The Nature of the Learner

Full text

(1)

THE NATURE OF THE LEARNER

THE NATURE OF THE LEARNER

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT – is the

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT – is the

dynamic process of change that

dynamic process of change that

occurs in the physical, psychological,

occurs in the physical, psychological,

social, spiritual and emotional

social, spiritual and emotional

constitution and make up of an

constitution and make up of an

individual which starts from

individual which starts from

CONCEPTION to DEATH.

CONCEPTION to DEATH.

Changes may entail:

Changes may entail:

GROWTH – which is quantitative

GROWTH – which is quantitative

involving increase in the size of the

involving increase in the size of the

parts of the body

parts of the body

DEVELOPMENT – which is qualitative

(2)

Two Major Processes that takes

Two Major Processes that takes

places during growth and

places during growth and

development:

development:

LEARNING – a complex process which involves

LEARNING – a complex process which involves

changes in mental processing, development of

changes in mental processing, development of

emotional functioning and social development

emotional functioning and social development

skills which develop and evolve from birth to

skills which develop and evolve from birth to

death.

death.

MATURATION – includes bodily changes which

MATURATION – includes bodily changes which

are primarily a result of heredity or the traits

are primarily a result of heredity or the traits

that a person inherits from his parents which

that a person inherits from his parents which

are genetically determined, preprogrammed

are genetically determined, preprogrammed

inherited biological patterns are reflected in

(3)

PERIODS OF LIFE SPAN

PERIODS OF LIFE SPAN

DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT

Prenatal Development – includes the time Prenatal Development – includes the time

from conception to birth, from single cell to from conception to birth, from single cell to

an organism complete with brain and an organism complete with brain and behavioral capabilities produced in 9 behavioral capabilities produced in 9 months ( 270-280 days or 40 weeks). months ( 270-280 days or 40 weeks).

Heredity – is the sum total of characteristics Heredity – is the sum total of characteristics

which are biologically transmitted thru which are biologically transmitted thru

parents to offspring. These characteristics parents to offspring. These characteristics

are determined by the genes which are are determined by the genes which are

made up of DNA which determine the made up of DNA which determine the

hereditary characteristics which are found hereditary characteristics which are found

in the chromosomes. in the chromosomes.

Chromosomes – are found in the nucleus of Chromosomes – are found in the nucleus of

each cell which contains the

(4)

Infancy

Infancy

extends from birth up to 18 to 24 months,

extends from birth up to 18 to 24 months,

characterized by time of extreme dependence on

characterized by time of extreme dependence on

adults , babyhood and the beginning of many

adults , babyhood and the beginning of many

psychological activities like language, symbolic

psychological activities like language, symbolic

thought, sensorimotor coordination and social

thought, sensorimotor coordination and social

learning.

learning.

Sensorimotor development – head turns to

Sensorimotor development – head turns to

direction of touch, lifts chin and head, hold head

direction of touch, lifts chin and head, hold head

erect, reaches for objects, sits with support, stands

erect, reaches for objects, sits with support, stands

with help, crawls, and walks with support

(5)

Early Childhood

Early Childhood

begins from the end of infancy to about 5-

begins from the end of infancy to about

5-6 years which is sometimes called “

6 years which is sometimes called “

Pre-School Years”.

School Years”.

Become more self – sufficient and care for Become more self – sufficient and care for

themselves themselves

Develop school readiness skills like identifying letters Develop school readiness skills like identifying letters

and following instructions. and following instructions.

(6)

How the child’s Pre- school experiences affects

How the child’s Pre- school experiences affects

his growth and development:

his growth and development:

If physiological and psychological needs are met,

If physiological and psychological needs are met,

the child develops a healthy and pleasant

the child develops a healthy and pleasant

personality

personality

learns to communicate and develop

learns to communicate and develop

understanding of himself and his environment

understanding of himself and his environment

the quality of the interaction between the child

the quality of the interaction between the child

and parents

(7)

The relationship that the child has with the “Significant Others” The relationship that the child has with the “Significant Others”

who are in constant touch and contact with the child will who are in constant touch and contact with the child will

determine the child’s self –esteem or self concept like: determine the child’s self –esteem or self concept like:

if the child thinks he/she is loved through the

if the child thinks he/she is loved through the

stimulation and nurturance that is given to

stimulation and nurturance that is given to

him/her, the child develops high self-esteem

him/her, the child develops high self-esteem

which makes the child enthusiastic and open to

which makes the child enthusiastic and open to

experiences.

experiences.

if the child feels not accepted and not cared for,

if the child feels not accepted and not cared for,

he /she develops confusion, fear or inferiority

he /she develops confusion, fear or inferiority

complex.

