Grammar of Chinese Language

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If

P

G

R

A

M M A

11 OF

THE

CHINESE LANGUAGE.

BY

i^

I

f

iJf. Z. B. S.

V;

C.

M.

J. li. G. S. A. S,^c., .jr.

IN

TWO

PARTS.

(j iir

PART

I.

PRINTED AT THK OFFICE OF THE "DAILY PEESS/' HONGKONG.

1864.

(8)
(9)

nil

..I

To

The

Honoiable

if.

(il^ljomh^,

THIS

VOLUME

"

IS

RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED

BY THE

AUTHOR.

^MlM

(10)
(11)

PREFACE.

Wlion

the

author

of

the

present

work

first

arrived

in

China,

he

had

ri;reat

dlffieuUies

in irettirif^;

a

teaclier

who

Avould

condescend

to

speak

to

him

as

he

would do

to

his

o«vn

countrymen

;

and

there

being not

as

yet

a

work

})u])-lished

in

the

local

dialect to

serve

as

a

safe

guide

to

a

knowledge

of the

spoken

language,

he

felt

that

in

using

any

of the existing

Grammars

he would

act

like

a mini

living in

London

and

using

a

French

Grammar

for

the

ac-quisition

of

English.

The

Orthography

of

most

of

the

smaller

works

that

were

aftervv^ards

published

is

only

adap-ted

for

private

use.

The

intonation

has

altogetlier

been

discarded,

which

makes

the

respective

works

often

dan-gerous instruments

to

place

into

the

hands

of

a

new

ar-rival.

As

to

the

Orthography

to

be adopted

in

the

present

work,

the

author

had

no

hesitation

in

giving

Sir

W.

Jones'

(whom

Dr.

Williams

follows)

the

preference.

Many

of

the

diacritical

marks

now

used

by

foreigners

are

not

required

for

natives

and may,

therefore,

soon

he done

away

with.

That

will

leave a

simple

and

excellent

sj'stem

of

spelling,

such

as

can

he acquired

by

a native

of

moderate

talent

within

the

short period

of

one

month.

To

invent

a

new

alpliabet,

as several excellent

scho-lars

have

proposed,

would

leave

us

in

the

same

"position in

wdiich

we

now

find

ourselves

in

Japan.

Siam.

Tdjet,

Bur-mah

and

India,

were

the

lack

of

a

more

practical

system

of spelling

is

keenly

felt

by

the

stn.deuts of

those tongues.

We

must

well

keep

in

mind,

that the further

we

(12)

togc-Ill

PREFACE.

tlier

and

the

more

we

shall

feel

the

need

of

a

Standard

Alphabet,

that will

enable

a native

of

Europe

to

read

the

names

on

maps

made

by

the nations

of

Asia

and

Afriea,

and

to

as(iertain

(approximately)

the

pronuneiation

of

a

word

without

any

aecjuired

knowledge

of the

language

of

the country.

In

order

to'

assist the

student

in

the acquisition

of

the

written

and spoken

idioms

and

to

enable

him

to

avoid

the

study

of

unnecessary

or useless sentences, the

author has

endeavoured

to

distinguish

the

book

style

from

the

va-rious

dialects.

At

the

end

of

most

of

the

i)aragra])hs

there

will

be found

a

summary

of the

words

in

use

in

the

Canton

dialect.

Whilst

-^the

student

of

that

dialect

ad-vances

in

the

Grammar,

he should

carefully

commit

to

memory

all

the

sentences

and

verbs

in

the

Introduction.

A

list

of

Phonetics

for

writing-lessons

will

be

published

shortly

after

the

second

part

of

this

Grammar

is

com-pleted,

and

the

author

hopes

that

with

the

hints

thus

given,

the

student

will

be enabled

to

learn

to

write the

charac-ters

of the

Chinese

language

within

one

year

and

to

re-meml)cr

them

throughout

his

life.

The

diftieulties

encountered

in

preparing

the

present

work

have been very

great,

besides

the

Provei-bs

and

two Reading

Lessons

the

author

met

with but

little

help

fnmi

existing

books.

He

can,

however,

not

pass

over

in

silence

the

.valualde

assistance

rendered

to

him by

the

late

Mrs.

Irwin,

in

looking

over

the

first

00 pages

of

the

manuscript.

He

also

feels

greatly

indebted

to

the

Rev.

Mr.

Stringer

for

his

kindness

in

correcting the

last

proofs.

Simplicity

and

usefulness

have

been the

sole

object

aimed

at

by

the

author.

He

has

endeavoured

to

collect

for

reading

lessons

new

and

interesting

intc'rmation

on

the

government,

religion,

manners and

customs

of the

Chin-ese,

so

as

to

ac(piaint

the

student

not

only with

the

lan-guage,

but

also

with the routine

and

daily

life of

the

})e()-])lc,

among

whom

he

is

anxious

to

sojourn.

Since the

burning

of

the

Factories

and

the

(13)

dif-IV

PREFACE.

ficulties

liave

1)oen

expcriciK^ed

in o-ettino a

work

like

the

present

tli

rough

tlie

press.

The

author

wouhl,

therefore,

ask

the

indulgence

of

the

reader

for

defects

in

the

out-ward

appearance

of the

book.

Whilst

thanking

such

jis

have

assisted

him

with

their

counsel,

he

shall

feel

greatly

obliged

for

additional

help

for

a

new

edition.

W.

L.

Victoria,

Hongkong,

April,

ISGl.

(14)
(15)

INTRODUCTION.

AJfinity

and

Difference ofliacrs.

Whrn

a p-^rson cominof trom

Europe and

travelling eastward,

pas-ses

through

a

number

ofstates,

whose

inliiibitaiitsdifferg'reritly iVoin

him

in complexion,

cosrume

and

religion, his curiosity is excited as

he

ad-vances; for the nearerhe approaches India, thegreater is the similarity

of features with his

own,

and

the closer the affinity of the lang-uaga

S[)oken

by

the sisterstates ofEurope.

The

large, sparkling eyes of the

eastern nations, so f\ir as theyare

unmixed

with the IVlongolians

from

the deserts of Asia,

have

for

more

than

3000

years, revelled in

sensua-lity; but

combined

with it poetr}', fiction

and

wit,

with

which

the

graver nations of theweststill

amuse

theirchildren or entertain

them-selves during thelong winter evenings.

The

gigantic

works

the}'created forthemselves

and

their

gods

ara as

many

expressions of their character

and

sentiments,

and

repres^pnt

them

to us asapeople anxiousto perpetuate their

own

existence

on

this

eartlj, or toinducetheir

gods

to quit their abodes ofbliss

and

dwell

with

man

in the workf- of/n'screation.

Crossing the

Himalaya

how

different istheaspect of affairs.

Poly-gamy

and

its

accompanying

vices is here

exchanged

with

Polyandry.

The panorama

before us is not unlike

an

encampment

of proletarians,

who

are living

upon

the scanty

crumbs

fallen

from

theovertlowing tables

of their neighbours.

The

wings

ofimagination areclipped.

Tied

to a

barren soil,

hemmed

in

by

mountains

and

deserts,

who

wonders, that the Tibetian's daily

song

is:

"'

My

home

is nothere", that he has created

anotlier

world

equally poor

and

comfortless;

and

that his ciiaritabia

disposili()n hns

imposed

upon

him

the task ofprovidingfor the

necessi-tiesofthe citizensof that world.

