Lithography Part I September, 5 th 2013

31 

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7. Auswärtsseminar

der Arbeitsgruppe Optische Technologien

Leupold-Institut für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften (LIAN)

der Westsächsischen Hochschule Zwickau

Lithography

Part I

September, 5

th

2013

(2)

Table of contents

Overview Infineon and IFD

Short brief in semiconductor manufacturing

Microlithography (at IFD)

(3)

Table of contents

Page 3 September 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

Overview Infineon and Infineon Dresden

Sites

Products & customers

Production & technology

Short brief in semiconductor manufacturing

Microlithography (at IFD)

(4)

Innovative products: We offer

customer-oriented solutions in four business areas

Power

Management

&

Multimarket

Chip Card

&

Security

Automotive

Engine and drive controls (hybrid, eMobility)

Safety management, for instance airbag control unit

Error-tolerant data transmission within the vehicle

Decentralized electronic control of whole units

Integrated sensors for reaction control

Passenger and operating comfort, infotainment

Identification: electronic passports and identity cards, health cards

Entertainment: Pay TV, games, video, audio

Payment systems: credit/debit cards, ePurse, electronic tickets

Communication: SIM cards, prepaid cards

Small, low-consumption, high-performance audio amplifiers

Driver units for the latest lighting components (LED)

Ambient light sensors

Authentication with parts management

Wireless bi-directional data transmission

Power control and battery management with portable devices

Industrial

Power

Control

Leading edge power products:

Components for electrical motors

Components for switching high currents

Components for renewable energy: solar and wind power plants

Power controlled electronics (electric motors, household appliances)

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Infineon – Worldwide Production Sites

Frontend and Backend

Villach

Regensburg

Singapore

Batam

Wuxi

Dresden

Kulim

Cegléd

Warstein

Malacca

Morgan Hill

Infineon Dresden is a key production site of Infineon.

Frontend

Backend

Page 5

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Overview IFD

200 mm fab 300 mm

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Infineon Dresden

High-automation 200 mm fab

with most modern copper tools

First 300 mm fab worldwide

for high volume production of

power semiconductors

Since 2009: Investment of more

than 200 million EUR in

modern copper technology tools

High level of automation:

currently ~60% automated lot

handling; mid term goal ~80%

Since 9 years Infineon has been

market leader for power

semiconductors

July 2011: Decision to set up a

high volume production for power

semiconductors on 300 mm wafers

in Dresden

Spring 2013: Successful customer

qualification

Ready to ramp according to

market demand

Page 7 September 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

(8)

Table of contents

Overview Infineon and Infineon Dresden

Short brief in semiconductor manufacturing

Microlithography (at IFD)

(9)

Mask

Layout data

E-Beam writing

Si - Wafer

Poly crystal Silicon

Single crystal Silicon

Wafer dicing, grinding

Wafer surface treatment

reticle

Si - Wafer,

( maybe with EPI layer)

Front-End

Oxydation

Deposition (CVD/PVD)

Photolithography

Wet etch, wet clean

Plasma etch

Implantation

Diffusion

Chemical - mechanical

polishing (CMP)

Measurements, inspections

Wafer test

Wafer

Back-End

Back side grinding

Dicing

Chip bonding

Wire bonding

Housing

Burn in

End test

Gesamtprozess Chipherstellung

Short brief in semiconductor manufacturing

Page 9 September 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

(10)

Exposure

Development

Resist coating

Si

SiO

2

Fotoresist

Si

SiO

2

Si

SiO

2

Fotoresist

Si

Si

Etch

Si

SiO

2

Si

Ionenimplantation

Si

SiO

2

Bare wafer

Oxidation, deposition

Photolithography

Resist strip

Cycle repeat up to 50 x

Short brief in semiconductor manufacturing

Page 10 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

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Table of contents

Page 11 Company Presentation 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

Overview Infineon and Infineon Dresden

Short brief in Semiconductor Manufacturing

Microlithography (at IFD)

(12)

Microlithography

Steps in lithography

Adhesion

promotion

Resist coating

(spin on)

Softbake

Alignment and

exposure

Post exposure

bake

Development

Hardbake

Measurement

and inspection

Add. UV harden

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Microlithography

Resist thicknesses

Approx. 100 nm BARC (bottom anti reflective coating)