(8)

Middle and Late Childhood

Middle and Late Childhood

(

(

School Age

School Age

)

)

This is the period where:

This is the period where:

The fundamental skills of reading, writing and

The fundamental skills of reading, writing and

arithmetic are mastered; and

arithmetic are mastered; and

When the child is formally exposed to the world

When the child is formally exposed to the world

and its culture, he/she becomes more achievement

and its culture, he/she becomes more achievement

centered with increased self – control.

(9)

Adolescence

Adolescence

Marks the transition from childhood to

Marks the transition from childhood to

early adulthood; approximately from 10-12

early adulthood; approximately from 10-12

years and ending at 18-22 years old.

years and ending at 18-22 years old.

-Where full physical development is

-Where full physical development is

achieved.

achieved.

Puberty – marked by the development of

Puberty – marked by the development of

sexual characteristics

(10)

Pursuit of independence and an identity is

Pursuit of independence and an identity is

prominent

prominent

Thoughts are more logical, abstract and

Thoughts are more logical, abstract and

idealistic

idealistic

More time is spent outside the family

More time is spent outside the family

More marked internal than external

More marked internal than external

development during later adolescence

development during later adolescence

Spends more time with the physical looks and

Spends more time with the physical looks and

improving appearance

(11)

Early Adulthood

Early Adulthood

begins in late teens or early twenties

begins in late teens or early twenties

through the thirties. It is a period of:

through the thirties. It is a period of:

establishing personal and economic independence

establishing personal and economic independence

career development

career development

selecting a mate

selecting a mate

intimate relationships, and

intimate relationships, and

starting a family

(12)

Middle Adulthood

Middle Adulthood

from 35-45 years old up to 65 years old. It is

from 35-45 years old up to 65 years old. It is

characterized by:

characterized by:

menopause for women

menopause for women

climacteric or andropause for men

climacteric or andropause for men

time of expanding personal and social

time of expanding personal and social

involvement and responsibility, assisting next

involvement and responsibility, assisting next

generation in becoming competent

(13)

Late Adulthood

Late Adulthood

Or senescence, begins from 65 to 80 years

Or senescence, begins from 65 to 80 years

old and lasting until death

old and lasting until death

time of adjustment to decreasing strength and

time of adjustment to decreasing strength and

health

health

life review

life review

retirement

retirement

adjustment to new social roles

adjustment to new social roles

affiliations with members of one’s age group

(14)

FOUR THEORIES OF HUMAN

FOUR THEORIES OF HUMAN

DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT

1.Psychosexual Development Theory1.Psychosexual Development Theory

Sigmund Freud – the Father of Modern Psychology, Sigmund Freud – the Father of Modern Psychology,

believed that human beings pass through a series of believed that human beings pass through a series of stages that are dominated by the development of stages that are dominated by the development of

sensitivity in a particular erogenous zone or pleasure sensitivity in a particular erogenous zone or pleasure giving area in the body.

giving area in the body.

The person must be able to resolve the conflicts that each The person must be able to resolve the conflicts that each

stage poses before he can move on to the next higher stage poses before he can move on to the next higher

stage. Failure to resolve the conflict results to frustration stage. Failure to resolve the conflict results to frustration and the individual may become so addicted to the

and the individual may become so addicted to the

pleasure of a given stage that he develops fixation and pleasure of a given stage that he develops fixation and fails to move on to the next higher stage of development. fails to move on to the next higher stage of development.

(15)

Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of

Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of

Development

Development

Each stage has a major developmental task or dilemma Each stage has a major developmental task or dilemma

that must be resolved … the individual is presented with a that must be resolved … the individual is presented with a

crisis

crisis he must resolve.he must resolve.

Crisis – a turning point, crucial period of increased Crisis – a turning point, crucial period of increased

vulnerability and heightened potential. The individual vulnerability and heightened potential. The individual

develops a “ healthy personality” by mastering life’s outer develops a “ healthy personality” by mastering life’s outer

and inner dangers. and inner dangers.

Epigenetic principle – personality continues to develop Epigenetic principle – personality continues to develop

throughout the entire life span. Each part of the throughout the entire life span. Each part of the

personality has a particular time in the life span when it personality has a particular time in the life span when it

must develop, if it is going to develop at all. must develop, if it is going to develop at all.

