The Kingdom of God is Within You: the past, the present, and the future

Full text

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Prehistoric Kingdom Early Transitional Kingdom Early Kingdom of God

of God

of God

of God

The Kingdom of God

is Within You

:

the past, the

present

, and the future

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The Kingdom of God is Within You: the past, the

present, and the future

Contents

Abstract 4

Diagrams 5

Introduction 8

1. The Original Humans

10

1.1. Personality: The Social-Information Personality System 10

1.1.1. The Social Relation Type 11

1.1.2. The Information Process Type 12

1.1.2.1. Admission: Sensitivity and Assertiveness 12 1.1.2.2. Resolution: Distinctiveness and Network 14

1.1.2.3. Action: Goal and Context 16

1.1.2.4. Openness: Persistence and Updating 18

1.1.3. The Big Five 19

1.2. Social Lives 20

1.2.1. The Social lives for the Primate Social Structures 20

1.2.2. The Human Instincts and Social Lives 24

1.2.3. The Harmonious Social Life 28

1.2.3.1. Cooperation - The Hyper Friendly Instinct 30

1.2.3.2. Detection – The Detective instinct 30

1.2.3.3. The Conscience Instinct 33

1.3. Ape Evolution 35

1.3.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape 35

1.3.2. The First Split: the peacemaking ape 36

1.3.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape 36

1.3.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape 37

1.3.5. The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape 39

1.4. Hominid Evolution of the Conscience Instinct 41

2. The Prehistoric Kingdom of God

46

2.1. Supernatural Selection 46

2.2. The Prehistoric Kingdom of God: The Garden of Eden 48

3. The Early Kingdom of God

51

3.1. The Fall of the Prehistoric Kingdom of God 51

3.2. The Early Transitional Kingdom of God 54

3.3. The Early Individualistic Society 55

3.4. The Early Kingdom of God 56

3.4.1. The Transformation Principle 58

3.4.2. The Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life 59

3.5. The Early Church as the Kingdom of God 72

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4. The Modern Kingdom of God

75 4.1. The Reformation: the breakdown of the intermediary 75 4.2. The Puritan Movement: the breakdown of the collective society 76

4.3. The Decline of the State Religion 77

4.4. The Three-Branch Unified Society of America 77

4.4.1. General Description 77

4.4.2. The Requirements for the Unified Society 78

4.5. The Christian Nation and the Kingdom of God 81

4.6. The Harmonious Moral Religions 81

5. The Postmodern Kingdom of God as the Harmonious

Society of God

83

5.1. The Harmonious Society of God 83

5.2. Human 83

5.3. The Interaction 83

5.4. The Organism Structure of the Harmonious Society of God 84 5.5. The Harmonist Manifesto for the Harmonious Society of God 84

5.6. The End Time 86

5.7. This Life and Afterlife 88

6. Summary 90

7. Reference 92

Email address: einsnewt@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Jesus said that the kingdom of God is within you. The kingdom of God is within the harmonious society and social life. The kingdom of God is divided into five parts as the original humans, the prehistoric kingdom of God, the early kingdom of God, the modern kingdom of God, and the postmodern kingdom of God for the human evolution period, the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period, the Modern Period, and the Postmodern Period.

The uniqueness of the original humans is explained by human social lives. The three basic human social lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious connection, respectively. The harmonious social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans. Human social lives were derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge. During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct was fully developed. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was the harmonious society.

The supernatural interaction between the supernatural and human is expressed as the kingdom of God that is the harmonious society. The kingdom of God evolves through supernatural selection. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the harmonious society as the chosen society by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind) including abstract social bond, abstract morality, and abstract rebirth.

The prehistoric kingdom of God expressed as Symbolic Religion (female figurines and cave paintings) provided the abstract social bond to bond the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitably large civilized social group destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group as the prehistoric kingdom of God. The early transitional kingdom of God was the moral religion as Judaism, and provided the abstract morality to prevent the activated dehumanized prey-predator instinct. Jesus Christ initiated the early kingdom of God that provided the abstract rebirth for the civilized people to return to the harmonious social life and society. It was manifested in the early church based on the harmonious society and social life. The decline of the kingdom of God later resulted from the conversion of the church to the state religion. In the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the decline of the state religion resulted in the modern kingdom of God in the three-branch Unified Society consisting of the collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society. The typical example of the Unified Society is America that has the collective political party, the individualistic political party, and the modern kingdom of God separated from the state. In the Postmodern Period starting from the global mass telecommunication for the Postmodern Revolution, the global perspective involves the whole human race on earth, so the postmodern kingdom of God is the harmonious society of God on earth in the three-branch Unified Society. The Postmodern Unified Society fulfills the end time prophecy for the end of the old divided society and the beginning of the new unified society. The followers of harmony continue to exist in afterlife.

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yin passive social life (amiable) the loose collective society the harmonious society the tight individualistic society the tight collective

society the loose individualistic society SOCIAL LIFE yang active social life (driver) yang passive social life (analytical)

SOCIAL STRUCTURES

harmonious social life yin active social life (expressive) bonding + freezing instincts conscience instinct = hyper friendly instinct

+ detective instinct dominative + predatory instincts nurturing + manipulative instincts systemizing + addictive instinct admission (sensitivity-assertiveness) resolution (distinctiveness– network) socialization (bonding relation– free relation) action (goal– context) openness (persistence– updating) the brain structure–neurotransmitters for socialization and information processing

• yin (network-bonding relation-context = collective wellbeing) and yang (distinctiveness-free relation-goal = individualistic achievement) • passive (sensitivity) – active (assertiveness) intragroup interaction

• harmony = high openness (updating) to transcend yin-yang and passive-active

PSYCHOLOGY

PERSONALITY

PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES

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bipedalism (6-2Ma)

manipulative hands and spoken voice for gestural/ spoken language and tool (Homo erectus) hyper friendly instinct detective instinct = theory of mind

conscience instinct

extra prefrontal cortex (0.2Ma) enhanced conscience instinct (Homo sapiens)