The

language

spoken

by

this people

and

further eastward to tlie

Paciflc: in China,

Cochin

China,

Siam and Burmalf

belongs tothe

mo-nosyllabic tongues and is noted forpoverty

and

inflexibility.

The

pho-r.etic system introdroduced into Tibet,

Burmah

and Siam

has indeed to

a certain degree assisted in

advancing

general education ; but this bis

been

more

than counteracted

by

the influence of

Budhism

and

the

lui-cient superstition, as received from the Chinese.

China

appears to

have

been the cradle of that peculiar

kind

of civilization

which

distinguishes it from therest of the world. But; their ideas petrefied in hieroglyphics before they

were

fully developed;

and

theiradvancein literature

was

marked

by

tlieIbrmation ofa

svstem

(16)

VI

INTRODUCTION.

Jjiff'crenl Dinhcls in China. Peculiarifij

of

the northern Court

Dialact-thelocaldialects,liowevermiiclitheyditfarfrom each other.

Now

you

hear

a veruiiciilar,

which reminds you

of Scandinavia; again

you

fi\ncy

your-selfin France;

and

again

you

are

overheaped

wirhgutturals,

more

than in Holland

and

other parts

of

the Netherlands.

But

in spiteof thejerks

and

unearthly sounds, the result ofan imperfectarticidation, Ciiiua

made

considerable prog-i'ess in civilization,

which

enabledit to

subdue

and

re-firm

the surrounding b-arbarians,

and

toexercise a nominal

sway from

Central

Asia

to the Pacilic

and

down

tothe

Malayan

Peninsula. In all

tha.^e states, even in.Japan, the Chinese characters

became

the

medium

ot official

communication, and

occupy,

up

to this

moment,

the

same

po-sition that Latin didin

Europe

duringthe middle age.

If the dialects in

China

were reduced to a phonetic system,

wo

should

have

as

many

different lang'uages as

we

have

in

EuropH

and

among

theaborigines of America.

We

should find that the Chinese vernacularis bv

no monns

apurelymonosyllabic tongue,

and

that

theiiir-ther

we

advance

towards the north, the

more

similarity

we

find in the

form

ofthe languiigesb.5t\^''een China,

Japan and

the

American

Indians.

Jn

the Canton, Ilakka

and

othersouthern dialecrs

we

frecpiently

hear thefinals p, t,

and k

; further to the north

and

in

what

is g»^ne-rally called the southern

Court

dialect, theseconsonants terminate in

aa

abrupt sound, in

which

neither thep, t or

k

can bedistinguished ; again furthernorth this abrupt

sound

terminatesin a long vowel.

Hence

the

name

of the

Governor

General of Canton, wlio

was

captured

by

the

English, is

pronounced

yip in Punti;

yap

in

Hakka

; yl (abruptly) in

the southern,

and

yeh

(long) in the northern

Court

dialect.

The

only

iinalconsonantleftin thelatterdialectis the N,

and

the nasal

Ng.

The

P.

becomes

B

; the

M

N

; the

H

or

W

changes

into the guttural Ch.as

it is

pronounced

in all its finances in

Germany,

orthe

X

in Greece.

If

we

now

pass overto

Japan

we

find, that ifthe

language

be cor-rectlv written, not a single syllable terminates in aconsonant but the N. All the prefixes

and

suffixes are, as inChina, Siara

and

Tibet, inflexible

particles,

and

the possessive

" of"

stands detached as in the English

lan-guage, as:

Mimasaka

no

kami, the

knmi

of

Mimasaka

;

Suruga

no

kami

the

kami

of Suruga. It certainlycannot be

mere

accident thatthe

same

form

should be

found

in

many

languages of the

American

Indians.

When

in

America and

called

upon

to reada

few

lines in a

book

ia

which

the Indian

language

was

transcribed according to S[)anish

pro-nunciation, I

was

struck with the similarity of the sounds with the

Ja-])anese. In

opening

another book, alsjwritten in the

same

language, I

found

on

the title

page

the English

word

''Acts" prefixed to

"Apos-tehiu,'' i.c, the " Acts of the Apostles."

The

Nu, Japanese

No,

had

ei-ther

from

ignoranceor

from

adesiretoeuropeanize the language, been

affixedto the the

word

Apostle.

Tiiis

threw

atonce

some

lighton theclnracter ofthe

language and

theprobabloorigin of the Indians. Theirlong words, I

was

sure,

were

strunj^ together

from

ignorance; lor all the

names

underneath the

por-traits of chiefs indicate, tliatthe

language

was

originally a syllabic (if

(17)

VII

INTRODUCTION.

SiviilarUy

«f

Chinese,

Japanese and

Avierlcan Indian Dialects.

reduced

toaphonetic sj'stem,

vLole

sentences

were reduced

to a sinj^le

Avoid.

?ily conjectures

were

not lonp: to

remain without

practical proof.

I soon learnt, that theJapanese atnhiissadors.

when

in California,

acci-dentally asked for c\i chi. the Imiian

name

for uiilk. This reniarkahle coincidence led to

an

inquiry,

which

resulted inth-^ discoveryof six

Ja-})anese

names

in the California Indian dialc(;t.

I

would

here remark, that those Indians,

who

chieflysupport

them-selves

by

hunling-and fishing,speak dialects in

sound

much

more

sinu-lav to the

Japanese

and

Tartars ofnorthern Asia, than in

Yucatan,

Cen-tral America,

and

Mexico.

Here where

we

find theideographic inscrip-tions so similar in composition to theancient Chinesecharacters,

we

have

also languages or dialectsresemhling

more

that of northern Cliina.

For

i)i these languages (or dialects)

wo

meet

tlie

same

iireponderance of coni-})Ound hissing sounds

and vowels

asin China,

and

theabsence ofthe

R

is

no

less rennii-kable. Ilitheito however, ihe orthography of the

works

]»nblished in the Otorni,

Quiche and

other languages of Yucatan,

Cen-tral

America

and ]\Iexico is too incorrect toenable us todecide

on any

point withouta thorough

knowledge

ofatleastone ofthem.

Even

the

copies,

which Stephen

made

from the manuscriptsofthe priests, betray

a lamentableinconsistency oforthography.

American Indians

apparenlhj one

Face

n-iih the

Japanese

and

E.Asiatics. If

we

comparo

the stature, features, hair

and complexion

ofthe

In-dians,

we

cannot help declaring

them

to beeither Japanese, Chinese or

other cognate tribes of eastern Asia, I

have

seen

women

and

children^

whom

nobody would have

taken for Indians,

had

he found

them

in one ofthe Islands of Japan.

In

passing accross the

Isthmus

of

Panama

and

Mexico, I

was

struck with the simihirity of architecture

between

the Chinese

and

thesepeo[)le. Instead ofexcavating mountains, instead

of

making

expensivevaults, all the principal edificesare erected

on

ele-vated ground.

The

tiles of the roofs areconcave

and

con' ex,just as

wo

have them

in

China

; theanchors oftheirboats are the

same

as

we

find

them

in

Japan and

the north ofChina, i. e. with four

hooks

without a barb;

and

innumerable other manners,

customs

and

peculiaritiesof

civi-lazation agree exactly with those of eastern Asia, as in

no

other country ofthe world.

