water quality :

The Project will involve the construction of small and large bridges, which will The Project will involve the construction of small and large bridges, which will be built with hollow piers and deep foundations with bored piles. The pile drilling be built with hollow piers and deep foundations with bored piles. The pile drilling operation will generate a great amount of spoil

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Major sources of potential water pollution were identified as Major sources of potential water pollution were identified as (i)

(i) Increased soil erosion during construction, which may cause water Increased soil erosion during construction, which may cause water pollution withpollution with sedimentation

sedimentation (ii)

(ii) Wastewater pollution caused by large construction sites, in particular bridgeWastewater pollution caused by large construction sites, in particular bridge construction

construction (iii)

(iii) Potential pollution associated with the construction of bridge foundations withPotential pollution associated with the construction of bridge foundations with bored piles

bored piles (iv)

(iv) Pollution caused by surface runoff and service area wastewater.Pollution caused by surface runoff and service area wastewater.

Water quality impacts due to

Water quality impacts due to construction sites :construction sites :

Wastewater and hazardous materials (fuel, oil, acids, caustics, etc.) may drain Wastewater and hazardous materials (fuel, oil, acids, caustics, etc.) may drain into streams and drainage areas, causing pollution to surface water or groundwater. into streams and drainage areas, causing pollution to surface water or groundwater. This is particularly true for large construction sites, construction campsites, and This is particularly true for large construction sites, construction campsites, and staging areas where workers, construction equipment, and building materials are staging areas where workers, construction equipment, and building materials are most concentrated.

most concentrated. a)

a) Expressway Runoff :Expressway Runoff :

Rainwater washes out atmospheric pollutants, picks up roadway Rainwater washes out atmospheric pollutants, picks up roadway deposits, and runs off into rivers. The impact of the initial runoff pollutants on deposits, and runs off into rivers. The impact of the initial runoff pollutants on the water quality

the water quality b)

b) Wastewater Effluent from the Service AWastewater Effluent from the Service Area :rea :

There will be fuelling and service stations as well as offices, hotels, and There will be fuelling and service stations as well as offices, hotels, and restaurants for the passengers in the service area. Sanitary wastewater restaurants for the passengers in the service area. Sanitary wastewater effluent from these facilities as well as

effluent from these facilities as well as wastewater generated by car washing,wastewater generated by car washing, maintenance, and repair operations will be

maintenance, and repair operations will be generated.generated.

Erosion and Siltation : Erosion and Siltation :

The wearing away, detachment and transportation of soil from one place to The wearing away, detachment and transportation of soil from one place to another place and its deposition by moving water, blowing wind or other causes is another place and its deposition by moving water, blowing wind or other causes is called soil erosion. Large numbers of trees and plantation has to be removed for called soil erosion. Large numbers of trees and plantation has to be removed for construction of highway. This leads to loosing of the soil, soil disturbance, and construction of highway. This leads to loosing of the soil, soil disturbance, and exposure of bare soil surface. This causes problem of soil erosion and siltation during exposure of bare soil surface. This causes problem of soil erosion and siltation during rain or heavy wind. The most severe problems will be associated with embankment rain or heavy wind. The most severe problems will be associated with embankment

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construction in the plain area, road sections with heavy cuts and fills, borrow and construction in the plain area, road sections with heavy cuts and fills, borrow and spoil sites, as well as bridge and culvert construction sites, particularly on rainy days. spoil sites, as well as bridge and culvert construction sites, particularly on rainy days.

Environmental aesthetics : Environmental aesthetics :

Roads project involves cutting of trees, soil filling and cutting operation. This Roads project involves cutting of trees, soil filling and cutting operation. This disturbs the natural aesthetic of the environment (scenic value). Some expressway disturbs the natural aesthetic of the environment (scenic value). Some expressway components like large bridges and

components like large bridges and interchanges will create visual impacts and interchanges will create visual impacts and detractdetract from the natural beauty of the area. The lack of resurfacing/ replanting of exposed from the natural beauty of the area. The lack of resurfacing/ replanting of exposed areas are also the leading factor to aesthetic reduction.

areas are also the leading factor to aesthetic reduction.

Noise and Vibration : Noise and Vibration :

During the construction stage massive equipments like excavators, power During the construction stage massive equipments like excavators, power shovels, dumpers, compacters, loader etc are used. This causes considerable shovels, dumpers, compacters, loader etc are used. This causes considerable vibrations in nearby areas. They also produce high noise levels. This all disturbs the vibrations in nearby areas. They also produce high noise levels. This all disturbs the natural surroundings and creates unfavourable conditions for the living creatures. natural surroundings and creates unfavourable conditions for the living creatures. The vibrations may affect the structures nearby.