(16)

Eight Major Stages of Social –Emotional

Eight Major Stages of Social –Emotional

Development

Development

Infant :

Infant :

Trust vs. Mistrust

Trust vs. Mistrust

- needs of

- needs of

infant must be met by caretakers who are

infant must be met by caretakers who are

responsive and sensitive… infants must be

responsive and sensitive… infants must be

cuddled and fondled.

cuddled and fondled.

development of trust results into a sense of safe

development of trust results into a sense of safe

and dependable place

and dependable place

non- resolution may develop into mistrust and

non- resolution may develop into mistrust and

fear of the future and a suspicious mind.

(17)

Toddler

Toddler

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

- as a child

- as a child

begins to crawl, walk and explores his

begins to crawl, walk and explores his

surroundings, the conflict is whether to assert

surroundings, the conflict is whether to assert

their wills or not.

their wills or not.

resolution : children acquire sense of independence and resolution : children acquire sense of independence and

competence when parents are patients and competence when parents are patients and encouraging.

encouraging.

Non – resolution : children develop excessive shame and Non – resolution : children develop excessive shame and

doubt when parents are overprotective and always doubt when parents are overprotective and always curtail their child’s freedom of movement

(18)

Pre- school

Pre- school

Initiative vs. Guilt

Initiative vs. Guilt

– development of

– development of

mental and motor abilities

mental and motor abilities

resolution : children will develop initiative if

resolution : children will develop initiative if

parents allow them freedom to run, slide, play

parents allow them freedom to run, slide, play

with other children, go bike riding etc.

with other children, go bike riding etc.

non- resolution: children develop sense of

non- resolution: children develop sense of

inadequacy and feel that they are mere

inadequacy and feel that they are mere

intruders or “ istorbo” and “ pasaway”; they

intruders or “ istorbo” and “ pasaway”; they

become passive recipients of whatever the

(19)

School Age

School Age

:

:

Industry vs. Inferiority

Industry vs. Inferiority

- child’s concern is ‘

- child’s concern is ‘

how things work” and how they are made.

how things work” and how they are made.

resolution : children gain a sense of industry or resolution : children gain a sense of industry or

accomplishment if their efforts are recognized, accomplishment if their efforts are recognized, rewarded and reinforced.

rewarded and reinforced.

Non-resolution: children acquire a sense of inadequacy Non-resolution: children acquire a sense of inadequacy

and inferiority especially if parents/ teachers, rebuff, and inferiority especially if parents/ teachers, rebuff, ridicule, constantly scold or ignore the child’s efforts ridicule, constantly scold or ignore the child’s efforts to improve.

(20)

Adolescence

Adolescence

:

:

Identity vs. Role Confusion

Identity vs. Role Confusion

Entering adolescence, children experience “

Entering adolescence, children experience “

psychological revolution” search for answers to

psychological revolution” search for answers to

the questions “ who am I”, what do I value”, “

the questions “ who am I”, what do I value”, “

where am I headed in life?; trying on many new

where am I headed in life?; trying on many new

roles; and parent/teen conflict usually occurs.

roles; and parent/teen conflict usually occurs.

resolution : establishment of an integrated and coherent resolution : establishment of an integrated and coherent

image of oneself as a unique person resulting to a image of oneself as a unique person resulting to a sense of centered identity.

sense of centered identity.

Non – resolution : role confusion or negative identity like Non – resolution : role confusion or negative identity like

“ hoodlum” or delinquent. “ hoodlum” or delinquent.

(21)

Young Adulthood

Young Adulthood

Intimacy vs. Isolation

Intimacy vs. Isolation

Intimacy : the capacity to reach out and make

Intimacy : the capacity to reach out and make

contact with other people; ability to share

contact with other people; ability to share

with and care for another person without fear

with and care for another person without fear

of losing oneself in the process; ex. Deep

of losing oneself in the process; ex. Deep

friendships and lasting relationships

friendships and lasting relationships

Rejection : results to withdrawal, isolation and

Rejection : results to withdrawal, isolation and

formation of shallow relationships.

(22)

Middle Adulthood

Middle Adulthood

:

:

Generativity vs. Stagnation

Generativity vs. Stagnation

Generativity – entails selflessness ; reaching out

Generativity – entails selflessness ; reaching out

beyond one’s own concerns to embrace the

beyond one’s own concerns to embrace the

welfare of society and future generations

welfare of society and future generations

through creative or productive work and

through creative or productive work and

caring for children.

caring for children.

Stagnation – people are pre-occupied with their

Stagnation – people are pre-occupied with their

material possessions or physical well being

material possessions or physical well being

( self – centered, embittered

(23)

Old Age

Old Age

Ego Integrity vs. Despair

Ego Integrity vs. Despair

– towards

– towards

twilight years, people tend to take stock of

twilight years, people tend to take stock of

their lives or do a self accounting. May

their lives or do a self accounting. May

result to sense of satisfaction with their

result to sense of satisfaction with their

accomplishments or despair

(24)

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive

Development

Development

Universal Constructivist Perspective – the child

Universal Constructivist Perspective – the child

constructs reality by interacting with the

constructs reality by interacting with the

environment and that children have predictable

environment and that children have predictable

qualitative differences in how they think about

qualitative differences in how they think about

things at different ages.

things at different ages.