We

now

come

to inquire as to

how

these tribes could reach

Ame-rica.

During

the

summer

months,

when

the sun did not set for

one

whole month,

theinhabitants ofthe

extreme

parts ofnortheastern Asia,

either pressed

by

hostile tribes, or

from an

ini])Vilse of adventure,

must

liavecrossed over tothe

Ameiican

continent,

where

either

by hunting

or fishing, they could easily su]iport themselves

and

providefor their

wants

during

the

coming

winter.

Wave

after

wave

ofimmigration is likely to

have

rolled

on

;

and

if only, at long intervals, a few returned totheir

native place, that

was

sufficientto accountfor a kno\\l..'dge of a laige Eastern continent, floating

among

the Chinese,Japanese

and

other

(18)

YIII

INTRODUCTION.

American

Iii:lkui< likehjjrom China,

Japan

and N.

E. Aitia.

The

largefleetsoffishing-boats about the coasts of

Japnn and China

are,

we

know,

frequently overtaken

by tremendous

gales

and

eitber

des-troyedor carried eastwards.

We

know

of Japanese

junks

having-

betm

picked

up beyond

the

Sandwich

Islands

and

close tothe shore of

Ame-rica after

an

absence of

more

than nine months.

But

mnch

more.

Larg-efleets of

war

junks,

sometimes

manned

by

as

many

as

100,000 men,

have

left the coast of

China

and

Japan,

and have

been scittered

by

the

N.

W.

gales, tl)atonly few of

them

eversurvived or returned. It isnot

tmlikely, that thesejunks, being well provisioned,

have

continuedintheir

eastward course, until, within

28

dej^^-rees

N.

L. they fell in with the

trade wind,

which

compelled

them

to chang'e their course,

and

carried

them

towards

Mexico

or lowerCalilbinia,

where

they laid the

founda-tion to that

kind

of civilization resembling- so

much

the Chinese

and

Japanese.

Look

attheChinesedress5 or6centuriesago,

and

you

have the bead

dress ofthe

Mexicans;

look at the

monstrous

uniforms, coats-of-mail,

and

the

head

dress oftheJapanese

women, and you

willbe struck

with

theii;. similarity to the Mexicans.

As

all the kings, cliiefs,

and

priests, in one word, all the creators of tiiat peculiar civilizition

were

daslroyed hij the Spaniards,

we

need

not

wonder

attlie

low

el>b of

edu-cation of the presentrace, vvbo are

merely

thechildren of peasants

and

the lowerclasses.

Were

Cliinese

who

speak

the different dialects

and

well versed in their

own

literature,

and

Japineseof education, well

fur-nished with ancient works, sentwith scien'^iHc

men

to America, v,'e

may

rest assured, they

would

soon

decypher

the inscriptions

now

fast

going

to ruin.

HammarT/ofSimilaritytftheAmerican Indians withtheJapanese, Chinexe

andNorthernAsiatics.

1. Lamjua-^e. MnnosylUbic, asspokonbv 'be (Jtomiand other tribes.

Hiero-pflypb.? or iden'.^iaphicchar;iciers.onthesamepiinciple aithe Chinese; absence of

the

R

(iinrtn:irthosetrilieswherethe ideograi'hicch^iactei'sarefound; prevalenceof

hissini? soundsan.l gutturals,and mast words terminatinginavowel-2.

Polysylla-bic languas^e of asyllai)icchat-icter,representini? notsound,butsi/llah/rsasin

Ja-pan. Japanese wordsdetectedinthe Indian languaHjo; Japanese form of the

poj-sessise cis'-"; prevalence of the B. andthe terniination of every wird in a vowel,

except theN.

2. Ueli;4ion. The nnost ancient religion of the Indiansnow formina t^e

wan-dering tribes,isthe belief inonegreat Spirit,

whom

theyworshiplikethe Japanese

their SinJfiijI(spirit)withoutimage. In both places long, hortatory addresses are

delivered to tlie audience, andboth exhibitprofound reverence of that spirit, and

d.'epreli'.:i'>u3feelin!?s. The polytheistic t'orin ofworship asfoundin Mexico&c.,

is,accoriUn<to accu-pted history,themost

m

ule'-n one andwas,if we believe

Chin-e^ie lei»ends.iniroducedby [Judhist and Sh-imanpriestsabout the bei^inninp; of the

Bixth century ofoui era,which nearly oincides with thecommencementof the

Tol-tecian hi.story, which is put down at A. 0. 596. The dragon orserpf-utworship

wasvery prevalent. Tliat the Chinese draizon is norhing but a serpent, can be

proved fromthef:ict. that atthis

moment

si^rpcatsare keptintemples as

renresen-tatives of the ancient dragon. They resembledtheChinese and (Mudliist) J;ipanese

in their ideis of •'the transmigration of thesoul;" in theirmonastic forms and

dis-cipline;

--in theirpenauccs. ablutions.almsirivinu'S andpublicfestivals;inihc

wor-ship ofthiurhousehoiil i:ods, inthedevotions of thejirie-.tstothe study ff-istroloj^y

(19)

cloi»-TNTIIODUCTIOX.

i^ummari/ ofShiulariti/ ^c. S,-c. Origin

of

the Written

Language.

ter; in the incense,liturgies and chantsoftheirworship;iu theiruse ofcharmsand

amulets; in some ofibeirformsof burnius? the dead, ^nd the preservation of the

ashes in urns, and in the assumptionofihorii;httoeducate the youth."

Amony

other superstitious notionsi^theoneofacelestialdragonendeavouring;todevourtha

sunduring;aneclijise,andtheirfondnessforthedrum, gong andrattles.

3. Customs.

The drai;on standard, banner Imces, aswefindthemin Chinese Budhist temples; eusicrnsand bannersstuckin aferula, fixedat theback ofa

war-rior.

A

Kindof heraldry,as wemefttamontj the Japanese.

Some

oftheirnuptials

were symbolized by theceremonyoftyiny;thegarmentsofthatwocontracting

par-ties to;;ether. 'I'here wasonly onelawful wife, thongh a plurality of concubines.

Ihave already refe'red to the similarity of dress, architecture and anchors of

ships.

Physiologically considered there is not the slightest diflference between tbeso

triljesandthosv ofJapan andChina, andthetribes

among

themselvesdiffernomore

fromeach otherthanthe people of Europeofoneandthe samestock.

Crossing over tothe Atlanticwemeetwith legends pointing to a northeastern

andeasternimmigration. Pictures of bearded

men

dre here andthere found, and

" figures indistresswith Caucasian" features have long beenpreserved

among

the

Toltecs. Teutonic words arehereandtheie interspersedamong thepiraticalCaribs,

Makusi andothertribes,andthestrange propernamesfound

among

the Mexicans,

and ofwhich there arenoroots inthe sametongue, indicate a very slight influence

of eastern origin, but notsutlicient tochangethe fundamental Asiatic character of

civilization.

