INDICADORES EPIDEMIOLOGICOS

65 

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INDICADORES

INDICADORES

INDICADORES

INDICADORES

EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS

EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS

EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS

EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS

Dr

Dr. Car

. Carlos Soto Linares 

los Soto Linares 

Dr

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F

F

RECUENCIAS ABSOLUTAS

RECUENCIAS ABSOLUTAS

F

F

RECUENCIAS ABSOLUTAS

RECUENCIAS ABSOLUTAS

  

Señalan cuantos hechos relacionados con la

Señalan cuantos hechos relacionados con la

Señalan cuantos hechos relacionados con la

Señalan cuantos hechos relacionados con la

salud, ocurrieron en la población en un

salud, ocurrieron en la población en un

salud, ocurrieron en la población en un

salud, ocurrieron en la población en un

determinado periodo.

determinado periodo.

determinado periodo.

determinado periodo.

  

Ayuda a definir la magnitud del problema de

Ayuda a definir la magnitud del problema de

Ayuda a definir la magnitud del problema de

Ayuda a definir la magnitud del problema de

Salud.

Salud.

Salud.

Salud.

  

Importancia :

Importancia :

Importancia :

Importancia :

F

F

F

F

ines Administrativos

ines Administrativos

ines Administrativos

ines Administrativos

Ejemplo

Ejemplo

E

E

j

j

e

e

m

m

p

p

l

l

o

o

1

1

1

1

:

:

:

:

Al

Al

A

All ssaab

sa

sab

beer 

ber

er q

qu

q

qu

uee

uee eell

eell aañ

aañ

ño

ño

o

o pa

pa

pasa

pasa

sad

sado

do

do na

o

na

naci

naci

cier

cier

eron

eron

on

on 15

1500

1150

50 n

niiñ

niños

niños

ño

oss

de

de

d

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F

F

RECUE

RECUE

NCIA

NCIA

S

S

RELA

RELA

TIV

TIV

AS

AS

F

F

RECUE

RECUE

NCIA

NCIA

S

S

RELA

RELA

TIV

TIV

AS

AS

  

Son coeficientes que resultan de relacionar un

Son coeficientes que resultan de relacionar un

Son coeficientes que resultan de relacionar un

Son coeficientes que resultan de relacionar un

fenómeno

fenómeno de sa

de salud

lud con otro,

con otro, o é

o éste fe

ste fenómeno

nómeno

fenómeno

fenómeno de sa

de salud

lud con otro,

con otro, o é

o éste fe

ste fenómeno

nómeno

con la población.

con la población.

con la población.

con la población.

  

Las frecuencias relativas mas empleadas en

Las frecuencias relativas mas empleadas en

Las frecuencias relativas mas empleadas en

Las frecuencias relativas mas empleadas en

Epidemiología son:

Epidemiología son:

Epidemiología son:

Epidemiología son:

RAZONES

RAZONES

RAZONES

RAZONES

PROPORCIONES, y

PROPORCIONES, y

PROPORCIONES, y

PROPORCIONES, y

TASAS

TASAS

TASAS

TASAS

  

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DE

DE

F

F

INICIONES Y

INICIONES Y

F

F

ORMULAS

ORMULAS

DE

DE

F

F

INICIONES Y

INICIONES Y

F

F

ORMULAS

ORMULAS

La fórmula para todos los indicadores

La fórmula para todos los indicadores

La fórmula para todos los indicadores

La fórmula para todos los indicadores

epidemiol

epidemiológicos, tienen la misma

ógicos, tienen la misma forma básica:

forma básica:

epidemiol

epidemiológicos, tienen la misma

ógicos, tienen la misma forma básica:

forma básica:

T

Tasa

asa

=

= X

X

T

Taassa

a =

= X

X

x

x

x

x

K

K

K

K

 Y

 Y

 Y

 Y

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VALORES DE K GENERALMENTE USADOS POR CONCEN

VALORES DE K GENERALMENTE USADOS POR CONCEN

VALORES DE K GENERALMENTE USADOS POR CONCEN

VALORES DE K GENERALMENTE USADOS POR CONCEN

Es un valor asignado, necesariamente

Es un valor asignado, necesariamente

Es un valor asignado, necesariamente

Es un valor asignado, necesariamente

múltiplo de 10.

múltiplo de 10.

múltiplo de 10.

múltiplo de 10.

La selección del valor de K generalmente se

La selección del valor de K generalmente se

La selección del valor de K generalmente se

La selección del valor de K generalmente se

efectúa de tal modo que la tasa menor 

efectúa de tal modo que la tasa menor 

efectúa de tal modo que la tasa menor 

efectúa de tal modo que la tasa menor 

calculada en una serie tenga por lo menos

calculada en una serie tenga por lo menos

calculada en una serie tenga por lo menos

calculada en una serie tenga por lo menos

un dígito a la izquierda del punto decimal.

un dígito a la izquierda del punto decimal.

un dígito a la izquierda del punto decimal.

un dígito a la izquierda del punto decimal.

F

F

ACTOR

ACTOR

DE

DE

AMPLIACIÓ

AMPLIACIÓ

N

N

K

K

F

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RAZONES

RAZONES

RAZONES

RAZONES

  

Una razón es la expresión de la frecuencia de algún

Una razón es la expresión de la frecuencia de algún

Una razón es la expresión de la frecuencia de algún

Una razón es la expresión de la frecuencia de algún

evento

evento comparado

comparado con

con otros

otros eventos.

eventos.

evento

evento comparado

comparado con

con otros

otros eventos.

eventos.