Hominid Evolution: The Evolution of the Conscience Instinct

walking hands

free hands for gestural language as the hyper friendly instinct

conscience intelligence conscience will

manipulative hands for gestural language and tool(Homo habilis) 1.8-1Ma

1.5-0.3Ma

bonobo (matriarch collective society) chimpanzee (patriarch individualistic society)

Ape Evolution and Social Structures

human (harmonious society)

bonobo-like common ancestor (matriarch collective)

gorilla (patriarch collective society) 7 Ma

6 Ma 2 Ma

orangutan-like common ancestor (loose society)

orangutan (loose society) 13 million years ago (Ma)

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the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society

the Upper Paleolithic Revolution

the Neolithic Revolution

The Development of the Kingdom of God

the unified prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society the prehistoric kingdom of God

the Modern Revolution the collective society:

the collective party + the partisan socialism

the individualistic society: the individualistic party + the partisan capitalism

the harmonious society the harmonious religion the modern kingdom of God the collective society:

the collective state + the state religion the early transitional kingdom of God

the harmonious society the harmonious religion the early kingdom of God the individualistic society:

the individualistic state + the state individualism

the Postmodern Revolution the global collective society:

the collective party + the partisan socialism

the global individualistic society: the individualistic party

+ the partisan capitalism

the global harmonious society the harmonious religion

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Introduction

The kingdom of God is the central theme of Jesus’ public proclamation. In the New Testament of the Bible, the kingdom of God and its synonymy, the kingdom of Heaven, appeared about 100 times with many different meanings. It is rarely used in the Old Testament. The word “kingdom” in the kingdom of God is a translation of the Greek word basileia which in turn is a translation of the words malkuth (Hebrew) and malkutha (Aramaic). These words do not define kingdom by territory but by dominion. As dominion, the kingdom of God

(1) is within people on earth, “Once, having been asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come, Jesus replied, "The kingdom of God does not come with your careful observation, nor will people say, 'Here it is,' or 'There it is,' because the kingdom of God is within you." (Luke 17:20-21)

(2) is a small group of people, “Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has been pleased to give you the kingdom.” (Luke 12:32)

(3) is entered through acceptance like a child, “But Jesus called the children to him and said, "Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of God belongs to such as these.” (Luke 18:16)

(4) is rebirth, “In reply Jesus declared, "I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again.” “How can a man be born when he is old?" Nicodemus asked. "Surely he cannot enter a second time into his mother's womb to be born!" Jesus answered, "I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, 'You must be born again.' (John 3:3-7)

(5) is like mustard seed and bush, “Again he said, "What shall we say the kingdom of God is like, or what parable shall we use to describe it? It is like a mustard seed, which is the smallest seed you plant in the ground. Yet when planted, it grows and becomes the largest of all garden plants, with such big branches that the birds of the air can perch in its shade." (Mark 4:30-32)

(6) is not this world, “Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world." If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place." (John 18:36)

(7) will continue to expand in the future, “People will come from east and west and north and south, and will take their places at the feast in the kingdom of God.” (Luke 13:29) (8) and the people in the kingdom of God follow the will of God. “"Not everyone who

says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven.” (Matthew 7:21)

The meaning of the kingdom of God, according to Jesus Christ, is very broad. In the following, the kingdom of God is interpreted by human evolution, human history, theology, and psychology to describe the whole human society in the past, the present, and the future.

Jesus said that the kingdom of God is within you. (Luke 17:21)1 The kingdom of God is within the harmonious society and social life as the prehistoric, the early, the modern, and the postmodern kingdom of God. The kingdom of God is divided into five

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parts as the original humans, the prehistoric kingdom of God, the early kingdom of God, modern kingdom of God, and the postmodern kingdom of God for the human evolution period, the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period, the Modern Period, and the Postmodern Period.

The uniqueness of the original humans is explained by human social lives (Chapter 1). The three basic human social lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious connection, respectively. The harmonious social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans. Human social lives were derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge. During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct was fully developed. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was the harmonious society.

The supernatural interaction between the supernatural and human is expressed as the kingdom of God that is the harmonious society. The kingdom of God evolves through supernatural selection. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the harmonious society as the chosen society by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind) including abstract social bond, abstract morality, and abstract rebirth.

In the Prehistoric Period (Chapter 2), the prehistoric kingdom of God expressed as Symbolic Religion (female figurines and cave paintings) provided the abstract social bond to bond the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment. In the Early Period (Chapter 3) starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitably large civilized social group destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group as the prehistoric kingdom of God. The early transitional kingdom of God was the moral religion as Judaism, and provided the abstract morality to prevent the activated dehumanized prey-predator instinct. Jesus Christ initiated the early kingdom of God that provided the abstract rebirth for the civilized people to return to the harmonious social life and society. It was manifested in the early church based on the harmonious society and social life. The decline of the kingdom of God later resulted from the conversion of the church to the state religion. In the Modern Period (Chapter 4) starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the decline of the state religion resulted in the modern kingdom of God in the three-branch Unified Society consisting of the collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society for collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious connection, respectively. The typical example of the Unified Society is America that has the collective political party, the individualistic political party, and the modern kingdom of God separated from the state. In the Postmodern Period (Chapter 5) starting from the global mass telecommunication for the Postmodern Revolution, the global perspective involves the whole human race on earth, so the postmodern kingdom of God is the harmonious society of God on earth in the three-branch Unified Society.

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1. The Original Humans

In the Bible, God created humans twice. The first time is in Chapter 1 of Genesis. “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. (Genesis 1:27)” The second time is in Chapter 2 of Genesis. “The LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. Now the LORD God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed. (Genesis 2: 7-8)” The original humans that God created were the original humans. The way God created the original human was like the way God created everything else. In the second time, the way that God created humans was special. God directly interacted with the human by breathing nostrils the breath of life, and placed the human in the Garden of Eden. The original humans became the religious humans.