The keyto thiswouldbe, frequenthostile expeditionsalongthe coast ofEurope

andnorthern Africa being, bystorm andthegulf stream, carried into tho Caribic se»,

where the few that survived, were soon absorbedby the natives. But

much

more

than that; we know that Irish priests arrivedat Iceland as early as A.D. 793, or

more than70years before the Normans, andcertainleaendsinformus,that

Irish-men, pressed by

Roman

and Germanicinvaders, crossed the Atlantic even earlier

than the above periodandsettled in Florida, wheretheyweremetwith by the

ad-venturersfrom Iceland. They appear,however to have either been killod orbeen

absoided by the natives,whoononeoccasion seizednolessthan100whites, carried

them into the interior, and would havemurderedthem,hadnotanother white,

ap-parently achief,savedthem. Tlie character he gave of the nativeswassimilarto

thitlatergiven by the Spaniards. P'rom thut time (A.D.1G27) all intercourse

with Americaisbrokenoffandthelandforgotten.

Origin ofthelorittan language.

When

the ancient Chinese felt t!ie

need

of a written

medium

for

commnnicatiati theirideasto one anotlier, they represented

them

by

hie-rou-lyphics. Thiise

were

originally nothing but rudeoutlines ofnatural

objects, as:

O

^'^esun.

To

express morning-, a line

was drawn

be-neaththesun

(^)

indicating that the

sun

is above the horizon.

Other

ab-ttract ideas,

having

reference to space,

were

representedin a similar

manner,

as:

above_j:__, below "":

.The

characterr^jsresen^edl bysun

and

moon,

put together(z)j).si^ifies-brightness, illustration,.illumination &c.

.Ideas

having

reference tothemind,are expressed

by

the heart

;quick per-ception, intelligence,

by

the ear&c.

The

classificationofthe characters Ufider six heads, i.e.,

1.

^^

Tseung^O'^^dj hieroglyphics, oroutlinesof natural objects;

2. tisC

f^

'Ka

tse' metaphorical, or

borrowed

idea'sj

^"

(20)

X

INTRODUCTION.

Origin ofthe Wr'dte.)i

Langnnge.

/

4-

H

-&

Ui^i^ ideogTajibicor combination of Ideas;

5.

iJH^si

'Chun

cliii' antithetical orinvertino; signification;

'

6

^^

(Shing

jing

phonetic, or suchas giving

sound

;

V

Ciin be reduced

under two

heads :hierogyphic

and

ideographiccharacters.

The

former representingthe radicals,

and

thelatterthe

compound

cha-racters,

must

be well distiiigaished

from

words.

Many

radicalsor

primi-tives

may

form

one

compound

character; but

one

or

two

such

charac-'ters mr^vbe necessary toexpress one

word

or idea.

The

hieroglyphics were, intheir original form, too

clumsy and

im-practicable to

remain

longin use,

hence an

artificial

form

was

soon

sub-stitutedfor them,

sun,

was

changed

into

p

j

i |vv]

mountain

into jjj . '

<s> eye into

g

. gij(j philosophy in all itsbranch<)S

was

brou"'ht tobear

upon

theform;Uion of

new

characters.

The number

of original hieroglyphics,

now

radicals, is 214.

These

are however, notall simple charact-^rs,

on

wliichaccount

we

might even

reducethat small

number

considerably.

Some

are very complicated

and

belon""to that classof characters,

which

we

would

call phonetics,

Takin"' it for granted, that the spoken language existed before the

written, that it

was

as

monotonous

(lack ofdiversified sounds)

and

mo-nosyllabic as it is

now,

the

most

practical question that suggests itself

to our

mind

is this;

What

rule

guided them

in theformation ojthe cha-racters7 If

we

are able toascertain this,

we

have

gained a greatstep

and

shall find it notso ditHcult a taskto

remember

even

complicated

characters.

Character

of

the writtenlanguage.

The

214

radicals

we

would

call Relatives,

and

the primitives

formed

by

acombinationofone or

more

radicals

we

would

call Phonetics.

We

must

be

well understood, that

we

only deal with those characters,

which

we

supposeto be the representativesof thespoken language,asitexisted at the time,

when

the written characters

were

introduced.

The

phonetics

were

eithersimple or

compounds,

i. e.

sometimes

only a single radical

was

required toexpress the monosyllabic word, whilst again certain

compounds

assuming

the

power

of phonetics.

Three

piinciples

guided

them

in theformation ofcharacters.

1. therepresentative ;

2. the ideographic;

and

3. thephonetic.

1.

Of

tho first class tlie

number

isnot very great.

None"

of the

characters of

which

they are

composed,

has anything to

do

with the

sound

or

spoken

word

; f. i. rlr. tso- tosit

down

is

composed

of^yan

/v»

an,

and

't'6

IL,

earth.

As

the author could notfind a

form

which

in

(21)

xr

INTRODUCTION.

Character

of

the

Written

Latujiuige.

Bound

corresponded to the colloquial

word

tso^,

he

represented

two

raea

sitting;

on

theground.

Yan*

^

to be pregnant,is

composed

of

7^

^nai, tobe,

and

'tsz ~f*

child.

None

of the characters has

any

reference to the

word

yan*,

but

a

pregnant

woman

isrepresented as

being

Avitliachild.

2.

The

ideograi^hic

and

phonetic principles arein

most

instances

com-bined; but not always, f. i.

mak,

^g

ink expresses the idea of hakj

^^

black,

and

jH

^t'Oj

substance=a

blacksubstance.

Yukj

^^

a prison, is

composed

of

two

^hiin,

yC

dogs,

and

jin

^,

word,to say, to speak.

The

author's idea of a prison, therefore,

must

have

been th;itofa plnce wiiere one isconstantlv

annoyed

as

when

l)er-u'oen

two

dog-^, or

where

men

holil coavcr^.iLioii ofu.s vileacharacter as that of dogs.

3.^']_iH^pha,netio principlepvedominatos over every otherin the

for-mation

of characters. Its extensive ai)pIicationalmostentiile't^ttto the '3'esiguationofthe syllabicsystem ofthelanguage.

These

syllablesprove

incontesribly, that the authors of the written

language emieavoured

to *

invent a

mode

of representingthe

language

as

spoken;

but

combining

ideography

with tliti phoneticSA'Stera, they soon found it superfluous to

Avritofor the ear, as the iJeograjjhiccharacter iully

conveyed

the

mean-ing

to the reader. Henfc»itcame, thatthe

language by

degrees

asstmi-ed

more

of tlie monosyllabic character,

which

progressedwith the

ex-tension ofletters

and

general education.

Examples,

where

theideographic

and

plioneticsj'stems are

combined.

P'a' 'Ih to

be

afraid, is

compcsed

of pak,

(Court

dialectp'ah)

and

heart.

As

theauthorbrouglithis])hiIosophicalnotions to bear

on

the

for-mation

ofthecharacter,

and

thatbeing that of a paleheart

when

fi-i^iht-ened, he selected acharacter possessing both attributes: sound,

and

the

colour ofa frightened

man.

But

as paleness

from

p';? fright, standsin

intimate relation tothe heart, he united

them

and

thus representedidea

and sound

in

one

word.

(Lung

^^

a hole, is

composed

of /\. iit, a hole, aden,

and

Hb

J""ra

a dragon.

