Accreditation of Initial Teacher Education Programs in Australia

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Accreditation of Initial Teacher

Education Programs in Australia

Standard 3: Program Entrants

Year 12 Study Score Results as

proxy indicators of personal literacy

and numeracy

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This study was a collaboration of the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and six members of the Australasian Curriculum, Assessment and Certification Authorities (ACACA) – the body for CEOs of assessment agencies.

This project was funded by the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership. The Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership was formed to provide national leadership for the Commonwealth, state and territory governments in promoting excellence in the profession of teaching and school leadership with funding provided by the Australian Government.

July 2013

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Australian Capital Territory

The Accreditation of Initial Teacher Education Programs in Australia: Standards and

Procedures requires that “all entrants to initial teacher education will successfully

demonstrate their capacity to engage effectively with a rigorous higher education program and to carry out the intellectual demands of teaching itself. To achieve this, it is expected that applicants’ levels of personal literacy and numeracy should be broadly equivalent to those of the top 30 per cent of the population”. Analysis of some Australian Capital Territory subjects included in a study1 has shown how these and other results in senior

secondary subjects can be used as proxy indicators of levels of personal literacy or numeracy. This means that students’ results in this initial, preliminary, list can be used to guide judgments about the risk that, on entry, an applicant to a teacher training course may not have levels of personal literacy and numeracy broadly equivalent to the top thirty per cent of the population. In this study, these levels of personal literacy and numeracy have been approximately defined by level 4 in the Australian Core Skills Framework (ACSF).

The table below lists the eight senior secondary subjects in Australian Capital Territory used on this occasion and, for each subject, a grade (one of five possible grades: E, D, C, B and A, where A is the highest).

The grade in the table is the result at which it is highly likely2 that the work of a student in

this subject with that result would be seen by a reasonable person as sufficient evidence that the student has the skills required by Australian Core Skills Framework level 4 in the listed domain (literacy or numeracy), the level broadly equivalent to the top 30 per cent of the population.

Subject Domain Indicative result

English literacy B

History literacy B

Geography literacy B

Physics numeracy B

Mathematical Applications numeracy A

Chemistry numeracy B

Mathematical Methods numeracy B

Table 1: Australian Capital Territory – subjects in first phase study, grade indicating likely personal levels of literacy or numeracy at ACSF4

1A collaboration of the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and six members of the

Australasian Curriculum, Assessment and Certification Authorities (ACACA) – the body for CEOs of assessment agencies.

2Four times more likely than not, for someone who has only just met the requirements for this grade. For someone

with a higher result, even more likely. For someone with a lower grade, less likely, though for results just below this grade it is still very likely. This level has been chosen so that the ratio of false negatives to false positives is about four to one: we are giving the wrong impression about four students who are really ok (but just below the grade listed) for everyone who might not be ok. This does not take into account measurement error – the uncertainty in any assessment process.

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A person who enters a teaching preparation course with a grade in one of these subjects • at or above the grade listed in the table is highly likely to have personal levels of

literacy or numeracy skills at least at ACSF level 4

• well below the grade in the table and no grade above the relevant threshold in any other subject in the final complete table is much more likely to need additional and specific support and help to ensure the development of appropriate literacy or numeracy skills before the end of the course.

It is not appropriate to use the results of this study to exclude individuals from initial teacher education. They may, however, be used as an indicator of the risk that a person may not have the capacity to engage effectively with the program and with the intellectual demands of teaching.

The grades in the table are results in specific senior secondary subjects. They represent achievement in these subjects and are not assessments of literacy or numeracy skills defined by ASCF level 4. It is therefore possible to have skills at or above this ACSF level and to have a low result in a subject because of a failure to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the content of the subject. A result in, for example, Physics is based on showing understanding of Physics, not on elements of the ACSF numeracy standards. A result in a study of English literature is based on showing understanding of literature, not on the elements of the ACSF literacy standards.

There are other senior secondary subjects in Australian Capital Territory that can clearly provide evidence of levels of personal literacy and numeracy. These have yet to be studied.

The results in the table do not compare achievement standards in corresponding subjects across jurisdictions.3

The fact that HA appears as the threshold result for one subject in another table and B appears as the threshold result for a similar subject in Australian Capital Territory does not tell us that the HA represents the same standard of knowledge and understanding of the subject as the B does.