This chapter deals with the original humans, and the next chapter deals with the religious humans. In the Bible, God created the original humans in God’s own image. No other creatures were created in God’s own image, so the original humans obviously were unique among all creatures. The original humans were unique for the harmonious social life. The three basic human social lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious connection, respectively. The harmonious social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans.

The theory of human social lives is the combination of the three popular theories, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the Merrill-Reid social style theory. The theory starts with the personality system based on the brain structure and neurotransmitters. Human social lives are derived from the personality system and the instincts.

Human social lives were derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge. During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct was fully developed. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group, The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was the harmonious society.

1.1. Personality: The Social-Information Personality System

There are many personality theories. The two popular theories are the Big Five2 and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)3 derived from Carl Jung's personality type4.

The five factors in the Big Five are openness to experience (appreciation for unusual ideas, imagination, and curiosity), conscientiousness (tendency to act dutifully rather spontaneously), extraversion (to seek the company of others), agreeableness (tendency to be compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others), and neuroticism (a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). These factors are also referred to as the OCEAN model of personality. MBTI includes four factors: Introvert-extrovert, sense-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving. The personality system matches these two popular personality theories.

The proposed personality system is the social-information personality system. The two general types of personality involve the social relation type and the information

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process type. Human is a social animal, so the social relation type deals with the two different types of social relation. The human brain also processes information, so the information process type deals with how the human brain process information like a computer. There are four different factors in the information process type. These four factors correspond approximately to the four factors in MBTI. These four factors in additional to the social type correspond the five factors in the Big Five.

1.1.1. The Social Relation Type

Social Relation Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five

Commitment High Bonding relation (B) Agreeable (A)

Low Free relation (F)

Sociability is a function of all social animals. Committed sociability is bonding relation (denoted as B), while non-committed sociability is free relation (denoted as F). The most famous experiment to distinguish bonding relation and free relation was done by Insel and Winslow5. They looked at two closely related but have different social organization: the prairie vole with strong male-female pair bonding and the montane vole, which is promiscuous without strong bonding male-female pair bonding. They found that oxytocin (a hormone) attaches to receptors in reward-related areas of the brain in the pair-bonding prairie vole but not in the non-pair-bonding montane vole. When prairie voles intercourse, two hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, are released. If the release of these hormones is blocked, prairie voles become like montane voles. An injection of the hormones can invoke pair bonding without intercourse.

Oxytocin sometimes is called “cuddle chemical” that builds bonds between mates, mother-child, and social members. Oxytocin and vasopressin are complementary in such way that oxytocin processes reward and vasopressin processes focus attention to the individuals for the bonding. Vasopressin is responsible for creating intense loving memories during passionate situations. Edorphin is a social neurotransmitter that response to touch and pleasing visual stimulus (such as smile).

According the study by Pollack6 and his colleagues, infants raised in the uncaring environment of some Eastern European orphanages ended up with a long-lasting deficit in oxytocin and vasopressin. The deficits in oxytocin and vasopressin persisted even after the children were removed from the orphanages and placed with loving and stable families, resulting in the difficulties in forming social bonds.

Bonding relates to empathy and trust. Like bonding, empathy and trust increase with oxytocin. Before committed social bonding, empathy is required to start social bonding. It was found that oxytocin helps empathy7 in terms of reading the mind of

others. The maintenance of bond requires trust. Trust has relaxed emotion and malleable cognition. Thus, bonding relation (B) has relaxed emotion and malleable cognition. Oxytocin was found by Kosfeld to increase trust8 , and by Light to decrease blood

pressure9. Distrust, on the contrary, has heightened emotion and narrow cognition. Thus, free relation (F) has heightened emotion and narrow cognition. Committed and non-committed relation can be pleasurable, but only non-committed relation has trust in terms of relaxed emotion and malleable cognition.

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A genetic example of free relation is autism, which has genetic impairment in forming social bonding. The people with autism have heightened emotion and narrow cognition. It was found that individuals with autism have lower level of oxytocin10. A genetic example of bonding relation is Williams Syndrome, which has genetic impairment to process visual–spatial information for independent living, but has unusually cheerful talkative demeanor and ease with strangers. Individuals with Williams Syndrome, however, have higher amount of fear with non-social encounter, and poor performance in non-social information, such as drawing.

According to Simon Baron-Cohen11, the essential difference between the female

brain and the male brain is that the average female brain favors slightly empathy, and the average male brain favors slightly in non-social information. Instead of social contact, the average male brain finds pleasure in systematizing non-social information. The overlapping of the male brain and the female brain is significant.

1.1.2. The Information Process Type

In the information process type, the human mind is like computer. The human mind or computer is to process information, which can be compared with the personality types from Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) derived from Carl Jung's personality type. The combination of the information process type and the social information type can be compared with the Big Five personality model.

Four important functions in the information process in human mind or computer are admission (the selection of the input data), resolution (the details of data), action (the format of the process program), and openness (the updating of the process program). In each of the process functions, there are two levels: high and low. These the information process types then are compared with the personality types from Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) derived from Carl Jung's personality type. The following table lists the information process type and its comparison with MBTI personality types.

The information process type

Information Process Function

The information process type Personality Type (MBTI)

Admission High Sensitivity (S) introvert (I) Low assertiveness (A) extrovert (N) Resolution High distinctness (D) sense (S)

Low Network (N) intuition (N) Action High goal (G) thinking (T)

Low context (C) feeling (F) Openness High Updating (U) perceiving (P)

Low Persistence (P) judging (J)

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Information Process Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five

Admission High Sensitivity (S) introvert (I)

Low Assertiveness (A) extrovert (N) Extrovert (E)

The admission of each set of input data can be high or low. In computer, program is written to recognize and admit a part of each set of input data. If every detail in a set of input data is important, the admission of data is high. In this case, under limited computer capacity, only few sets of data can be accepted. In the human mind, the perceived degree of harm determines the degree of admission. The high perceived degree of harm leads to the importance of every detail in a set of data, resulting in sensitivity (represented by S). The low perceived degree of harm leads to the importance of only few details, resulting in assertiveness (represented by A).