From approx. 200 nm (DUV) to 12 µm (i-line)

Wafer egde exclusion

Solvent rinse

Exposure

Page 13 September 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

(14)

Microlithography

Spin coating process: impacts of friction force, centrifugal force

and wetting

For example at 200mm wafer for mean resist thickness 400 nm

Variation < 1 nm

1/

(15)

Microlithography

Page 15 September 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

exposure

negative

tone

positive

tone

latente

image

development

resist structure

mask

photoresist

wafer

(16)

Microlithography

(17)

Microlithography

Exposure light sources

Hg high pressure lamp

¬

λ=365nm

¬

Resolution down to 300nm

Excimer Laser KrNeF

¬

λ=248nm

¬

Resolution down to 130nm

Excimer Laser ArNeF

¬

λ=193nm

¬

Resolution down to 65nm

Page 17 September 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

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Microlithography

Exposure

(19)

Microlithography

Exposure

Page 19 September 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

(20)

Microlithography

Exposure

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Page 21 September 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

Microlithography

Overlay =

not correctable residuals

(printed aberations)

+ misalignment

8 parameters:

¬

Translation x and y

¬

Grid magnification x and y

¬

Grid rotation x and y

¬

Field magnification

(22)

Microlithography

Additional UV harden almost for i-line resists

For secondary cross linking

To avoid this

for example

(23)

Microlithography at IFD

Page 23 September 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

Chemistry

¬

365nm resists, IMIDEs

¬

248nm resists, ARCs

¬

193nm resists, ARCs0

¬

Developer (TMAH), solvents, HMDS

(24)

Exposure tools

Wavelength:

Typ

NA

Throughput

365nm Stepper

i4

0,6

44W/h

i5

0,63

56W/h

i5+

0,63

56W/h

i5++

0,63

56W/h

iZ

0,57

100W/h (300mm)

248nm Stepper

EX4

0,60

65W/h

EX5

0,63

87W/h

EX6

0,63

87W/h

248nm Scanner

ES2

0,68

87W/h

ES2+

0,68

115W/h

ES3

0,73

126W/h

193nm Scanner

ASML

0,85

100W/h

AS3

0,75

120W/h

AS4

0,85

126W/h

Microlithography at IFD

Page 24 September 2013

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Microlithography at IFD

Amount of lithographyc masks (reticles)

amount

Released (in Process)

7.000

Archived

10.000

Scrapped

10.000

Engineering

2.000

Page 25 September 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

(26)

Table of contents

Overview Infineon and Infineon Dresden

Short brief in Semiconductor Manufacturing

Microlithography (at IFD)

(27)

Challenges, example 1

VIA CD depends on ILD deposition

Page 27 September 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

ETC015-07-A

286,6

286,812

40

ETC015-07-B

278,5

278,958

40

ETC015-07-C

270,9

270,893

45

tool

Median

Mean

Count

260

265

270

275

280

285

290

295

B

O

T

C

D

B

O

T

C

D

[

n

m

]

(28)

Challenges, example 1

VIA CD depends on ILD deposition

1,457

1,4591,461,461

1,463

1,465

1,467

1,4691,471,471

1,473

n

2,7

2,75

2,8

2,85

2,9

2,95

3

3,05

3,1

3,15

C

D

/

D

o

s

is

Gradient CD / dose = f(n)

B

O

T

C

D

/

d

o

s

e

[

n

m

/J

]

(29)

Challenges, example 2

OVL depends on ILD deposition chamber

¬

Contrast of alignment mark is a function of ILD thickness

Page 29 September 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

746 750 754 758 762 766 770 774 778 782 786 790 Dicke 0,08 0,09 0,1 0,11 0,12 0,13 0,14 0,15 0,16 0,17 0,18 0,19 0,2 0,21 0,22 0,23 0,24 0,25 0,26 0,27 0,28 X c o n tra s t

(30)

Challenges, example 3

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Thanks for your attention

Many thanks and references to

¬

Alexandra Esser

¬

Cornelia Schumann

¬

Andreas Greiner

¬

Thomas Seedorf

¬

Thomas Zell

¬

Silvio Fritsche

¬

Frank Rabe

Page 31 September 2013 Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2013. All rights reserved.

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