  

Una cantidad no está contenida dentro de la otra.

Una cantidad no está contenida dentro de la otra.

Una cantidad no está contenida dentro de la otra.

Una cantidad no está contenida dentro de la otra.

 

Se compara

Se

Se

Se compara

compara fenómenos

compara fenómenos

fenómenos diferentes

fenómenos diferentes

diferentes (v.g.

diferentes (v.g.

(v.g. El

(v.g. El

El número

El número

número de

número de

de

de

alumnos con vacuna S

alumnos con vacuna S

alumnos con vacuna

S-alumnos con vacuna S--R del 6

-R del 6

R del 6°

R del 6°°° gra

grado comparados

grado

grado comparados

do com

compar

parad

ados

os

con

con el

el número de

número de alumnos sin

alumnos sin vacuna S

vacuna S

con

con el

el número de

número de alumnos sin

alumnos sin vacuna S-

vacuna S--R del 6

-R del 6

R del 6°

R del 6°°°

grado en una escuela en

grado en una escuela en particular).

particular).

grado en una escuela en

grado en una escuela en particular).

particular).

  

C

C

C

C

omentarios :

omentarios :

omentarios :

omentarios :

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RAZONES

RAZONES

RAZONES

RAZONES

La fórmula de una razón es:

La fórmula de una razón es:

La fórmula de una razón es:

La fórmula de una razón es:

Razón

Razón =

= X

X

x

x K

K

Razón

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DISTRIBUC

DISTRIBUC

ION

ION

PROPORCIONAL

PROPORCIONAL

DISTRIBUC

DISTRIBUC

ION

ION

PROPORCIONAL

PROPORCIONAL

 

Definición

Definición

Definición

Definición

:

: Es

: Es

:

Es el

Es el

el

el

porcentaje

porcentaje

porcentaje

porcentaje

o proporción de eventos

o proporción de eventos

o proporción de eventos

o proporción de eventos

que ocurren en una de

que ocurren en una de las categorías (o subgrupos), del

las categorías (o subgrupos), del

que ocurren en una de

que ocurren en una de las categorías (o subgrupos), del

las categorías (o subgrupos), del

número total de eventos de una serie de datos.

número total de eventos de una serie de datos.

número total de eventos de una serie de datos.

número total de eventos de una serie de datos.

  

El numerador es

El

El

El numerador es

numerador es siempre parte

numerador es siempre parte

siempre parte del

siempre parte del

del denominador,

del denominador,

denominador, y

denominador, y

y el

y el

el

el

valor de la proporción es siempre

valor de la proporción es siempre

valor de la proporción es siempre

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DISTRIBUC

DISTRIBUC

ION

ION

PROPORCIONAL

PROPORCIONAL

DISTRIBUC

DISTRIBUC

ION

ION

PROPORCIONAL

PROPORCIONAL

 

C

C

C

C

omúnmente es usada en situaciones donde no es

omúnmente es usada en situaciones donde no es

omúnmente es usada en situaciones donde no es

omúnmente es usada en situaciones donde no es

posible calcular una tasa de incidencia; sin embargo ésta

posible calcular una tasa de incidencia; sin embargo ésta

posible calcular una tasa de incidencia; sin embargo ésta

posible calcular una tasa de incidencia; sin embargo ésta

no es una tasa

no es una tasa

no es una tasa

no es una tasa

y por lo tanto no puede ser interpretada

y por lo tanto no puede ser interpretada

y por lo tanto no puede ser interpretada

y por lo tanto no puede ser interpretada

como una estimación del riesgo de exposición

como una estimación del riesgo de exposición o infección.

o infección.

como una estimación del riesgo de exposición

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TASAS

TASAS

TASAS

TASAS

  

II

II

ndicador que mide el riesgo de enfermar, morir o

ndicador que mide el riesgo de enfermar, morir o

ndicador que mide el riesgo de enfermar, morir o

ndicador que mide el riesgo de enfermar, morir o

sufrir un daño a la salud que tiene un individuo de

sufrir un daño a la salud que tiene un individuo de

sufrir un daño a la salud que tiene un individuo de

sufrir un daño a la salud que tiene un individuo de

una determinada población en un tiempo

una determinada población en un tiempo

una determinada población en un tiempo

una determinada población en un tiempo

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TASAS

TASAS

TASAS

TASAS

Requiere

Requiere

Re

Re

qu

qu

ie

ie

re

re

de

de

de

de

c

c

ci

ci

i

i

e

e

ert

ert

rt

rt

as

as

a

a

s

s

ex

ex

ex

ex

ig

ig

ige

ige

en

en

nci

nci

ci

ci

as

as

as

as

como:

como:

co

co

mo

mo

:

:

Los

Los

L

Lo

oss ttéérrm

ttéérrm

miin

miin

no

no

oss d

oss

dee

d

dee llaa

llaa rreellaacciió

rreellaacciió

ón

ón

n

n n

nu

n

nu

um

um

meerraad

meerraad

do

do

or 

orr yyyy

REQUISITOS

REQUISITOS

REQUISITOS

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TIPOS DE TASAS

TIPOS DE TASAS

TIPOS DE TASAS

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A. T

A. T

ASAS

ASAS

DE MORBI

DE MORBI

LIDAD

LIDAD

A. T

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TASA DE

TASA DE

INCIDENCIA

INCIDENCIA

TASA DE

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TASA DE INCIDENCIA

TASA DE INCIDENCIA

TASA DE INCIDENCIA

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TASA DE INCIDENCIA*

TASA DE INCIDENCIA*

TASA DE INCIDENCIA*

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