The person of assertiveness has a low dose of stimulus for each encounter of stimulation source. The person of sensitivity has high dose of stimulus for each encounter of stimulation source. To maintain an optimal level of stimulation, the person of assertiveness requires numerous sources of stimulation sources. According to H. J. Eysenck 12, extroverts have persistently low cortical arousal and seek stimulation. The personality of assertiveness therefore is the personality of extrovert as described in MBTI and by Eysenck. On the other hand, the personality of sensitivity is introvert in MBTI. Introverts have persistently high arousal and avoid stimulation.

Admission is like the gate for the entry of incoming information. It is the first reaction to the incoming information by opening or closing the gate. It is also the last reaction to the incoming information by closing the gate. Processing information requires energy and space, so it is necessary to keep incoming information minimum, just enough only for survival and reproduction. When survival and reproduction is secure, the admission of information can be low that leads to assertive. On the other hand, when survival and reproduction is insecure, the admission of information is high that leads to sensitivity. Therefore, security is the condition for assertiveness, and insecurity is the condition for sensitivity.

Personality type is an adaptation to certain conditions during evolution and during personal development. Personality type that we were born with is an adaptation to certain conditions by our ancestors. Personality type that we develop later in life is an adaptation to certain condition we encounter. For human who is capable of the integration of various events, condition can also be belief system, a central theme for the past, the current, and the future events. In some cases, a new belief system can completely replace an actual condition. Under different conditions (belief systems), different behaviors appear. The behaviors resulted from normal and excessive conditions are normal and excessive behaviors. .

Under the condition of insecurity for sensitivity, the normal behavior is association, incorporating stimuli as a part of experience. Under extreme condition of insecurity, the extreme behavior is freezing, a behavior of total avoidance. Under the condition of security for assertiveness, the normal behavior is disregard, excluding input information. Under condition of extreme security, the extreme behavior is inactivity, complete disregard.

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The personality in terms of social inhibition for a child older than 10 months can be predicted by the behavior of the child before four months old13. Four-months-olds

who cry, fuss, or fret often in response to a novel stimulus, such as a brightly colored mobile or a whiff of an alcohol swab, are more likely end up being socially inhibited. This shows that a baby who has an especially low threshold for activation ends up being introvert.

The behavior is facilitated by neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters facilitate communication between neurons (nerve cells). Different neurotransmitters enhance different personality types. Serotonin (5-HT) enhances the assertiveness type. The effect of serotonin is aided by drugs such as SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). This drug was popularized in the book, “Listening to Prozac” by Peter D. Kramer 14. It minimizes impulses and obsession, such as social fear shyness and eating disorders, because it decouples association from previous association learning. If excessive amount of serotonin is in the brain, the brain can become too selective, expressing as repetition or inactivity. This excessive behavior of assertiveness is different from the normal behavior, disregard.

Serotonin is the oldest neurotransmitter. It is the index for perceived social security. In the study of crayfish 15, the winner in a fight between two crayfishes appears to have a higher amount of serotonin than the loser has. The winner perceives social security, while the loser perceived social insecurity. The loser has a quick response from the touch of tail, while the winner does not have this quick response. In social group of monkey, the leaders have the highest levels of serotonin reflecting the perceived security, while those on the bottom of have the lowest levels reflecting perceived insecurity. Assertiveness is more suitable strategy in a perceived secure environment to preserve energy, while sensitivity is more suitable strategy in a perceived insecure environment to enhance vigilance.

Acetylcholine (Ach) is the neurotransmitter to enhance sensitivity. Acetylcholine provokes fear and withdrawal (freezing). Acetylcholine decreases in Alzheimer’s dementia, so the patient with Alzheimer’s dementia has trouble in association in terms of memory. During dream in the rapid eye movement period, there are large increase in acetylcholine, and large decrease in serotonin. It is why there is virtually free association during dream without inhibition. Such free association is necessary to reinforce the learning of association during waking.

The source of Ach and 5-HT is the brain stem, the primitive part of the brain. Ach has another source near amygdala, the center for fear. They distribute widely in the brain.

1.1.2.2. Resolution: Distinctiveness and Network

Information Process Personality system Personality Type (MBTI)

The Big Five

Resolution High Distinctness (D) sense (S) Consciousness (C)

Low Network (N) intuition (N)

When computer processes video pictures, it can have many pictures with coarse details (low resolution) or few pictures with distinct details (high resolution). The human brain has the same kind of trade-off. In some part of human brain such as the part for

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speech, there is distinctness with high resolution, but this part of the brain cannot cover many different areas of information at the same time. In another part of the brain, many areas of information can be covered at the same time, but distinctness is poor. The information process type with the high resolution is Distinctness (represented by D), while the information process type with low resolution and high connection is Network (represented by N).

According to MBTI, a person with the personality type of sensing (represented by S) is a specialist, concerning with concrete details, facts, precision, single idea in depth, and step by step method. This sensing personality matches with the distinctness type in the information process type. According to MBTI, a person with the personality type of intuition (N) is a generalist, concerning with whole picture, speculation, many alternative ideas, and inventive ideas. The intuition type matches with the network type.

Resolution is the detailed processing of information, which requires energy and space. With the same energy and space, high-resolution process can process a small picture with lots of distinctive details, while low-resolution process can process a large picture with few distinctive details. High-resolution process results in distinctiveness, and low resolution process leads to network. When the brain stores a number of pictures, Distinctiveness keeps maximum adjacent connections in the same picture and minimum broad connections among different pictures. Network keeps maximum broad connections among different pictures and minimum adjacent connections in the same picture.

When the condition requires precision or single-minded approach, Distinctiveness is needed. Some tasks, such as fine motor movement and speech, require a series of distinctive space-time. When specific precise information is needed, the behavior is focus by inhibiting or disconnecting all other possible interference from other sources. Focus involves a specific task by a series of distinctive and small neural assembly. In multiple tasks, Network is needed to connect various tasks at the same time.