All humans construct their understanding of the

All humans construct their understanding of the

world in predictable ways. Humans take an active

world in predictable ways. Humans take an active

role in their own development by acting on the

role in their own development by acting on the

physical environment

(25)

Key Concepts

Key Concepts

:

:

Mental Structures – cognitive structures – begins with Mental Structures – cognitive structures – begins with

reflexes in infancy evolving into schemata and more reflexes in infancy evolving into schemata and more complex structures called operations

complex structures called operations

Schema – a mental concept formed through experiences Schema – a mental concept formed through experiences

with objects and events with objects and events

Schemata – are building blocks of cognitive structuresSchemata – are building blocks of cognitive structures

Operations – mental actions allowing children to interact Operations – mental actions allowing children to interact

with the environment using their minds and bodies; with the environment using their minds and bodies; invariant sequence where child must first develop invariant sequence where child must first develop concrete operations before formal operations.

concrete operations before formal operations.

Organization – humans have natural and innate Organization – humans have natural and innate

tendency to organize their relationship with the tendency to organize their relationship with the environment; people organize activity lawfully, environment; people organize activity lawfully,

(26)

Lawrence Kohlberg – Moral

Lawrence Kohlberg – Moral

Development Theory

Development Theory

Three Levels and Six Stages of Moral DevelopmentThree Levels and Six Stages of Moral Development Pre – conventional Level

Pre – conventional Level

Stage 1 – Punishment / obedience orientation Stage 1 – Punishment / obedience orientation

ego centered … self centered : “ survival of the fittest”ego centered … self centered : “ survival of the fittest”obedience to figure of authority brought about by fear of obedience to figure of authority brought about by fear of

physical punishment physical punishment

Stage II – instrumental – relativist orientation Stage II – instrumental – relativist orientation

concerned with satisfying oneself at the expense of othersconcerned with satisfying oneself at the expense of othersor doing something for others based on what gain or or doing something for others based on what gain or

benefit he/she can derive for a favor done benefit he/she can derive for a favor done

(27)

Conventional Level

Conventional Level

Stage III – Good boy / nice girl orientation

Stage III – Good boy / nice girl orientation

the child becomes other – directed and the

the child becomes other – directed and the

concern is for social approval and acceptance

concern is for social approval and acceptance

thus behavior conforms to accepted social and

thus behavior conforms to accepted social and

traditional norms and practices

traditional norms and practices

Stage IV. Law and order orientation

Stage IV. Law and order orientation

decisions are based on the rule of the law, honor

decisions are based on the rule of the law, honor

and commitment duty

(28)

Post – conventional Level

Post – conventional Level

Stage V – social contract orientation

Stage V – social contract orientation

depends on social contracts, written documents,

depends on social contracts, written documents,

abstract thing and highly legalistic concerns

abstract thing and highly legalistic concerns

believes in the saying, “ the law must be for the

believes in the saying, “ the law must be for the

greatest number of people”

greatest number of people”

Stage VI – Universal ethical principle orientation

Stage VI – Universal ethical principle orientation

behaves according to concept of universal social

behaves according to concept of universal social

justice

justice

respect for human rights and upholding of the

respect for human rights and upholding of the

principles of dignity, equality and justice.

(29)

THE DETERMINANTS OF

THE DETERMINANTS OF

LEARNING

LEARNING

Learning Needs – what the learner needs to

Learning Needs – what the learner needs to

learn

learn

Learning Readiness – when the learner is

Learning Readiness – when the learner is

receptive to learning

receptive to learning

Learning Style – how the learner best

Learning Style – how the learner best

learns

(30)

LEARNING NEEDS

LEARNING NEEDS

Methods in Assessing Learning Needs: Methods in Assessing Learning Needs:

1. Informal conversations or interviews – asking open 1. Informal conversations or interviews – asking open

ended questions ended questions

2. Structured interviews – where the nurse may asks the 2. Structured interviews – where the nurse may asks the

patient some predetermined questions to gather patient some predetermined questions to gather

information regarding learning needs; the answers may information regarding learning needs; the answers may

reveal uncertainties, anxieties, fear, unexpected problems reveal uncertainties, anxieties, fear, unexpected problems

and present knowledge base. and present knowledge base.

