If there are any further questions with regards to the report or inspection, please call.

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April 15, 2014


PROPERTY: 75 Fairlawn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario Inspector: Richard Gaughan

OVERALL CONDITION: Typical. No major defects. This all brick home is in good structural

condition. The west concrete walkway should be re-poured as there is evidence of past basement seepage. The roof shingles and flat roofs are recent (2009) and are in good condition. The rear addition was built in 1981. The windows are in good shape throughout. The exterior brickwork is in good shape. The chimney structure requires tuck-pointing repairs.

The electrical system has a 200-amp service and updated panel. There is some of the original wire still in use (>50%). This warrants some electrical work. Additional outlets may be added at this time. The supply plumbing has a section of original steel pipe still in use in the basement ceiling and the original lead incoming water pipe under the front lawn. Both should be replaced. The waste plumbing has been substantially updated and is functional. The gas boiler was replaced in 2007. The heating system is in good working order. The interior finishes show no major defects. Additional insulation is recommended in the attic.

If there are any further questions with regards to the report or inspection, please call.




National Home Inspection Ltd.

1055 Woodbine Avenue Toronto, Ontario M4C 4C2

TEL: (416) 467-7809 FAX: (416) 429-5443


April 15, 2014


PROPERTY: 75 Fairlawn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario Inspector: Richard Gaughan Client: Cathy Brown


The following report is for use by the above client only. Recommendations by the inspector are located below each paragraph heading and have been identified as one of the following:

P: priority repair/safety concern within the next 1 year.

M: monitor.

G: general recommendation/maintenance.

- ESTIMATED AGE OF HOUSE: eighty years

- BUILDING TYPE: two storey detached - FRONT OF HOUSE FACES: north


National Home Inspection Ltd.

1055 Woodbine Avenue Toronto, Ontario M4C 4C2

TEL: (416) 467-7809 FAX: (416) 429-5443



1.01 Foundation: The foundation walls are constructed of concrete blocks. From a structural standpoint, the foundation is in good condition. The structural components in the basement (ie.

foundation and flooring system) could not be fully examined due to the finished nature of the basement. An addition is located at the rear. Its foundation walls are constructed of concrete.

1.02 Water penetration: The basement walls and floors were examined for evidence of water seepage. It is usually not possible to determine the severity and regularity of such problems without monitoring the walls over several months. Most water problems are a result of non functioning eavestroughs, downspouts, or poor surface drainage.

M: evidence of past water seepage was noted through the foundation on the west wall (at the juncture between the addition and original foundation). The water damage below the carpet is dry.

The grading is poor along this side of the house and should be corrected. Efflorescence at the NE corner is also indicative of elevated moisture levels. Ensure that the downspout in this location is functional at all times. As is typical of older homes, the foundations have no

damproofing/waterproofing on the exterior. Localized seepage is a possibility during extraordinary rainfall or neglect of eavestroughing or adequate surface drainage.

G: a dehumidifier should be operated in the basement during the summer months to minimize humidity and condensation problems on the basement walls and floor.

1.03 Exterior walls: The exterior walls are constructed of solid masonry. The masonry is a structural component and supports some of the load of the house. The rear addition walls are wood framed.

1.04 Interior framing: Most of the floor joists supporting the main floor could not be inspected due to the finished nature of the basement. These joists are composed of 2" by 8" lumber. The steel I-beam in the basement provides adequate intermediate support for the floors and walls above.

1.06 Termites: Due to the finished nature of the basement, few of the structural and non

structural wood members were visible. Consequently, the presence or absence of termite activity or damage could not be determined.

1.07 Roof framing: The visible roof framing in the attic is intact with no evidence of structural

problems. The attic was viewed from the hatch only. The visible sheathing boards in the roof

framing are intact.



2.01 Surface drainage: The land should show a positive slope away from the house on all sides.

This ensures good surface drainage and reduces the possibility of moisture problems in the basement.

P: break up and repour the cracked and improperly sloped concrete walkway on the west side.

Relay uneven paving stones along the east side of the house.