The outer part of the brain is the cortex. The cortex consists of four lobes: the frontal cortex (motor cortex), parietal cortex (somatosensory cortex), temporal cortex (auditory cortex), and occipital cortex (visual cortex). The lobe other than the frontal cortex is called posterior cortex. The primary zone of the cortex receives input from the sense organs. The secondary zone receives input from the primary zone to integrate information from different primary zones. The association area receives information from the secondary zones, so it has the highest integration not only from the rest of the cortex but also from the subcortex. The frontal cortex has the largest area for the association area. It has the broadest connection to different parts of the brain. Therefore, the frontal cortex is the area for the overall distinctiveness or the excessive network involving the large areas, while the posterior cortex is the area for the specific distinctive or the normal network involving small specific areas. Mood involves overall distinctiveness and network, so the recognition of mood takes place in the frontal cortex.

The cortex is divided into the left cortex and the right cortex. The left cortex, which expresses language, is the cortex for distinctness, while the right cortex, which is good in orientation, is the cortex for network16. S. H. Woodward 17 proposed the left cortex and the

right cortex use different neuron connections. The cortical neurons are organized in columns. Neurons are connected vertically and horizontally. Woodward proposed that left cortex processing relies primarily on tight connections between vertical columns of neurons, whereas right cortex processing depends on weaker and longer horizontal connections.

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Vertical cortical circuitry provides distinctness, and horizontal cortical circuitry provides network. Woodward proposed that vertical circuitry carries inhibitory signals to the right cortex by the corpus collosum (the part dividing the right cortex and the left cortex), so the right cortex does not rely on vertical cortical circuitry. The left brain contains greater cell density and more gray nonmyelinated fibers for short distant neural messages. The right brain, in contrast, contains ore areas of "associative" with white myelinated fibers for long distant neural messages (higher integrative level)18.

A number of neurotransmitters are unequally distributed in the right and left hemispheres. Dopamine is distributed more extensively in the left hemisphere. It was found that rather than signaling pleasure as previously thought, dopamine may be released by brain neurons to highlight significant stimuli 19. Significant stimuli are distinctive stimuli. Dopamine has been implicated in the controlled of fine motor movement. The patient with Parkinson’s disease, which is deficient in dopamine, cannot control fine motor movement. Excessive dopamine, on the other hand, brings about unrealistically excessive focus.

The social relation affects the brain structure involving network. The bonding relation type requires extensive social network resulting the brain structure with extensive network. As discussed before by Simon Baron-Cohen, woman is more social relation type than man, so the female brain has more network than the male brain. It is shown in the thicker corpus collosum that connect the right brain and the left brain, more dendritic connections between brain cells, and more evenly distributed language centers in the brain for better communication. Therefore, for woman, the brain is wired more for the bonding relation type and the network type, and for man, the brain is wired more for the free relation type and the distinctiveness type.

The mental disorders involving Distinctiveness and Network deal with the extreme presence or absence of Distinctiveness and Network. The extreme presence of Distinctiveness involves Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) characterized by perfectionism, orderliness, adherence to rules, exercise of control, hoarding and problems with personal relationships. The extreme absence of Distinctiveness involves diseases, such as in Parkinson’s disease.

1.1.2.3. Action: Goal and Context

Information Process Personality system Personality Type (MBTI)

The Big Five

Action High Goal (G) thinking (T)

Low Context (C) feeling (F) Neuroticism (N)

In a computer, each information process goes through an operating system that control the flow of information processing in terms of priority and scheduling of different information processes. A simple operating system put all information processes in a context from which priority and scheduling are determined. Thus, each information process has a specific goal to reach, while each simple operating system has a context to arrange all information processes. In terms of action for actual information output, information process has much higher action than operating system.

In the human mind, there is also Goal (represented by G) for information process and Context (represented by C) for operation system. Goal is action-oriented resulting in

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the measurable intentional change. Context is option-oriented resulting in the context for possible action. The evolutionary origin of Goal and Context is the first difference between male and female animals. Male animal carries extremely high number of sperms, while female animal carries limited number of eggs. During the mating session, the presence of a female animal with eggs triggers the desire of action in a male animal. Such action can result in a measurable intentional goal in terms of mating. On the other hand, to a female animal, the presence of a male animal is merely an option for which a context is set for possible action. Such context can be the show of strength, superiority, and affection. The context is for possible action. A female animal has much less drive for action, and much higher ability for the discernment for possible actions. Another important action in Goal is problem solving in terms of removing obstacle during courtship and mating, such as chasing off another male competitor. Context is emotion with option, and Goal is emotion with action.

The free-bonding relation type is closely connected with the goal-context type because the man-woman difference. For man, the combination of free relation type and the goal type results in the thinking type (T) for MBTI. According to MBTI, The thinking type (T) has characteristics of theoretical, rational, analytical, purposive, logic, and unconcerned with people's feeling. In terms of Goal, the thinking type is essentially the action of problem solving to remove an obstacle in terms of solving a problem. It has a definitive goal to make a measurable intentional change. Since the goal is combined with the free relation type, it does not concern with people’s feeling.

For woman, the combination of the context type and the bonding relation type results in the feeling type in MBTI. According to MBTI, the feeling type (F) has characteristics of passionate, warm, personal, artistic, and concerned with people's feelings. In the Context, the feeling type does not have a particular propose to make a measurable intentional change. It is merely to discern the situation. Since the context type is combined with the bonding relation type, it concern with people’s feeling.

On average, the female human brains have a larger deep limbic system than males. The larger deep limbic brain allows women more in touch with their feelings to prioritize all possible options. When the brain at rest without consciously thinking of anything, men, on average, had higher brain activity in the more ancient and primitive regions of the limbic system, the parts that are more involved with action. Women, on average, had more activity in the newer and more complex parts of the limbic system, which are involved in feelings20. The hypothalamus, which is a tiny structure at the base of the brain, regulates many basic functions, such as eating, sleeping, temperature control, and reproduction. One part of the hypothalamus responsible for sexual behavior is larger in male brains than in female brains, in human and non-human animals.