The vibrations may affect the structures nearby.

Air pollution hazards : Air pollution hazards :

The project results in discharge of air pollutants from machines and motor The project results in discharge of air pollutants from machines and motor vehicles, especially carbon monoxide, which under adverse conditions could cause vehicles, especially carbon monoxide, which under adverse conditions could cause severe air pollution hazards to

severe air pollution hazards to nearby area and communities.nearby area and communities. a.

a. Air Quality Impacts during Operation :Air Quality Impacts during Operation :

If project area is a non-attainment area for TSP and CO, with their If project area is a non-attainment area for TSP and CO, with their background concentrations well exceeding the applicable air quality background concentrations well exceeding the applicable air quality standards. The vehicle emissions and fugitive dust emissions from the standards. The vehicle emissions and fugitive dust emissions from the expressway will add to the problem.

expressway will add to the problem. b.

b. Air Quality Air Quality Impacts during Construction :Impacts during Construction :

Construction activities particularly earthworks; increas

Construction activities particularly earthworks; increased traffic ed traffic and theand the use of cement, asphalt, and other building materials will produce use of cement, asphalt, and other building materials will produce excessive airborne dust and toxic asphalt fumes, causing a major impact excessive airborne dust and toxic asphalt fumes, causing a major impact on air quality within the project area. It was observed that the TSP on air quality within the project area. It was observed that the TSP concentration at a distance 50 m to the leeward of a concrete mixing concentration at a distance 50 m to the leeward of a concrete mixing plant can be 1.368 mg/Nm3, & 0.619 mg/Nm3 at 100 m.

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Highway run-off pollution : Highway run-off pollution :

Surface runoff from highways may contain sufficient petroleum drippage plus Surface runoff from highways may contain sufficient petroleum drippage plus spilled material (including toxic and hazardous materials) which can adversely affect spilled material (including toxic and hazardous materials) which can adversely affect aquatic ecology and e

aquatic ecology and e nvironmental aesthetics.nvironmental aesthetics.

Affect on Natural resources : Affect on Natural resources :

The Project will disrupt some existing irrigation systems, particularly in the The Project will disrupt some existing irrigation systems, particularly in the plain areas where the road will be constructed on filled-up embankment. This plain areas where the road will be constructed on filled-up embankment. This fragmentation will also affect the existing flood-relief channels and natural drainage fragmentation will also affect the existing flood-relief channels and natural drainage of the area.

of the area.

Land Acquisition : Land Acquisition :

 The loss in agricultural products due to farm land The loss in agricultural products due to farm land decreasedecrease 

 Another extra land is needed during the construction period for temporaryAnother extra land is needed during the construction period for temporary

use (construction camp sites, staging areas, access roads, borrow and spoil sites, etc.) use (construction camp sites, staging areas, access roads, borrow and spoil sites, etc.)

 Some buildings will be demolished and wire poles will be removed, and oneSome buildings will be demolished and wire poles will be removed, and one

small enterprise may be

small enterprise may be moved.moved.

Preparation Of Environmental Examination Report Preparation Of Environmental Examination Report

Following checklist is used to analyze severity of project on different Following checklist is used to analyze severity of project on different environmental parameters like ecological disturbance, aquatic ecology etc. The

environmental parameters like ecological disturbance, aquatic ecology etc. The effecteffect on environment is rated according to severity of impact i.e. small, moderate, major. on environment is rated according to severity of impact i.e. small, moderate, major. Based on the prepared checklist, Environment examination report is prepared to Based on the prepared checklist, Environment examination report is prepared to analyze the impact on

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Checklist for Environmental Parameters for Highway Projects Checklist for Environmental Parameters for Highway Projects Actions affecting Actions affecting environmental environmental resources and resources and values values Damage to Damage to Environment Environment Recommended Recommended feasible feasible Protection Protection Measures Measures No No significant significant effect effect Significant effect Significant effect