3ACACA currently has a project examining processes for establishing and monitoring such comparability. This study

does not contribute meaningfully to that task.

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Queensland

The Accreditation of Initial Teacher Education Programs in Australia: Standards and

Procedures requires that “all entrants to initial teacher education will successfully

demonstrate their capacity to engage effectively with a rigorous higher education program and to carry out the intellectual demands of teaching itself. To achieve this, it is expected that applicants’ levels of personal literacy and numeracy should be broadly equivalent to those of the top 30 per cent of the population”. Analysis of some Queensland subjects included in a study4 has shown how these and other results in senior secondary subjects

can be used as proxy indicators of levels of personal literacy or numeracy. This means that students’ results in this initial, preliminary, list can be used to guide judgments about the risk that, on entry, an applicant to a teacher training course may not have levels of personal literacy and numeracy broadly equivalent to the top thirty per cent of the population. In this study, these levels of personal literacy and numeracy have been approximately defined by level 4 in the Australian Core Skills Framework (ACSF).

The table below lists the five senior secondary subjects in Queensland used on this occasion and, for each subject, a level of achievement (one of five possible levels of achievement: Very Limited Achievement (VLA), Limited Achievement (LA), Sound Achievement (SA), High Achievement (HA) and Very High Achievement (VHA), where VHA is the highest).

The level of achievement in the table is the result at which it is highly likely5 that the work of

a student in this subject with that result would be seen by a reasonable person as sufficient evidence that the student has the skills required by Australian Core Skills Framework level 4 in the listed domain (literacy or numeracy), the level broadly equivalent to the top 30 per cent of the population.

Subject Domain Indicative result

English literacy HA

Modern History literacy HA

Physics numeracy HA

Mathematics A numeracy HA

Mathematics B numeracy SA

Table 1: Queensland – subjects in first phase study, level of achievement indicating likely personal levels of literacy or numeracy at ACSF4

4 A collaboration of the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and six members of the

Australasian Curriculum, Assessment and Certification Authorities (ACACA) – the body for CEOs of assessment agencies.

5Four times more likely than not, for someone who has only just met the requirements for this level of achievement. For

someone with a higher result, even more likely. For someone with a lower level of achievement, less likely, though for results just below this level of achievement it is still very likely. This level has been chosen so that the ratio of false negatives to false positives is about four to one: we are giving the wrong impression about four students who are really ok (but just below the level of achievement listed) for everyone who might not be ok. This does not take into account measurement error – the uncertainty in any assessment process.

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A person who enters a teaching preparation course with a level of achievement in one of these subjects

• at or above the level of achievement listed in the table is highly likely to have personal levels of literacy or numeracy skills at least at ACSF level 4

• well below the level of achievement in the table and no level of achievement above the relevant threshold in any other subject in the final complete table is much more likely to need additional and specific support and help to ensure the development of appropriate literacy or numeracy skills before the end of the course.

The levels of achievement in the table are results in specific senior secondary subjects. They represent achievement in these subjects and are not assessments of literacy or numeracy skills defined by ASCF level 4. It is therefore possible to have skills at or above this ACSF level and to have a low result in a subject because of a failure to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the content of the subject. A result in, for example, Physics is based on showing understanding of Physics, not on elements of the ACSF numeracy standards. A result in a study of English literature is based on showing understanding of literature, not on the elements of the ACSF literacy standards. There are other senior secondary subjects in Queensland that can clearly provide evidence of levels of personal literacy and numeracy. These have yet to be studied. The results in the table do not compare achievement standards in corresponding subjects across jurisdictions.6

The fact that B appears as the threshold result for one subject in another table and HA appears as the threshold result for a similar subject in Queensland does not tell us that the B represents the same standard of knowledge and understanding of the subject as the HA does.

6ACACA currently has a project examining processes for establishing and monitoring such comparability. This study

does not contribute meaningfully to that task.