In total Goal for nonhuman, the goals of life come from predominately biological self, the integration of biological parts to determine the boundary of biological self. It includes hunger, thirst, and sex etc. For human, the goals of life come from not only biological self but also autobiographic self in the form of life story. Autobiographic self is self-knowledge as described by Nancy Cantor21 and Hazel Markus22 for cognition and

motivation. Autobiographic self is from episodic memory, which is different from semantic memory. Semantic memory refers to one’s stored knowledge of facts, concepts, and general principles of how the world operates. Semantic memory is the essential memory used to live in the world. Episodic memory, on the other hand, is not essential,

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and more or less serves as the map for semantic memory. It is an autobiographic store of life experiences. The prefrontal cortex in the human brain is large. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of connections with different parts of the brain. Consequently, the large prefrontal cortex in human is capable to integrate the autobiographic store of life experiences into autobiographic self in the form of the life story. Other animals do not have such autobiographic self. All animals have biological self, the integration of biological parts to determine the boundary of biological self. Only human has a strong autobiographic self to determine the boundary of experiential self. Only human has both biological self and autobiographic self.

Autobiographic self in the form of life story brings about path, meaning, and goal of life. The path of life allows human to map the past, the present, and the future experiences. The meaning of life lets human to know the experiential position in the world. The goal of life permits human to prioritize life. Because of the changes in life experiences and life expectation, the life story is in a continuous process of revision, resulting in the continuous changes in path, meaning, and goal of life.

The mental disorders involved are the extreme Goal and the extreme Context The extreme Goal is the extreme action-oriented without stopping, resulting in manic. Manic can lead to psychopath, seeking the unstopping thrill of action. The extreme Context is the extreme option-oriented without any possible action, resulting in depression. Depression can result in suicide, terminating all possible action. Both extremes are the results of chronic stress in terms of pain and loss.

1.1.2.4. Openness: Persistence and Updating

Information Process Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five

Openness High Updating (U) perceiving (P) Openness (O)

Low Persistence (P) judging (J)

An elaborate operating system for a computer not only schedules information processes but also manipulate and update information from different information processes. For the human mind, the simple operating system corresponds to emotion, while the elaborate operating system corresponds to cognition for more elaborate manipulation and updating. In the human brain, the part involved in the update is the prefrontal cortex. The large size of the prefrontal cortex in human is an important difference between human and other apes. The opposite of update is persistence which keeps the program constant. The information process type for the low openness is persistence (represented by P), and for the high openness is updating (represented by U).

According to MBTI, the judging type has characteristics of planned, orderly way, settled, organized, decisive, closeness, and finishing things. The judging type matches the Persistence type. The perceiving type has characteristics of flexible, spontaneous, flexible, tolerant, open option, understand life rather than control it. This perceiving type matches the Updating type.

Updating is a change in information in order to be adaptable to the current situation. The change of information involves manipulation of several sets of information, including old sets of information, possible new sets of information, and the final set of information.

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The manipulation of several sets of information requires the involvement of the prefrontal cortex. It involves in new combination and arrangement of information. The prefrontal cortex has multiple components: working memory buffers and a “central executive,” the manager that manipulates and coordinates information stored in the buffers for updating 23. Working memory is a “blackboard memory” operating over mere seconds. The process includes moving information into working memory, updating what is already there, and using it to select a final updating.

The whole updating process involves both the prefrontal cortex and the rest of the cortex. The prefrontal cortex has extensive connections to various parts of the brain. Neuroscientist Edmund Rolls 24 found that the prefrontal cortex in a monkey had fired strongly immediately before the monkey changed the behavior in behavior to a changing circumstance. The prefrontal cortex allows a quick switch of strategy in behavior to a change of circumstance. The reason for such a quick switch of strategy is that the prefrontal cortex has ample free neuron network which provides the space to construct a new strategy one after another free of previous experience and memory. The people with damage in the prefrontal cortex cannot construct a new strategy one right after another. They tend to construct one strategy, and stay with the same strategy over and over again even there is a need for another strategy. They fail to select the most current strategy for their action. The people with damage in the prefrontal cortex may also persistently follow whatever command given to them without change. The damage in the prefrontal cortex is the example for the extreme case of persistence.

The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that has expanded the most in primates. The large human prefrontal cortex provides human a very large space to construct new strategy in terms of new combination and arrangement of information. The large prefrontal cortex in human also provides an area to construct strategy overcoming salient and concrete experiences.

Glutamate is the neurotransmitter for long-term potent (LTP) which is necessary for the working memory, which in turn is important for updating. Dopamine enhances the activity of few selective neurons by inhibiting the activity all other unrelated and unneeded neurons. Both glutamate and dopamine work together to accomplish updating.

The mental disorders involved are the extreme Persistence without Updating. The extreme Persistence is impulsiveness without considering any possible consequences. One of such disorders is schizophrenia. The extremes are the results of chronic anxiety in terms of uncertainty.

1.1.3. The Big Five

The most popular model of personality is the Big Five. The five factors in the Big Five are openness to experience (appreciation for unusual ideas, imagination, and curiosity), conscientiousness (tendency to act dutifully rather spontaneously), extraversion (to seek the company of others), agreeableness (tendency to be compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others), and neuroticism (a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). These factors are also referred to as the OCEAN model of personality.

Openness correlates to Updating in persistence-updating for the propensity for adapting to changing information. Conscientiousness relates to Distinctiveness in distinctiveness-network for the care for focusing attention. Extrovert corresponds to

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Assertiveness in sensitivity-assertiveness for the easy to receive incoming information. Agreeable corresponds to bonding relation in bonding relation-free relation in the way of social life for the propensity to form trust for social bonding. Neuroticism corresponds to Context in goal–context for emotion.