The

author consideringtluihabitation of

dragons

tobe caves, holes,placed a

dragon under

shelterin anatural cave, orhole, so that

by

seeing the character, one's ideas are at once associated with

a hole, whilst

Jung

would remind

him

of the

word

in

common

use.

It

would

lead us too far,

were

we

totrace this interesting,but

un-profitable, subject

any

further;

we

wouhi, therefore,proceed to the pure phonetics, or those characters,

which

rejiresentthe

language

as it in

some

parts stillis, orwas, once, spoken. If thestudentwill

pay

strict atten- -,

tion tothe phonetics, he will findit comiiaratively easy tolearn to write

||

and

to

remember

thepronunciation ofacharactei'.

Note.

Under

a phonetic system

we

understand not merely syllables bata

capacityofdissecting theseiiitoconsonantsaadvowels,asis impossible with theChinese phonetics.

(22)

xrr

TXTRODUCTIO>^.

Characterof'the WriHe7i Lanf/uage.

The

SeUitives.

The

phonetics areofa stereotype character

and

are

composed

of one,

(23)

xirr

INTtiODUCrrON.

T//e Jtelutives.

65.

;H'

'Kiing 'J'ojoin hands.

5().

~\

Yik,

An

arrow.

57.

^

fK^nnf^

A

bow,

58.

^"^

Kai'

A

swino'sLead.

59.

^

^Shara Feathers, hair.

GO.

Y

Ch'ik,

A

short step.

4

Strokes.

01.-l\j>t/J\^,Sam

The

heart.

C-J. JiC <K\vo

A

spear.

C:3.

j5

W

A

door. 6i.

^

'Shau

A

hand.

05.

^

,Chi

A

branch.

60.

jfejt

P^ok,

AbW.

67.

X^

tMan

Letters, (.58. -n

'^^u

-A-

measure.

69.

JV

(Kan

A

catty. 70.

y^

.Fong

A

square, 71.

/L/C

iMo

Without,

not.

72.

H

Yat,

The

sun. 73.

H

UC^

To

speak. 74.

>^

U^i

The

moon.

75.

>K

Mukj

Wood.

70.

:X

Him'

To

owe. 77.

ih

'Chi

To

stop. 73.

^:^

'Tai Evil.

Weapons.

79.:§!

,Shu

80.fl^

iMo

81. J^fc

Ti

82.

%

^Mo

83.

ft

Sl'i^ 84.

-^ HP

Do

not.

To

compare. Hair.

A

family. Breath. 85. :5iC'i' .>f<'Shui. 80. j/C'^'"^ 'I^o Fire. 87.

jTV

4*

'Chdu Clawa.

88.

3^

Fu^

A

father. 39.

^

^Ng-iiu

lo

imitate. 90.

7l

{Ch'ong-

A

Couch.

91. It P'in'

A

.splinter. 92.

^

»Nga' Teeth. 93.

^f" iNgau

A

cow. 91. ;/c

^

'Hun

A

dog. 6 Strokes. 95.

^

jUn

bouibre. 96.

^3E

Yuk,

A

-em.

97. )Ik

,Kwa

A

melon.

98.

K

-Nga

Earthen.

99.

-y^ ,K6in

Sweet. 100.

i^,8h{ing

To

produce. 101.

IB

Yung^

To

use.

lOG.

^

iT'in

A

field.

103.

7p

P^at,

A

roll, a piece. 104.

^

-^^^"^j Diseased.

105

^"^

^*"^' '^'^ separate. 106.

A

^'^^i

White.

107.

i^

.P'i Skin. 108.

M

'Ming

A

dish. 109.

@

°=°Mnk,Theeye.

110.

'^

t^i^^i -^spear.

m

4^

*Ch'i

An

arrow.

112.-5

Shek,

A

stone.

113

^J^

?

^^^^^

To

admonish.

114. ft]

'Yau

To

creep,

no.

:^cWo

Grain.

116.

yC

Utj A.cave,

117. JJL L-^'Pi

To

standup.

C Strokes."!

(24)

XIY

INTRODUCTION.

Ultc Jlelativcs. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 12G. 127. 128. 121). 130.

131

132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151.

"^

Mai

Rice.

^

,Sz' Silk.

^

,Fau Crockery.

^[mJli'Mong

A

net. ^-^

jYeung

A

sheep.

^M

-l'^ Wing-s.

^

^Ia>

Aged.

rfn ;!

And,

still.

;^

Lo?

A

plough. -^*'I

An

ear.

^^

Lutj

A

pencil.

r^

>]

Yuk,

Flesh.

•p,

iShanlan

A

minister.

g

Tsz^ "g* Shit Self; from.

To

extend

to.

A

mortar.

The

tongue.

^

'Ch'un

Error.

-^

^Chau

A

boat; avessel.

^

Kan'

Perverse.

^

Shik, Color.

ljJJ|I-^^' cTs'o Shrubs.

/^

J<'u.

A

tiger.

^

sCh'ung

Keptiles.

IqI^ Hiit, Blood.

^^

Jli^nj?

To

walk.

^

^

J

Clothing.

(^ i^

'Hu

To

oversee; west 7 Strokes.

^

Kin'

To

see.

^

Kok,

A

horn.

"^

Jn

Words.

>^

Kuk,

A

valley.

M

Tau^ Piilrie. 152.

^<

TJh'i

(25)

KNTRODUCTJON.

'The lielalives.

The

rho?ietics.

The Spohcn

Lamjua'je.jr.,

Ac

1S:1

M

cl^'i T<3 fly. 181.

^

Shik,

To

eat. ]8o. "§""^8)11111

The

head. 180.

^^

jlleun!:^ Incense.

10

Strokes. 187.

Mj

OIu

A

horse. 188.

'^

Kwat,

BoH-es. ]S9.

jg^Ko

Ilio-h.

i:)0.

Jp

,riu Lono-h;nr:

191,

Pi

Tan'

To

(luarK^l,

]Ol>.

^

Gh'eung'

A

trag-rant plant, I'.'o.

f^

T^ik,

A

tripod, urn,

104.

%i

'Kwui

A

demon.

11 Sti'okes. 1O.J.

^

.tJ

A

fish. ]0!).

%

rp

12

Strokes.

201.^,

Wong

Yellow.

'2iyi.

^

'Sh.-i Millet.

i^O.3.

P

Ilak, Llack. -^^^. lr[^'Ch'i

To

embroider. ].j Strokes. -05. gg^ ^Min

A

froo-. *30G. ^^f[ 'Ting-

A

tripod. 207.

gj

cKu

A

drum.

'2m.

J^

'Shii

A

mouse.

-11: Strokes.

*

The

nose.

210.

^

jTs'ai

Even,

correct,

15

Strikes.

211.

®

'Chi

The

teeth.

16

Strokes.

212. }^%

Xung-

A

dragon. 213.

H^

jKwai

A

tortoise.

17

Strokes.

21-1.

'^

Yeukj

A

flute.

The

Phonclics.

The Spohcn

language Bcprcscnted hi the Characler.

In looking into a

Tonic

Dictionary, one

must

be struck

with

the

Ln'u-e

number

otcharacters, wliich

when

separated

from

their respective

relarives, retain the

same sound

tliey

had

in their various combinations,

though

their

components had no

reference

whatever

to the

meaning

of

the word.