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South Australia

The Accreditation of Initial Teacher Education Programs in Australia: Standards and

Procedures requires that “all entrants to initial teacher education will successfully

demonstrate their capacity to engage effectively with a rigorous higher education program and to carry out the intellectual demands of teaching itself. To achieve this, it is expected that applicants’ levels of personal literacy and numeracy should be broadly equivalent to those of the top 30 per cent of the population”. Analysis of some South Australian subjects included in a study7 has shown how these and other results in senior secondary subjects

can be used as proxy indicators of levels of personal literacy or numeracy. This means that students’ results in this initial, preliminary, list can be used to guide judgments about the risk that, on entry, an applicant to a teacher training course may not have levels of personal literacy and numeracy broadly equivalent to the top thirty per cent of the population. In this study, these levels of personal literacy and numeracy have been approximately defined by level 4 in the Australian Core Skills Framework (ACSF).

The table below lists the six senior secondary subjects in South Australia used on this occasion and, for each subject, a grade level (one of fifteen possible grade levels: E-, E, E+, D-, D, D+, C-, C, C+, B-, B, B+, A-, A and A+, where A+ is the highest).

The grade level in the table is the result at which it is highly likely8 that the work of a

student in this subject with that result would be seen by a reasonable person as sufficient evidence that the student has the skills required by Australian Core Skills Framework level 4 in the listed domain (literacy or numeracy), the level broadly equivalent to the top 30 per cent of the population.

Subject Domain Indicative result

English Communications literacy B

Modern History literacy B+

English Studies literacy B

-Mathematical Applications numeracy B+

Mathematical Studies numeracy C+

Physics Stage 2 numeracy C+

Table 1: South Australia – subjects in first phase study, grade level indicating likely personal levels of literacy or numeracy at ACSF4

7 A collaboration of the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and six members of the

Australasian Curriculum, Assessment and Certification Authorities (ACACA) – the body for CEOs of assessment agencies.

8Four times more likely than not, for someone who has only just met the requirements for this grade level. For

someone with a higher result, even more likely. For someone with a lower grade level, less likely, though for results just below this grade level it is still very likely. This level has been chosen so that the ratio of false negatives to false positives is about four to one: we are giving the wrong impression about four students who are really ok (but just below the grade level listed) for everyone who might not be ok. This does not take into account measurement error – the uncertainty in any assessment process.

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A person who enters a teaching preparation course with a grade level in one of these subjects • at or above the grade level listed in the table is highly likely to have personal

levels of literacy or numeracy skills at least at ACSF level 4

• well below the grade level in the table and no grade level above the relevant threshold in any other subject in the final complete table is much more likely to need additional and specific support and help to ensure the development of appropriate literacy or numeracy skills before the end of the course.

The grade levels in the table are results in specific senior secondary subjects. They represent achievement in these subjects and are not assessments of literacy or numeracy skills defined by ASCF level 4. It is therefore possible to have skills at or above this ACSF level and to have a low result in a subject because of a failure to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the content of the subject. A result in, for example, Physics is based on showing understanding of Physics, not on elements of the ACSF numeracy standards. A result in a study of English literature is based on showing understanding of literature, not on the elements of the ACSF literacy standards.

There are other senior secondary subjects in South Australia that can clearly provide evidence of levels ofpersonal literacy and numeracy. These have yet to be studied.

The results in the table do not compare achievement standards in corresponding subjects across jurisdictions.9

The fact that HA appears as the threshold result for one subject in another table and B appears as the threshold result for a similar subject in South Australia does not tell us that the HA represents the same standard of knowledge and understanding of the subject as the B does.

9ACACA currently has a project examining processes for establishing and monitoring such comparability. This study

does not contribute meaningfully to that task.

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Tasmania

The Accreditation of Initial Teacher Education Programs in Australia: Standards and

Procedures requires that “all entrants to initial teacher education will successfully

demonstrate their capacity to engage effectively with a rigorous higher education program and to carry out the intellectual demands of teaching itself. To achieve this, it is expected that applicants’ levels of personal literacy and numeracy should be broadly equivalent to those of the top 30 per cent of the population”. Analysis of some Tasmanian subjects included in a study10 has shown how these and other results in senior secondary subjects

can be used as proxy indicators of levels of personal literacy or numeracy. This means that students’ results in this initial, preliminary, list can be used to guide judgments about the risk that, on entry, an applicant to a teacher training course may not have levels of personal literacy and numeracy broadly equivalent to the top thirty per cent of the population. In this study, these levels of personal literacy and numeracy have been approximately defined by level 4 in the Australian Core Skills Framework (ACSF).