(Approximate Cost: $2,000 to $3,000)

2.02 Window wells: Their purpose is to allow the grade to be raised above the window sill and prevent water from ponding beside the window. Correct grading of the soil should be maintained around the perimeter to prevent erosion.

G: the debris in the basement window well at the front should be removed to prevent water from backing up and possibly leaking through the window and into the basement.

2.03A Asphalt roofing shingles: Typically, this type of roofing material will last 20 years. The shingles on all sides were installed in 2009. Much of the roof was covered in snow at the time of the inspection.

2.03F Multi-ply membrane roof: They are a reliable roof cover and last from 15-25 years depending on the product. The roof above the rear addition was replaced in 2009. Its surface was also largely covered in snow.

2.05 Skylights: The skylight on the flat roof of the addition is watertight.

2.07A Brick Chimneys: They provide protection and a chase for exhaust flues from fireplaces and heating systems. The chimney at the northwest corner contains two flues. One services the boiler; the other the fireplace. The boiler flue is equipped with a continuous metal liner which is beneficial in preventing deterioration to the chimney. The fireplace flue is unlined.

G: extensive tuckpointing of the mortar between bricks is required.

(Approximate Cost: $500 to $700)

2.08 Eavestroughs: They provide roof drainage and help prevent water collection around the

foundation. The system must be kept free of debris and checked regularly for loose sections and


leaky seams. The eavestroughs on all sides are made of aluminum. The downspouts discharge onto the surrounding land.

2.09A Masonry walls: The exterior walls on all sides are composed of brick masonry. The brickwork was found to be in generally good condition.

2.10A Exterior trim: All major openings in the exterior walls include trim to cover frames and provide a place to seal and flash sidings. The exterior window and door frames are intact and are provided with a good coat of paint.

2.10B Soffits & fascia: The soffit and fascia protect as well as seal the attic and roof framing.

The soffit is the horizontal overhang on the roof and the fascia is the vertical board to which eavestroughs are secured. Both should be kept well painted and checked for holes created by squirrels or birds. It is common to have the wood flashed with aluminum. The soffits and fascia on the addition are covered in aluminum. Those of the original house are painted wood.

2.11A Wooden decks: The wood deck at the rear is aging. As the deck was covered in snow, its full condition is unknown. Monitor for rotted boards.

2.11B Concrete decks: The concrete deck/steps at the front are functional. The concrete slab appears to be structurally sound. No cracks were noted in the slab.


3.01 Electrical service & panel: This home is equipped with an overhead 120/240-volt, 200-amp service. The main distribution panel is located at the northwest corner of the basement. The size of the service is considered adequate for the electrical requirements of the house. The distribution panel is rated at 200-amps. The panel rating is adequate for the existing service size. The electrical service is grounded to the supply plumbing.

3.02 Distribution wiring: The visible distribution wiring in the house is composed of copper wire. The wiring is a combination of the original knob-and-tube, located throughout the house, and modern grounded two conductor cable present in the basement, kitchen and rear addition.

P: there may be difficulty obtaining an insurance policy for a home that contains knob-and-tube

wiring. Some insurance companies have a blanket "NO" policy, others will accept a certain amount


of original wiring, and others still may request an inspection and a report prepared by a local Hydro utility or an electrician. Budget for replacement of all remaining original wire.

(Approximate Cost: $8,000 to $10,000)

P: an exposed live wire (covered with black tape) is present in the basement ceiling. As this is a safety concern, the wiring should be properly capped.

There are numerous 240-volt circuits and they are protected by circuit breakers. A list of the appliances and the breaker ratings is shown below.

- main floor stove 40-amps - dryer 30-amps - air conditioner 20-amps - electric heating 20-ampsX3

The above appliances have their circuits safely protected. The remaining breakers service 115- volt circuits. These supply electricity to the outlets and light fixtures throughout the house. Each circuit should be protected by a 15-amp breaker. The breakers should be tripped twice a year to ensure that they are in good operating condition. None of the 115-volt circuits are overfused.