When

however, the plionetic has a signification ofits

own,

it frerpiently conveys the

meaning

ofa

whole

sentence,

and

isnotonly ideographic, butits

components

correspondalso in

sound

to the

spoken

lanu'uage.

(26)

XVI

INTRODUCTION.

Thi^

Spolwn

Lay,(/na/je h'epresmlcd hi fhe

Chamcter.

The

rhonrtics.

^

Jcin-, capital (city)

t^

jii a lisli.

fi^

tk'in^

^

jC

<kung

to lubour.

j]

\i\[with] vigour, ^/j

(kung-a c(kung-apitiil fish,a

whale, the

lar-gest of

mons-ters. to perform ac-tionsdeserving praise; merito-rious&c.

Xjvung

' tolabour :5: p=ok

J

^^^'^fll'^.^^^fe^kung j ^^ "^^^'^^^^ 5

Io^t, blows

^

^

"I

assault.

to

These few examples

show, thatthe ancient Chinese, after

having

(liscar<le<l the hieroglyphics,

endeavoured

to represent their ideas as

ex-pressed in the vernacular tongue.

The

further

we

go

to the north, or

the»nearer>ive

approaoh

antiquity, the greater will be the siujilarity

be-LiA--

tween

the

sound

ofthe dissected character

and

the

spoken

language.

The

purely phonetic system,

where

the

sound

represents the

spoken

language, irrespectiveof<Jie

meaning

ofthe cnn-)])ound, is the

most

pre-..^valent,

and

to this the stndentsliould

pav

his undivided attention,

^^"'^'^ '' "

p,-,

Examples

of^thePhonetic jlrtj jTHuig.

Add

to therelative,

-^

jkam, metal, thephonetic |^| jt'ung,

andy

(27)

XVIT

INTJ{ODUCTI0i\.

The

Phonetics. iSaa'ed

Aniwa/s

d-c. J/iffhumt JStylf.!*of Wrilinn.

{arollof

pa-Add

rtl J^an, a napkin, to fu orfuk

@

&

you

have ifg

fiik,i

^^^'"J'/''^''"^;

__ (niaps L^c.

7J\

shP

asig-n ofheaven, do. do. do.

^

fuk, happiness.

Sacred

A7iimals (fc.

Many

an

animal has

been

declared sacred

by

popularbelief

on

ac-count of its

name

beinf^ the

same

as thatof happiness or prosptM-ity.

Hence

a bat isa sacred being,

because

it is called fuk,, the

same sound

and

tonesifj;nifying-

hapimwss.

A

deeris an animal bringing piosperity

to its master, because it iscalled lukj , a

word

corresponding in

sound

and

tone exactly to luk^,

emoluments

ofoffice

; prosperity &c.

And

the

sixtii

day

of the sixth

month

is,

by

virtue ofthe doubleliik^(G, 6)a

dpu-bly lucky

day

;

aud

officers of

high

rank, inorder to derive thefull

be-nefit ofit,

wash

on that

day

their

own

clothing.

As

the

number

ofcharacters, that

have

assumed

the

power

of

pho-netics, iscomparatively small, a

thorough knowledge

of

them

is of great

value to the student, for it willenable

him

to

remember

the

most

com-plicated characters without

much

difficulty.

A

stock of about 1,500,

learnt at the beginningofstudy, will

make

the recollection ofthe

com-ponents ofacharactereasy,

whenever

(as is frequently thecasewith

mis-sionaries) pressure ofduties

compels

him

to leave the

pen

or

brush

un-touched in the desk.

In

a country

where

literature has

been

cutlivated in so

high

a

de-pree,

we

must

expectto find various styles of writing.

Though

a

for-eigner has hardly

any

time to

spend on

ornamental

or

running-hand

\vriting,

he

is often called

upon

to discuss or

name

the various

modes

of

\vriting,

on which

account

we

here

add

thedesignations of the six

dif-ferentstyles.

-,

J?^^

..,,..,

^ .- , ,

5^^^

.. •, fthe seal

cha-^'

^&

sun' jShu, thefanciful style, or

^<-T'

sun'

tszH

racters

2-

Tf^W"

**^i*

n

, theplain,squarecharactersusedforwriting prefaces

3.t^

&

'kai ,, , the pattern style.

4.

YTW

il^^^^S';; ) a stiff

form

ofthe

running

hand.

h.

Jp.^

^tso

, thefree

running

hand.

6-

yrvW

Sung',, , elegant

form

of characters

used

inprinting.

Colloquial Chinese. Verbs with certain svffixes.

Though

it

would

as yet be very

imprudent

for a student of the

Chinese

language

to neglect the study ofthe written characters, as

he

could not otherwise expect to exercise

much

influence

among

the edu-cated classesof China, there is sufficient

ground

for the hope, that a phonetic

syatem

will sooner or later supersede the presentcharacters.

(28)

XVITI

I^TKODUCTJON.

Verbs with the Siijjic of, or

Ending

in, Chid

; ; ;

«

and

lay the fbumi:Uioii of greater

development and

perspicuity of the verniicuhr tong-ue,tjs amediutn ofcoiiimiinicatinirone'sidejTs.

Few

verbs areusedsing-ly.

Some

combine with

words,

whose

mean-ing* differs greatly

from

their

own.

We

would

therefore call thefirst

word

theroot, and the second its termination.

Words

always

combining

with this latterform should be called Di.^atjllahic

words

with sucha

ter-mination or suffix.

As

this is a subjectofconsiderable importance,

upon

which

is

de-pending

the future development, perfection,

and

scientific treatment of thelanguage, thefoundationu])on

which

will rest the

whole

weight

of thepossibilityofreducingthe ideogi-aphic characters to a phonetic

sys-tem, I have collected aconsiderable

number

of phfases illustrative of

what

ishereasserted.

Verlis loith the suffixof,or endingin, chi'i}

^^

.

Tap,

chii*fdi' tP

Sp

ft^'-^lk To

tread

on

that ground.

Mong^

chii'ko'^t^iu

W.ii.M%

To

lookat the heavens.

'Kau

chii* ^to ^nin

y\

jX^^

Of

man}"years' duration.

Tsam^

chii^ 'kiyat,

Wft^

9

To

live therefor a

few

days.

,Fan

chii^ sz'

jhoung

yX^

t'-qli^^P

To

live separately in four villages.

jT'ung

chii^yat,cli'ii' \^\^iE

"J^ To

live togetherin

one

place.

(Fung

clui'mat, ^hoi

^'f!t

'^

^

Sealit

and

letitnot

be

opened.

'Chi chii^ mi'^hang

iLTE^''~r

To

stopwalking.

^Lau

chii'ngoi^

kwok,

"^ft:^!*!^

Detain

him

abroad.

(Kli ehii''pun 'kong

^it4^'/^

He

lives atour estuary. 'Se chii^^cheung'chi

J^

jiy^^j^Ml

He

iswritinga sheet of paper. (Chilchu*(Chi pat,

^Mttlx^

He

holds a pencil in his

hand.

Ch6uk,

chii'/i fuk,

Mii^^^

To

put

on

clothing.

(Yarnchu'^pui'tsau

'^'fE^ffi

To

drinka

cup

(orglass) of

wine-Shik,chii^'hau ,iu

^H

P

ffl

To smoke

a puffoftobacco.