The table below lists the seven senior secondary subjects in Tasmania used on this occasion and, for each subject, an award (one of five possible awards: Preliminary

Achievement (PA), Satisfactory Achievement (SA), Commendable Achievement (CA), High Achievement (HA) and Exemplary Achievement (EA), where EA is the highest).

The award in the table is the result at which it is highly likely11 that the work of a student in

this subject with that result would be seen by a reasonable person as sufficient evidence that the student has the skills required by Australian Core Skills Framework level 4 in the listed domain (literacy or numeracy), the level broadly equivalent to the top 30 per cent of the population.

Subject Domain Indicative result

English Communications literacy CA

English Writing literacy CA

Modern World History literacy CA

Ancient History literacy CA

Mathematics Applied numeracy CA

Mathematics Methods numeracy CA

Physics numeracy HA

Table 1: Tasmania – subjects in first phase study, award indicating likely personal levels of literacy or numeracy at ACSF4

10 A collaboration of the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and six members of the

Australasian Curriculum, Assessment and Certification Authorities (ACACA) – the body for CEOs of assessment agencies.

11Four times more likely than not, for someone who has only just met the requirements for this award. For someone

with a higher result, even more likely. For someone with a lower award, less likely, though for results just below this award it is still very likely. This level has been chosen so that the ratio of false negatives to false positives is about four to one: we are giving the wrong impression about four students who are really ok (but just below the award listed) for everyone who might not be ok. This does not take into account measurement error – the uncertainty in any assessment process.

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A person who enters a teaching preparation course with an award in one of these subjects • at or above the award listed in the table is highly likely to have personal levels of

literacy or numeracy skills at least at ACSF level 4

• well below the award in the table and no award above the relevant threshold in any other subject in the final complete table is much more likely to need

additional and specific support and help to ensure the development of appropriate literacy or numeracy skills before the end of the course.

The awards in the table are results in specific senior secondary subjects. They represent achievement in these subjects and are not assessments of literacy or numeracy skills defined by ASCF level 4. It is therefore possible to have skills at or above this ACSF level and to have a low result in a subject because of a failure to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the content of the subject. A result in, for example, Physics is based on showing understanding of Physics, not on elementsof the ACSF numeracy standards. A resultin a study of English literature is based on showing understanding of literature, not on the elements of the ACSF literacy standards.

There are other senior secondary subjects in Tasmania that can clearly provide evidence of levels of personal literacy and numeracy. These have yet to be studied.

The results in the table do not compare achievement standards in corresponding subjects across jurisdictions.12

The fact that B appears as the threshold result for one subject in another table and HA appears as the threshold result for a similar subject in Tasmania does not tell us that the B represents the same standard of knowledge and understanding of the subject as the HA does.

12ACACA currently has a project examining processes for establishing and monitoring such comparability. This study does not

contribute meaningfully to that task.

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Victoria

The Accreditation of Initial Teacher Education Programs in Australia: Standards and

Procedures requires that “all entrants to initial teacher education will successfully

demonstrate their capacity to engage effectively with a rigorous higher education program and to carry out the intellectual demands of teaching itself. To achieve this, it is expected that applicants' levels of personal literacy and numeracy should be broadly equivalent to those of the top 30 per cent of the population".

Analysis of some Victorian subjects included in a recent study13 has shown how results can

be used as proxy indicators of levels of personal literacy or numeracy. This means that students' results in this initial, preliminary, list can be used to guide judgments about the risk that, on entry, an applicant to a teacher training course may not have levels of personal literacy and numeracy broadly equivalent to those of the top thirty per cent of the population. In this study, these levels of personal literacy and numeracy have been approximately defined by level 4 or above in the Australian Core Skills Framework (ACSF).

The table below lists the seven senior secondary subjects in Victoria used on this occasion and, for each subject, a study score range (study scores are numbers with, for each study, the mean set to 30 and the maximum set to 50).

The study score range in the table is the range of study scores for which it is highly likely14

that the work of a student in this subject with a study score in that range would be seen by a reasonable person as sufficient evidence that the student has the skills required by

Australian Core Skills Framework level 4 in the listed domain (literacy or numeracy). ACSF level 4 or above describes the level of skills broadly equivalent to those of the top 30 per cent of the population.