3.03 Supply of outlets: The location of outlets in each room was verified. The kitchen is equipped with an adequate supply of outlets.

G: additional grounded outlets are required.

3.04 Operation of outlets & fixtures: Most of the outlets in the house were tested for continuity and grounding. The fixtures and switches were also checked for safe and proper operation. All outlets and light fixtures tested were found to be operable. The electrical outlet in the second floor washroom is protected by a ground fault circuit interrupter (G.FI.) device. It was tested and found to be operable. This type of outlet provides a high level of safety in bathrooms where electrical shock is a possibility.

G: install GFCI devices on kitchen counter plugs located within one meter of the sink.

3.05 Exterior wiring: Grounded wire and exterior rated components are important safety

features of the wiring system. All exterior outlets should be equipped with a ground fault circuit

interrupter. The exterior outlet at the rear is protected by a G.FC. I. device, located on the panel.



4.01C Type of system: The house is heated by a gas-fired, hydronic hot water system. The heating system was installed in 2007. The cast iron heat exchanger in this type of heating system typically lasts in excess of 25 years. The heating system was found to be operable during the inspection. Having it inspected and cleaned annually is a wise practice and will help maintain an acceptable level of heating efficiency.

The gas burner and related equipment was found to be operable. The circulating pump operates well. The pump is impedance protected and does not require annual oiling. An expansion tank is located near the boiler in the basement. These are installed to limit increases in pressure to the allowable working pressure. An automatic water regulating valve that controls the fresh water supply to the system is present. There is also a pressure release valve present that prevents the operating pressure from exceeding 30 psi.

The metal exhaust flue that connects the heating system to the chimney flue is well sealed. It should be inspected annually for perforations, blockage, or loose connections. The distribution piping visible in the basement was found to be in good condition.

4.02B Heat distribution: The radiators were inspected for operation and location to ensure adequate heating of the building. Air build-up within the rads is a common problem and regular bleeding of the rads is required. Check all rad valves annually for leakage. The location of

radiators should provide a fairly even distribution of heat to most areas of the home. Supplemental electric baseboard heaters are used in the rear addition and in the basement. All were found to be operable. The thermostat for the primary heating system is located in the living room.

4.03D Split-coil air conditioning; system: This system has been installed on the 2nd floor stairwell landing and should effectively cool the 2nd floor. If a portable fan is placed on the main floor at the bottom of the stairs, it will pull cool air down to this level of the house and provide some relief to the main floor during hot weather. The system was installed about 12 years ago. It could not be tested due to winter conditions.


5.01 Supply plumbing: The hot and cold water pipes from the basement to the kitchen on the

main floor have been upgraded with copper. The hot and cold water pipes from the basement to

the washroom on the second floor could not be inspected and it could not be determined whether


they have been upgraded (they likely have been replaced as the kitchen and bathroom are upgraded). The main water shutoff valve is located at the front of the basement.

G: replacement of the cold water galvanized steel plumbing in the basement ceiling will be required in future.

(Approximate Cost: $1,000 to $2,000)

5.02 Water pressure: The pressure (flow rate) was observed on the top floor when both the toilet was flushed and the shower or tub faucet was open.

P: the incoming service pipe appears to be an original lead pipe. Replacing this with a 3/4 inch copper pipe may be considered to improve water pressure and water quality. The City of Toronto has a programme to upgrade your water service pipe. You should take advantage of this

opportunity. They can be reached at the following numbers: 416-392-7737 or 416-392-7625.

(Approximate Cost: $2,000 to $2,500)

5.03 Waste plumbing: The visible waste drainage plumbing is composed of cast iron ,clay and upgraded plastic. The drainage pipes beneath the basement floor and under the front lawn could not be examined and their condition is not known. Water flow through all drains and toilets is

acceptable. A floor drain was noted in the basement.

M: monitor plastic pipe fitting at base of rear plumbing stack as there has been past seepage

(located behind metal hatch on basement wall separating the original portion of the basement to the addition area).