,Nim

chii^'pa ,che

tAftffiS

Carry

thisumbrella.

jT'oichip .slung 'kiu

^P

ft

SIS

Carry a chair.

,Ch'ua

chtftui'jliai

^

ffi

W^

Put

on

apairofshoes.

Tai'chii^kin'

mh'

Mftff'I'M

To

wear

acap or hat.

Tso' chii' 'm;i ,ch6

rI^{i.lB^

To

sitina carriage. Tsoi' chii' fo'mat,

Kft

M

^'f^

To

store

away

goods.

,Tan

cliii' ch;ui^-/""S

^^1?Ht^

W

To

put goods

in the

godowu.

(29)

XIX

TN'I'IIODUCTION'.

Verbs?vith the Sv£ixof, or

Endhuj

in, Chic' fji.

Jvwfin cliii^(kai chap^

^JTEl^lFi^

^^^' ^^^^n^^^oi"barrier,

jWai

chii' iSliing .ch'i

U^iJii^'/lli

'i'<> siiiiound or besiege acity.

'81iau chii^,yi»gclu'ii*

Tt'rEl^'5^

'^'^giianl or hold

an

encanipmeiit.

,\\';ln clui' t(V ,t'au

\iiH.dM"f\ To

ancliorat the ferry orlaiidiiij;

pUico.

Sak,chii'.In'ini,',k'ii

^ftiiuiSf

To

stop nj) asewer.

,Lan

chii^ to^16*

tt^ftMK^

To

obstruct the road.

;i

ang

cbii'sh5'

muk,

SfiMH

Put

it to account,

To

keep

an

account.

Tuk,

chii' kok,ba^

®ft

[I3T

To

livealonein

the

lower

story.

Knng^chii^lau

sheung^

^ftl#_t

To

live tog-etherinthe

upper

story.

,Li'a chii' noi* ng-oi*

iSftp^J^hTo

connect the inner

and

outer

part.

Kap,

chii* "leung- ,piu

3feftS^

To

pass on both sides.

Kak,

chii*

^chung

,kun

ftS'fE^^

(^

Partitionit.

'Cho chii*5\vong,-loi

|>fl^fil:y|^

To

prevent [people from] passing'

and

repassing.

Kan'

chii* ch^it,yap,

l^'^pLj/V

To

follow

when

going

outor

com-ing in.

Ku'

chii* jts'iuhau-

^,

liHl

ix

^'^ reflect

upon

thepast

and

future^

Kan*

chii*'tsoyau*

ifillES:^

To

stay close to aperson.

^On

chii*

^man

,sam

^j^S-'Ci'

To

pacify peoples minds.

sNa

chii* ts'ak,^fi

:^^MII

To

apprehend

robbers.

Tuk,

chii*sz'tsut,

^ft

i

^

To

lead outtroops.

Ch'ap,cbii* ling* tsin'

^U^^ijTo

stick the

Emperors

command

on

the

back

of

an

officer.

Tai'chii* ^pi'ng

'yung

^ii:^-^

To

lead

on

troops.

'Ch'e chii*,t'iu,shing

^|if^/^

To

haul a rope.

/r^ingchii*,ch'e

Jun

ix^tE^llfl

To

stop acarriage or cart.

'P'5 chu- jhoi

X

ffift^52»

To

carry babies.

Chap;

chii-chek, ^shau

^fi^'^

To

seizeone

by

the

hand;

to

shake

hands.

'Im

chii-^sht'ung

*nguu

l^'f£

5^HPv To

coverthe eyes.

Hit,

chii* tsoi* 'ts'z

SJCft^ltt

Stop here.

llitj chii*^shau

MXii~r*

To

rest

from work.

(30)

XX

IXTROPITCTION.

Vcrbx

Endlmj

in ^hi'/tS ^'^ B<se.

'Seunjj 4ii

^,®

To

thinkon,

Ki'

^u

j> j> recollect, to

remember.

To

call to

mind,

Ts.-lcj 'iP ,,

do., to act, to

make

; to

compose.

Tso*

:tsx „ do., do., do. tCluiu „

W^

„ ,, copy.

'Se

^

„ ,. write.

Tso' „ rl^

sit

down.

*K'i

"^h

,' Ptand, to standerect.

Jv'am

Wii

„ » Ipfin over(half standing-).

jT'iii

jplh „ „ le.ip, to

jump.

,Nim

ici v „ take

up

with the fing-ers, tocarry.

<T'iu

r1t„

„ take

up

by

the

end

ofa'stick

and

fling

away.

jToi

4H

„ carry fas a chair).

^Tam

'„ ^'tf

carry

on

a poleaccrossthe shoulder.

^Konfi- ,, iflC ,. „ carry

on

apole

between

two.

KwiV

,;

lip „

,; suspend, to hano- up.

Chap,

^z

takein thehand, totake up.

^T'o

4ifl!/ »>

M

take

up

achild

from

the g-round.

*I<i

V

T^^

»j » stir, to stir up.

Tiu' ,,

^^)

tie up, to pull

up

to a

beam

as

m^n when

tortured. <L:iu

W'

,y

hand

up

; to take up.

,Pau

cl

»,

enwrap, to envelop.. Tsoi'

m

fill, tofill up.

,Chong

^

„ „ store; adorn.

«Kaa

,,

1^

»

>j

elect, tochoose, to select.

Ap,

,, •j'T

»

V

seize; to apprehend.

'So

S^

,,

lock, to chain.

'Ch'e ,j

tt

,. „ haul, todrag.

'Lo

^^§_ annoy. I'^at,

^^U „

„ brush, towipe, to dust.

'Kon

,,

X^

fy persne, torun after.

'Yam

-pj

„ „ drink.

(31)

xxr

INH^^ODUCTION.

Verbs

ending

hi 'hi

^E

.

'Pmig- 'li^

^^

To

holdin the hand.

sShfiig-

1^

ascend, to

mount

; to availof.

'Kiin

f^

;, „ roll

up

(as a screen).

^SuE

„ 3II >> yy select, to choose out.

*Tsau

^

„ run, tohasten.

Kai'

gy

count, to recouup.

'To

'^J

;,

pour

out; tooverturn.

*Ta

^

finish, to work, [as ingold, silver&c.]

Ch^ik,

f^

startle,to recollect suddenly. ^P'au

J0^

throw

up, (asaball ina game).

sFft

-JTC „

assist, to aid, tohelp up,

when

fallen

down.

'Pong

^

tie, tobandage.

Wd*

^^

speak, tospeak oitt, to tell.

_

^s. J.

'Kong

„ i4^

„ discourse on, to converse, to narrate. Pat, ,, ^PC J J ?) pull

up;

toextirpate.

(Kau

(^nau)

W^

pull

up

hy

a

hook

; to raise, as

an

anchor.

Wat,

^Xi n

;? scoopout, to excavate.

^Ch'iii

w^

,,

pare off, to lop off; to

make

aholeinthe

ground.

Shii^

;^

erect, to raise (as astandard).

,Ch'apj

iW

?j ,) insert, to set in; to thrust into (as a flag

staft).

(Shing ,,

7i

71 7> complete; toraise.

(Shau

^%

collect; toput

away

asclothing,

when

not', nsed.