Information Process

Personality system Personality Type (MBTI)

The Big Five

Admission High Sensitivity (S) introvert (I)

Low Assertiveness (A) extrovert (N) Extrovert (E)

Resolution High Distinctness (D) sense (S) Consciousness (C)

Low Network (N) intuition (N)

Action High Goal (G) thinking (T)

Low Context (C) feeling (F) Neuroticism (N)

Openness High Updating (U) perceiving (P) Openness (O)

Low Persistence (P) judging (J) Social Relation

Commitment High Bonding relation (B) Agreeable (A)

Low Free relation (F)

1.2. The Social Lives

The human social lives are derived from the personality system and the instincts. 1.2.1. The Social Lives for the Primate Social Structures

The combination of the factors in the personality system results in the feminine yin personality and the masculine yang personality for collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement, respectively. The social lives are the combination of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions among the basic social units. The combination results in yin passive, yin active, yang passive, and yang active, corresponding to Amiable, Expressive, Analytical, and Drive in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory. The harmonious social life is the unique new human social life that no other organisms have. The instinct for the harmonious social life (harmonious) is the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct, resulting in maximum eager cooperation without lie.

The social lives are derived from the personality system. The social lives for the primate social structures consist of three parts: the yin-yang personality, the intragroup interaction among basic social units, and the degree of openness.

(1) Yin-Yang Personality (BNC-FDG)

The feminine yin personality is the combination of the bonding relation type (B), the network type (N), and the context type (C), while yang is the combination of the free relation type (F), the distinctiveness type (D), and the goal type (G). For the yin personality (BNC) type, the combination leads to “collective wellbeing”, where collective means B and N, and wellbeing does not involve a specific action. For the masculine yang personality (FDG) type, the combination brings about “individualistic achievement”, where individual means F and D, and achievement involves a specific goal. Collective

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wellbeing deals with mainly people, while individual achievement deals with primarily with task. Therefore, yin represents people, while yang represents task. The society with the yin personality is the collective society, while the society with the yang personality is the individualistic society.

(2) Passive-Active Intragroup Interaction (S-A)

The social lives for primates are the combination of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions among the basic social units (subgroups) within a social group. The basic social units (subgroups) can be single female and her offspring, monogamous family, polyandrous family (one-female-several-male group), polygynous family (one-male-several-female group), and multimale-multifemale group (non-committal male-female). The intragroup interaction among the subgroups can be passive or active interaction, corresponding to introvert (Sensitivity) or extrovert (Assertiveness). The passive intragroup interaction leads to a loose social group where the intragroup interaction in not active. The active intragroup interaction leads to a tight social group. The tight social group helps to provide protection against predators. It also helps to protect scarce food resources. This is especially true for non-human primates when the food is fruit. Leaf-eaters, such as colobus monkeys and langurs, tend to form smaller loose social groupings since there is little competition for their food. The very few nocturnal species of primates are mostly small, relatively solitary hunters. In general, a social group under the condition of sufficiency resource and security leads typically to a loose social group, while a social group under the condition of insufficient resource and insecurity results typically in a tight social group.

The combination of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions leads to yin passive, yin active, yang passive, and yang active. The loose collective society and the tight collective society come from the yin passive and the yin active social lives, respectively, while the loose individualistic society and the tight individualistic society come from the yang passive and yang active social lives, respectively. In the tight collective society, the active intragroup interaction produces the group wellbeing that promotes care about all members of the group and the group identity in addition to basic collective wellbeing. In the tight individualistic society, the active intragroup interaction produces the group hierarchy that promotes individual strength and effort as well as the submission to the leader of group in addition to basic individualistic achievement. The tight collective society is more egalitarian than the tight individualistic society.

In general, the tight individualistic society is under the condition of less sufficient resource and security than the tight collective society. The reason is that the competitive hierarchy social structure, like an army, is more suitable to overcome the difficulties in insufficient resource and insecurity than the group wellbeing social structure. A typical example in ape is the different social structures of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobos live in the tropical rain forests with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live in the tropical woodland savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees travel around 3 miles a day for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to travel more than 1.5 or 2 miles a day. Bonobos have the female-centered collective society with the group wellbeing, while chimpanzees have the male-centered individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy.

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A primate society has typically more than one type of society. For example, the society of female mouse lemurs found in the Island of Madagascar as described by Robert Russell 25 is the tight collective society, and solitary male mouse lemurs have the loose individualistic society. Six to twenty female mouse lemurs form a lifelong social group. The basic lifelong unit of the social group is mother-daughter, so there are several units of mother-daughter from the same neighborhood. Mother and daughter have mutual growth relation. Mother takes care of daughter, and teaches her all skill of life. Daughter stays with her mother. About three to ten pairs of mother-daughter form a social group. They have a centrally located communal sleeping hollow for their daytime rest. The social group provides lifelong warmth, stimulation, shared experiences, and warning system for protection from the intrusion of predators. This form of social group increases greatly the chance of survival for female mouse lemurs. The ratio of adult females to adult males exceeds four females for every one male.

For orangutans, there are the loose collective society for single female and her offspring and the loose individualistic society for solitary males. For chimpanzees, male chimpanzees have the tight individualistic society, while female chimpanzees have loose individualistic society. Female bonobos, on the other hand, have the tight collective society, while male bonobos have the loose individualistic society. Female bonobos as a group overpower male bonobos.

From of the perspective of acquisition instead of condition, the tight individualistic society can acquire resource and security better than the tight collective society, and the tight society acquire resource and security better than the loose society. On the other hand, from the perspective of the cost for individuals in terms of energy and time spend in intragroup interaction, the tight individualistic society is more costly than the tight collective society, and the tight society is more costly than the loose society. The social structure of non-human primates is the balance among condition, acquisition, and cost. Tight individualistic Society Tight collective Society Loose individualistic society Loose collective society

Condition 4 3 2 1 1 = under most abundant

resource and security condition

Acquisition 1 2 3 4 1 = acquire most resource

and security

Cost 4 3 2 1 1 = least costly for

individuals in the intragroup interaction Humans, on the other hand, have tendency and capability for accumulation (greed) rather than mere survival and reproduction, so humans allow high cost for individuals, such as stress and anxiety.