Small Moderate Major Small Moderate Major

Encroachment on Encroachment on precious ecology precious ecology Loss to precious Loss to precious ecology ecology Careful planning Careful planning to minimize and to minimize and offset losses offset losses Encroachment on Encroachment on historical/cultural/ historical/cultural/ monument/areas monument/areas Loss of these Loss of these values values Careful planning Careful planning to minimize and to minimize and offset losses offset losses Impairment of  Impairment of  fisheries/aquatic fisheries/aquatic ecology and of  ecology and of  other beneficial other beneficial uses uses Impairment of  Impairment of  downstream downstream beneficial water beneficial water uses uses Careful planning Careful planning to minimize and to minimize and offset losses offset losses Erosion and Erosion and Siltation Siltation Excessive soil Excessive soil erosion and erosion and impairment of  impairment of  downstream downstream water quality water quality Careful Careful resurfacing or resurfacing or replanting of  replanting of  exposed area exposed area Environmental Environmental aesthetics aesthetics Loss of scenic Loss of scenic values values Careful planning Careful planning to minimize and to minimize and offset losses offset losses Noise and Noise and vibrations vibrations Nuisances to Nuisances to travellers and travellers and neighbours neighbours Careful planning Careful planning to minimize and to minimize and offset losses offset losses Air pollution Air pollution hazards hazards Nuisances to Nuisances to travellers and travellers and workers workers Control of motor Control of motor vehicle emission vehicle emission Highway runoff  Highway runoff  pollution

pollution Loss of ecologyLoss of ecology

Careful planning Careful planning to minimize and to minimize and offset losses offset losses Highway spills of 

Highway spills of  hazardous hazardous material material Serious Serious health/safety health/safety hazards to hazards to travellers and travellers and neighbours neighbours Careful planning Careful planning and O&M and and O&M and competent competent emergency emergency cleanup cleanup

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Conclusion/Remedies Conclusion/Remedies

The environmental impact caused due to road project can be reduced by adopting The environmental impact caused due to road project can be reduced by adopting following measures:

following measures: I.

I. Removing only the necessary vegetation; applying for permits to cut downRemoving only the necessary vegetation; applying for permits to cut down trees. Revegetation of green areas.

trees. Revegetation of green areas. II.

II. Make up embankments. Disposal of surplus earth. Disposal of waste (Plan forMake up embankments. Disposal of surplus earth. Disposal of waste (Plan for processing solid and liquid waste)

processing solid and liquid waste) III.

III. Performing of the cultural heritage protection plan. Covering or dampeningPerforming of the cultural heritage protection plan. Covering or dampening uncovered soils.

uncovered soils. IV.

IV. Green areas, ornate. Maintenance. Soil protection. Water protection.Green areas, ornate. Maintenance. Soil protection. Water protection. V.

V. Wastewater effluents from the service area will be treated by a chemical andWastewater effluents from the service area will be treated by a chemical and biological treatment system in accordance with applicable standards before biological treatment system in accordance with applicable standards before discharge into the nearby irrigation system.

discharge into the nearby irrigation system. VI.

VI. To minimize the visual impacts, the following To minimize the visual impacts, the following measures will be taken:measures will be taken: a.

a. Minimize cut and fill slopes where possible and, in particular, avoidMinimize cut and fill slopes where possible and, in particular, avoid steep cut slopes;

steep cut slopes; b.

b. Implement site-specific landscaping and re-vegetation on both sides of Implement site-specific landscaping and re-vegetation on both sides of  the road, all cut slopes, and disturbed land, making the expressway a the road, all cut slopes, and disturbed land, making the expressway a beautiful green corridor; and

beautiful green corridor; and c.

c. Design bridges, interchanges, and do their infrastructure in such a wayDesign bridges, interchanges, and do their infrastructure in such a way as to achieve consistency with the surrounding natural landscape, local as to achieve consistency with the surrounding natural landscape, local buildings, and facilities in terms of form, colour, and texture.

buildings, and facilities in terms of form, colour, and texture. VII.

VII. To minimize the nighttime noise impacts, noise suppressors will be used onTo minimize the nighttime noise impacts, noise suppressors will be used on construction equipment where feasible. High noise machinery will not be construction equipment where feasible. High noise machinery will not be allowed to operate in the proximity of a school when classes are in session, allowed to operate in the proximity of a school when classes are in session, and also from 22:00 to

and also from 22:00 to 6:00 hrs when there are residential areas nearby6:00 hrs when there are residential areas nearby VIII.

VIII. establish greenbelt between the road and the villages and school to reduceestablish greenbelt between the road and the villages and school to reduce noise level and air pollution during operation

noise level and air pollution during operation IX.

IX. To minimize the dust impact, construction fields and major access roads andTo minimize the dust impact, construction fields and major access roads and haul roads will be watered on a set schedule, particularly in the dry season. haul roads will be watered on a set schedule, particularly in the dry season. Construction materials storage and concrete mixing plants will be sited more Construction materials storage and concrete mixing plants will be sited more than 100 m away, and asphalt mixing plants 300 m away in a downwind than 100 m away, and asphalt mixing plants 300 m away in a downwind direction from residences and schools. All the mixing equipment will be direction from residences and schools. All the mixing equipment will be closed systems with dust

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