The waste plumbing appears to be properly vented through the roof to the exterior. Due to the lack of access, it was not possible to determine whether all branch waste lines are connected and functional.

The gas-fired hot water heater is a leased unit. Its capacity of 50 gallons is adequate for the number of bathrooms and kitchens in the house.

5.04 Plumbing fixtures: All faucets, toilets and shower diverters were tested to ensure that they

were in working condition. The plumbing fixtures throughout the house are functional. The

bathtub tiles in the second floor washroom are intact. The tile grout and seal around the tub should

be checked periodically and if necessary, resealed with silicone to prevent tile deterioration.


There is a sump pump system at the rear of the basement. Its purpose is collect ground water from around the addition foundation walls. The water is collected in the floor pit and discharged to the interior waste plumbing system. The pump is operable. Ensure that it is in working condition at all times.


6.01A Attic: There are about eight inches of loose-fill and fiberglass batt insulation present in the attic.

G: another six inches of insulation should be added to the attic to minimize heat loss through the ceiling.

(Approximate Cost: $1,000 to $1,500)

6.02 Venting: Adequate attic ventilation is provided, and this should help keep the house cooler in the summer and alleviate condensation problems in the winter.

6.03 Exterior walls: Insulation could not be found in the exterior walls of the original house. The small gap within the wall cavities of solid masonry homes normally prohibits the placement of insulation there. This type of wall construction usually has a thermal rating of R-4 to R-6. The addition exterior walls are insulated with fiberglass insulation. The rear basement exterior walls are insulated with fiberglass insulation.

6.06 Weatherstripping: Besides insulation, an effective means of controlling heat loss is by

ensuring that the interior of the house is well sealed. There is considerable air movement between

the interior and exterior walls in most houses. Interior losses occur beneath baseboards, around

electrical outlets, above the foundation sill plate in the basement, around window frames and panes,

and around doors. Significant savings can be gained by checking the above areas and making

corrections where necessary. Storm and thermalpane windows are present throughout the house.



7.01 Walls & Ceilings: The walls and ceilings are finished in a combination of original plaster and modern drywall. The wall and ceiling finishes were found to be functional with minor repairs.

7.02 Flooring: The floors were inspected for soundness where accessible. The floors throughout the house felt secure and are functional. The staircases in the house are sound. Some of the door jambs are no longer square. This is the result of normal settlement in the floor joists and load bearing walls and does not indicate a structural problem. The hardware on most doors is functional (bathroom door lock needs adjustment).

7.03 Windows: The following is a list of window types and any noted deficiencies. It is normal for the operation of wood windows to vary due to swelling and shrinking of the frames between the summer and winter months. The windows in most locations are provided with thermalpane glass.

+ upgraded metal/vinyl framed casement windows.

+ upgraded wood framed casement windows (rear addition).

7.04A Fireplaces: A wood burning masonry fireplace is present on the main floor. The firebox is intact and the damper is functional.

P: A W.E.T.T inspection may be requested by your insurer (and is recommended) if you plan to use the fireplace as a wood burning appliance. This is a thorough inspection of the fireplace and flue by a W.E.T.T. certified contractor to ensure safety of operation. They may specify a steel metal liner insert within the flue.

7.05 Ventilation: The kitchen exhaust fan was found to be operable. The exhaust appears to be

properly vented to the exterior. The bathroom exhaust fan located in the second floor washroom

was found to be operable and is vented to the exterior. The dryer in the basement is properly

vented to the exterior. All exterior vent covers are intact and functional. The perimeter of the

exhaust covers should be kept well caulked to reduce heat loss.



The inspector’s assessment of the overall condition of the building is based on a similar home of similar age and construction. The quality and quantity of upgrades, as well as anticipated repairs or upgrades as discussed in the report are factored into our assessment.


The following key areas require more immediate attention:


- PLUMBING (incoming water main)

The total cost for the repair estimates given varies between $15,000 and $20,000. A portion of these costs may represent future repairs. Additional costs will be incurred where a cost estimate was not provided.

If there are any further questions with regards to the report or inspection, please call.





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