Subject Domain Indicative result

English literacy 30-36

EALD literacy 37-43

History: Revolutions literacy 30-34

Literature literacy 23-31

Accounting numeracy 34-39

Further Mathematics numeracy 32-37

Mathematical Methods (CAS) numeracy 29-32

Victoria –VCE subjects in the first phase study, study score range indicating likely personal levels of literacy or numeracy at ACSF4

13 A collaboration of the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and six members of the Australasian

Curriculum, Assessment and Certification Authorities (ACACA) – the body for CEOs of assessment agencies

14 Four times more likely than not, for someone who has a study score around the middle of this range. For someone with a

higher study score, even more likely. For someone with a lower study score, less likely, though for results just below this study score range it is still very likely. This level has been chosen so that the ratio of false negatives to false positives is about four to one: we are giving the wrong impression about close to four students who are really ok (but just below the grade listed) for everyone who might not be ok (but has the result listed in the table). This does not take into account measurement error – the uncertainty in any assessment process, which changes the uncertainty in both directions.

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A person who enters a teaching preparation course with a study score in one of these subjects

• above the study score range listed in the table is almost certain to have personal levels of literacy or numeracy skills at least at ACSF level 4, which indicates a capacity to engage effectively with the literacy and numeracy component of an initial teacher education program

• well below the study score range in the table and no study score at or above the relevant study score range in any other subject in the final complete table is much more likely to need additional and specific support and help to ensure the development of appropriate literacy or numeracy skills before the end of the course.

It is not appropriate to use the results of this study to exclude individuals from initial teacher education. They may, however, be used as an indicator of the risk that a person may not have the capacity to engage effectively with the program and with the intellectual demands of teaching.

The study score ranges in the table are results in specific senior secondary subjects. They represent achievement in these subjects and are not assessments of literacy or numeracy skills defined by ASCF level 4. It is therefore possible to have skills at or above this ACSF level and to have a low result in a subject because of a failure to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the content of the subject.

There are other senior secondary subjects in Victoria that clearly can provide evidence of levels of personal literacy and numeracy. These have yet to be studied.

The results in the table do not compare achievement standards in corresponding subjects across jurisdictions.15 The fact that B appears for one subject in the table for another

jurisdiction and a range of 29-32 appears as the study score range for a similar subject in Victoria does not tell us that the B represents the same standard of knowledge and understanding of the subject as the range of 29-32 does. It should be noted that Victorian study scores cannot be compared across different subjects.

15ACACA currently has a project examining processes for establishing and monitoring such comparability. This study does not

contribute meaningfully to that task.

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Western Australia

The Accreditation of Initial Teacher Education Programs in Australia: Standards and

Procedures requires that “all entrants to initial teacher education will successfully

demonstrate their capacity to engage effectively with a rigorous higher education program and to carry out the intellectual demands of teaching itself. To achieve this, it is expected that applicants' levels of personal literacy and numeracy should be broadly equivalent to those of the top 30 per cent of the population".

Analysis of some Western Australian subjects included in a recent study16 has shown how

results can be used as proxy indicators of levels of personal literacy or numeracy. This means that students' results in this initial, preliminary, list can be used to guide judgments about the risk that, on entry, an applicant to a teacher training course may not have levels of personal literacy and numeracy broadly equivalent to those of the top thirty per cent of the population. In this study, these levels of personal literacy and numeracy have been

approximately defined by level 4 or above in the Australian Core Skills Framework (ACSF). The table below lists the five senior secondary subjects in Western Australia used on this occasion and, for each subject, a WACE Band (one of five possible WACE Bands: Inadequate Achievement (IA), Limited Achievement (LA), Satisfactory Achievement (SA), High Achievement (HA) and Excellent Achievement (EA), where EA is the highest). Other courses will contain certain elements that if achieved at Satisfactory Achievement (SA) could be used as proxy indicators of levels of personal literacy or numeracy.

The WACE Band in the table is the result at which it is highly likely17 that the work of a

student in this subject with that result would be seen by a reasonable person as sufficient evidence that the student has the skills required by Australian Core Skills Framework level 4 in the listed domain (literacy or numeracy). ACSF level 4 or above describes the level of skills broadly equivalent to those of the top 30 per cent of the population.