Ch'au

^

take

from

; tolift; to

draw

out. T'ik,

&^

kick.

^Wan]

^

„ draw, to pnllup.

,Tau

^

To

liftup.

Tai'

S|

,, ^^ carry, to wear. *Kii

,,

:^

,, „ raise,to elevate.

(32)

XXII

INTRODUCTION.

Verb.s cndi)},] in 'hi t^B, iHidc,

^P,

tb' ^ij

and

'to

fU

.

,Me

'hi

|t®

To

carry

on

the

back;

tocarryachildpickapack.

,Ch'6

^^

pullup, asa flag-.

(I^j'ii

IS

ji 'J l^sli, to

whip

(as a horse).

Verbs ending ink'cuJc,

^P.

cMongk'euk,TS^'P

To

iorg-efc.

^^t,

^.

„ ., do.

^T^r.i

tffi >• ;> refuse.

sTs'z

^

,; ,, declioe, as

an

office; torefuse.

I^'^'t,

IM

" ?'

P"sh away.

,P^au

J,

fM

yj ).

throw away.

'Kam

,, i/:|jj

diminish, tosubstract: toabbreviate.

^^''^-ii

,,

1^

>j >5 .removeall.

Mat,

<7/} „

Not

allow

one

todecline

an

invitation.

,Sam

ii^

To

di:^like, to feel averseto. '^'''

"

JL

"

"

disdain, tocomplete

and

put

away

Feros endingintb^^ij.

cChi t6^ ^JI^lJ

To

know.

Ill'

"

S*

^> J. estimate, to reflect, to find out

"

_SL

"

"

^^^'^j <=o transmit.

"

?^

"

"

^^^^X

to bring-or take to [acertain place.]

-^

"

Is

"

"

''''''"^'

^^

^"''''•

• ''^'

»

m

fear, to beafraid of.

Ngan

BR; „

^^ i-eachwith

your

eves.

ouau

-f-^^ ^^ i.gacii ^-(.j^ y^jj^.ijjjjj^ig^ cChui

g

^^ ^^ persue,to catch, toreach, s

00?

'J 15^ „

provide, orto

guard

against.

Verls endingin

Ho

^j^.

'T5

M

is almost

always

a termination of the

perfect tense.

If the

Pronouns

:^^ «no-o T

f^

'm' m-

YH

n

(33)

XXIII

IXTRODUCnON.

Verbs en/ling in 'to 'plj

and

ch'ut^ [ij

I'ak, 'to ^t'in

W

f^^^l

^"F

^^^

8'°* ^^"^

whole

emi)ire.

Kwai^

„ pai'^shan

^fil^'y^-i^W

^^^ knoels

down

to worship the

spirits.

jMin

,ch'ong shcung^ 0A;'^Jj[?k

Jt To

bo sleeping

on

the bed.

Tso^

'kin

4u

:3£jJPJI'i^^

be seated ina sedan.

'Ta

jshing jch4

'fTijlJ'^jyi

„ have

reduced acity.

PcV p'au'^t'oi

Jl'ffil^fi^

have

seized

upon

a fort.

<.'bukj „ ts'akj'fi

•t^^JHSgE

„ have

arrested a criminal.

Yam^

„ch;W,fono-

%M^M

,,

have

rented a

godown.

aVing„4bpuu^

BB#j50'f^

„ have

got apartner.

^Alai

fo' mat,

^''^Ji}^

„ have

purchased goods.

Fat, ,, tai^ jts01 "&»1^J

/C

MT

have

made

much

money.

Kii' „ shii^

mukj

^ffl&J^

„ have sawed

a tree.

'J'sokj

yuk, sheK,

^^Wi

^5

„ have

ciit a

gem.

Kwat, „

,kara,sha

^#lj^#

„ have

dug

forgold. Tit,

tsoi^ ti^

^^J^li^lii

=,

have

fallen to the ground.

,Cii'ui

lokj'shui

^#]-J§^7K

^lown

iuto thewater.

'Hi

/a

jiin

^"^J

IzWl

1'<>

have

made

aflowergarden.

-Ivi „ Joi't'ai

dcfl/l^iif^

„ have

raised one'sself tolook.

^Tin

shi",fi ?^i^!lji)

'T£^

confound

right

and wrong.

KiiV ,,

ku

ii ^T"T&jP{illlM ,.

have

calledcoolies. Tsip, „ -shii sun'

"WlM

^ip

have

receiveda letter.

'Lo ,, jkan suan ^^j^J^i^l^ife „

have

earned nothing buc trouble; tol.iave

brought

one'sselfinto trouble.

Verbs cndhiq in ch'ut^ [ij.

Ts(r client, jUian ,ch(''r.ng ^i'iiv

tU

jX-^

'^^

compose

anessay.

'Sc'ung

'hokai^

SjliMlt

invent (originate) a

good

piau.

SSe

.„

,san ,rann ^fljij^lffrB ,, writeout

some

news. Fat,

'haucleung

iStilPrt

n

tl^sin-ibute provisions (la-,

tions).

^Ying

young'

seung'UtliMi'H

„ reflect a true image, to

tiike ajtliotograph.

(34)

XXIV

INTROBUCTION.

Verbs ending

in ch'nt,

pj

and

hli^

^^

*Sliam ch'ut, jts'ing-sjau

Tai' 'Tsau Chuk-'Sau

(pmg

-ma

jTnun'liau jli^njjan

&

fid

®

Hi

tra

i

"^^fi^<^'lout the causeof

an

affaii-_

4^

f{4

:^i^

';> ^^^•^ outtroops.

,,

run

outside.

„ expel(drive out) idlers.

,, discover vag'abonds,

find outstolen property.

mmmm

L5^ch^itj(Sz sz^ ifea-stj-^J^^ '^odivulge secrets.

Tsb^ch'utjhi'

^mengiS jii^iSL

To

make

or invent a?'ticles used in worshiporeatinjz-&c.

Mai^

ch^ut,fo'mat,

K

Hi

^4^7

To

sellgoods.

Other

words

now

indefinitely floating

among

the confused or

be

wildered masses,

would form

prefixes of dissyllabicor trisyllabic

words

Examples.

jFan

(Shang

^iliE

^o

revive, to

come

to life again.

jPan

hiP

^^^

;; I'eturn.

,Fan

'chiin ^t'au

S?^4R

;;

^o-jTan

hii' ,kwai

Hillj

?> return

home,

[ij-pj

marvel, to besurprisedat. \j\

^

come

outorforward.

pj

^

let (as a house).

E

fT

>' t^'^6ii walk.

PI

Wt

y> scheme, to plan. Ch'ut,jk'i Ch'nt,cloi Ch'utj

yam^

Ch'ut,chang Ch'ut,kai'

Lok,

cT'oi

/Kwai

Tifi^ Tai'

,run

jKw'ui 'Shai hii'

Verh"- terminati'ug inhit

-^,

?"^

To

descend.

i^

jj

cf.i-ry to.

Ultj

return.

^

PM

h

V

transfer.

^

„ „ bringto, tocarry

away.

1^

move

to(or

away).

•f/^

carry to ( do. ).

(35)

XXV

INTRODUCTION.

Verbs ending inhii

-^

.

Figure

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References

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