(3) The Degree of Openness (P-U)

The additional social life is the harmonious social life for harmonious cooperation that exists only in human that has the much larger prefrontal cortex responsible for the high openness in terms of Persistence-Updating in the personality system. The high openness allows the harmonious social life to transcend yin-yang and passive-active.

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Consequently, the society with the harmonious social life maximizes acquisition, and minimizes the cost for individuals in the intragroup interaction, resulting in the most successful society. However, the harmonious social group size has to be small. The description and the evolution of harmonious cooperation social life and harmonious society will be discussed in details in the next sections.

The social life system consists of five different combinations of the factors in the personality system as in the following table.

The Social lives Primate for Social Structures Social lives yin (BNC ) –yang (FDG) or harmonious cooperation (high openness) passive-active (introvert-extrovert) or flexible Intragroup interaction among basic social units

Primate Social Structures

Characteristics Merrill-Reid Social lives

Yin Passive the loose

collective society

passive collective

wellbeing Amiable

Yang Passive the loose

individualistic society passive individualistic achievement Analytical

Yin Active the tight

collective society

active collective

wellbeing Expressive

Yang Active the tight

individualistic society active individualistic achievement Driver Harmonious cooperation

flexible the harmonious society

harmonious cooperation

The social life system is similar to the Merrill-Reid social style theory26, consisting of amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social lives. According to the Merrill-Reid theory, the four social lives are described below.

• Amiable: Place a high priority on friendships, close relationships, and cooperative behavior. They appear to get involved in feelings and relations between people. • Expressive: Appear communicative, warm approachable and competitive. They

involve other people with their feelings and thoughts. control emotion emote tell ask analytical driver amiable expressive yang yin active passive yang passive

yang active

yin passive yin active

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• Analytical: Live life according to facts, principles, logic and consistency. Often viewed as cold and detached but appear to be cooperative in their actions as long as they can have some freedom to organize their own efforts.

• Driver: Give the impression that they know what they want, where they are going, and how to get there quickly.

Amiable and Expressive have yin (female type) characteristic for collective wellbeing, while Analytical and Driver have yang (male type) characteristic for individualistic achievement. Expressive and Driver are more active in interpersonal relations than Amiable and Driver. Merrill-Reid social lives do not include harmonious cooperation. The amiable social life in the Merrill-Rein theory corresponds to the yin passive social life that involves and is keenly interested in the close relationship with people (yin) foe collective wellbeing. The expressive social life corresponds to the yin active social life that involves in both close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group wellbeing in addition to basic collective wellbeing. The analytical social life corresponds to the yang passive social life that involves and is keenly interested in only systemizing task (yang) for individualistic achievement. The driver social life corresponds to the yang active social life that involves both the close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group hierarchy in addition to basic individualistic achievement.

1.2.2. The Human Instincts and the Yin Yang Social Lives

The social lives are derived from the human instincts. The human instincts include the humanized instincts and the dehumanized instincts. The humanized instincts are used originally involving human. The dehumanized instincts are used originally involving nonhuman. It is quite common among social animals to behave differently toward the animals of the same species and toward the animals of different species. For examples, cannibalism and the killing among the animals of the same species are rare in social animals even during the fighting among the animals of the same species. The fighting among the animals of the same species for the purpose of domination is often ritualistic without serious injury. The harms to the infant animals from the animals of the same species are infrequent. On the other hand, as predators, animals kill preys of different species without hesitation. As a prey, an animal makes a manipulative strategy to escape from a predator of different species. Animals make a clear distinction between the animals of different species and the animals of same species.

The humanized instinct consists of the female-male instincts involving human. People possess all of the female-male instincts. The female instincts are in average stronger in women, while the male instincts are in average stronger in men. However, the overlap is large, so it is common for some men to have stronger female instincts, and for some women to have stronger male instincts. The female instincts include the bonding instinct to bond with other human and the nurturing instinct to nurture the love ones. The male instincts include the systemizing instinct to systemizing various objects into a system and the dominative instinct to have domination in social hierarchy.

The dehumanized instincts involving nonhuman are the prey-predator instincts. The prey instincts include the freezing instinct to minimize the activity in the presence of

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strong nonhuman predator and the manipulative instinct to play tricks to a strong nonhuman predator for the protection of self and love ones. The predatory instincts include the addictive instinct to have obsession in terms of task and the predatory instinct to over-control a weak nonhuman prey.

Such prey-predator instincts are for nonhuman, but in the large complicate civilized society where people relations are complicate, people misuse the prey-predator to subhuman that is defined as human who is treated as nonhuman. In an extreme case, a person regards all people as subhuman that activates the prey-predator instincts in the person, resulting in mental disorders, such as depression, borderline personality disorder, obsession, and psychopath. The prey instincts closely relate to the female instincts, while the predatory instincts closely relate to the male instincts. The human social lives are listed in the following table.

The Positive Negative Yin Yang Social Lives

Social life POSITIVE YIN POSITIVE YANG

Origin Humanized female-male instincts involving human

Description collective wellbeing in mostly people individual achievement in mostly task Perceived

Condition

abundant resource and security deficient resource and security Perceived

Mechanism

offensive mechanism for connecting

people defensive mechanism for survival

PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE

Merrill-Reid amiable expressive analytical driver

Instinct bonding nurturing systemizing dominative

Behavior kindness nurturing discipline strength

Role friend nurturer systemizer leader

Idealized Self-Image

loyalist peacemaker idealist hero

NEGATIVE YIN NEGATIVE YANG

Origin dehumanized prey-predator instincts involving subhuman

Description Cool manipulation in mostly people obsessive over-control in mostly task Perceived

Condition

deficient resource and security abundant resource and security Perceived

Mechanism

defensive mechanism for protection offensive mechanism for hunting

PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE

Merrill-Reid amiable expressive analytical driver

Instinct freezing manipulative addiction predatory

Behavior withdraw manipulation obsession over-control

Role prey manipulator addict predator

Idealized Self-Image

loner strategist specialist master

Mental Disorder depression borderline personality disorder obsession psychopath

Figure

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References

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