Subject Domain Indicative result

English Stage 3 literacy SA

Literature Stage 3 literacy SA

Modern History Stage 3 literacy SA

Mathematics Stage 3 numeracy SA

Physics Stage 3 numeracy SA

Western Australia - subjects in the first phase study, WACE Band indicating likely personal levels of literacy or numeracy at ACSF4

16A collaboration of the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and six members of the Australasian

Curriculum, Assessment and Certification Authorities (ACACA) – the body for CEOs of assessment agencies

17Four times more likely than not, for someone who has met the requirements for this WACE Band. For someone with a higher

WACE Band, even more likely. For someone with a lower WACE Band, less likely, though for results just below this WACE Band it is still very likely. This level has been chosen so that the ratio of false negatives to false positives is about four to one: we are giving the wrong impression about close to four students who are really ok (but just below the WACE Band listed) for everyone who might not be ok (but has the result listed in the table). This does not take into account measurement error - the uncertainty in any assessment process, which changes the uncertainty in both directions.

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A person who enters a teaching preparation course with a WACE Band in one of these subjects

• at or above the WACE Band listed in the table is highly likely to have personal levels of literacy or numeracy skills at least at ACSF level 4, which indicates a capacity to engage effectively with the literacy and numeracy component of an initial teacher education program

• well below the WACE Band in the table and no WACE Band at or above the relevant WACE Band in any other subject in the final complete table is much more likely to need additional and specific support and help to ensure the development of appropriate literacy or numeracy skills before the end of the course.

• Western Australia reserves the right to review the indicators of personal levels of literacy and numeracy once WACE 2015/16 is introduced.

It is not appropriate to use the results of this study to exclude individuals from initial teacher education. They may, however, be used as an indicator of the risk that a person may not have the capacity to engage effectively with the program and with the intellectual demands of teaching.

The WACE Bands in the table are results in specific senior secondary subjects. They represent achievement in these subjects and are not assessments of literacy or numeracy skills defined by ASCF level 4. It is therefore possible to have skills at or above this ACSF level and to have a low result in a subject because of a failure to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the content of the subject.

The results in the table do not compare achievement standards in corresponding subjects across jurisdictions.18 The fact that B appears for one subject in the table for another

jurisdiction and SA appears as the WACE Band for a similar subject in Western Australia does not tell us that the B represents the same standard of knowledge and understanding of the subject as the SA does.

18ACACA currently has a project examining processes for establishing and monitoring such comparability. This study does not

contribute meaningfully to that task.

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New South Wales

The Accreditation of Initial Teacher Education Programs in Australia: Standards and

Procedures requires that “all entrants to initial teacher education will successfully

demonstrate their capacity to engage effectively with a rigorous higher education program and to carry out the intellectual demands of teaching itself. To achieve this, it is expected that applicants' levels of personal literacy and numeracy should be broadly equivalent to those of the top 30 per cent of the population.”

In NSW this will equate to the achievement of at least Band 5 in the NSW Higher School Certificate or equivalent, in at least three subjects one of which must be English.

Subject Domain Indicative result

English (Advanced) literacy Band 5

English (Standard) literacy Band 5

English Extension 1 literacy Band E3

English Extension 2 literacy Band E3

Mathematics numeracy Band 5

Mathematics Extension 1 numeracy Band E3

Mathematics Extension 2 numeracy Band E3

General Mathematics numeracy Band 5

New South Wales

Other subjects will contain certain elements that, if achieved at Band 5, can contribute to overall standards of literacy and numeracy.

For a person who enters a teaching preparation course:

• a Band 5 result in at least three subjects, one of which must be an English course listed in the table, is almost certain to have personal levels of literacy or numeracy skills at least at ACSF level 4, although no comparison study has been undertaken;

• well below Band 5 results indicates a likely need for additional and specific support and help to ensure the development of appropriate literacy or numeracy skills before the end of the course.

Band 5 results represent achievement in subjects and are not assessments of literacy or numeracy skills defined by ACSF.

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The results in the table do not compare achievement standards in corresponding subjects across jurisdictions19. The fact that B appears for one subject in the table for another

jurisdiction and a Band 5 appears as the study score range for a similar subject in New South Wales does not tell us that the B represents the same standard of knowledge and understanding of the subject as Band 5 does.

19 ACACA currently has a project examining processes for establishing and monitoring such comparability. This study does not

contribute meaningfully to that task.

16

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