3. Written pretest – can be given to identify the knowledge 3. Written pretest – can be given to identify the knowledge

level of the potential learner and to help in evaluating level of the potential learner and to help in evaluating

whether learning has taken place by comparing the whether learning has taken place by comparing the

pre-test and post-pre-test scores. test and post-test scores.

(31)

Steps in the Assessment of Learning

Steps in the Assessment of Learning

Needs

Needs

:

:

11. . Identify the learnerIdentify the learner

2. Choose the right setting – establish a trusting environment by 2. Choose the right setting – establish a trusting environment by

ensuring privacy and confidentiality especially if confidential

ensuring privacy and confidentiality especially if confidential

information will be shared.

information will be shared.

3. Collect data on the learner – by determining the characteristics 3. Collect data on the learner – by determining the characteristics

learning needs of the target population, patient or any recipient of the

learning needs of the target population, patient or any recipient of the

learning material

learning material

4. Include the learner as a source of information – allow the learner to 4. Include the learner as a source of information – allow the learner to

actively participate in identifying his needs and problems

actively participate in identifying his needs and problems

5. Include members of the healthcare team – collaborate with the other 5. Include members of the healthcare team – collaborate with the other

healthcare professionals who may have insights or knowledge of the

healthcare professionals who may have insights or knowledge of the

patient or learner.

patient or learner.

6. Determine the availability of educational resources – use appropriate, 6. Determine the availability of educational resources – use appropriate,

available, affordable, easy and simple to manipulate materials and

available, affordable, easy and simple to manipulate materials and

equipments

(32)

7. Assess demands of the organization – examine the 7. Assess demands of the organization – examine the

organizational climate, its philosophy, vision, mission organizational climate, its philosophy, vision, mission and goals to know its educational focus.

and goals to know its educational focus.

8. Consider time management issues – allow learners 8. Consider time management issues – allow learners

to identify their learning needs ; identify potential to identify their learning needs ; identify potential

opportunities to assess the patient anytime, anywhere opportunities to assess the patient anytime, anywhere and minimize distractions / interruptions during

and minimize distractions / interruptions during planned assessment interviews.

planned assessment interviews.

9. Prioritize needs – this may be based on Maslow’s 9. Prioritize needs – this may be based on Maslow’s

hierarchy of needs where the basic lower level hierarchy of needs where the basic lower level

physiologic needs must first be met before one can physiologic needs must first be met before one can move up to the higher, more abstract level of needs. move up to the higher, more abstract level of needs.

(33)

Criteria for Prioritizing Learning

Criteria for Prioritizing Learning

Needs:

Needs:

a. Mandatory – learning needs that must

a. Mandatory – learning needs that must

be immediately met since they are life

be immediately met since they are life

threatening or needed for survival.

threatening or needed for survival.

Ex. Patient with history of recent heart

Ex. Patient with history of recent heart

attack should be taught the signs and

attack should be taught the signs and

symptoms of an impending attack and

symptoms of an impending attack and

what emergency measures are or what

what emergency measures are or what

medicines to take.

(34)

b. Desirable – learning needs that must be met to promote b. Desirable – learning needs that must be met to promote

well being and are not life – dependent. well being and are not life – dependent.

Ex. Patient with pulmonary tuberculosis needs to Ex. Patient with pulmonary tuberculosis needs to

understand and appreciate the importance of taking her understand and appreciate the importance of taking her medicines regularly until the regimen ends to be totally medicines regularly until the regimen ends to be totally cured.

cured.

c. Possible – “ nice to know” learning needs which are not c. Possible – “ nice to know” learning needs which are not

directly related to daily activities directly related to daily activities

Ex. An obese patient who just lost weight because of her Ex. An obese patient who just lost weight because of her

diabetes may not necessarily need information on “ diabetes may not necessarily need information on “

tummy tucking” as a surgical and aesthetic procedure to tummy tucking” as a surgical and aesthetic procedure to remove the sagging abdominal muscles. Her current

(35)

READINESS TO LEARN

READINESS TO LEARN

In assessing readiness to learn, the health educator

In assessing readiness to learn, the health educator

must;

must;

1. determine what needs to be taught

1. determine what needs to be taught

2. find out exactly when the learner is ready to

2. find out exactly when the learner is ready to

learn

learn

3. discover what the patient wants to learn

3. discover what the patient wants to learn

4. identify what is required of the learner;

4. identify what is required of the learner;

what needs to be learned what needs to be learned

what the learning objectives should be what the learning objectives should be

find out in which domain of learning and at what level the find out in which domain of learning and at what level the

lesson will be taught lesson will be taught

(36)

6. determine if the timing is right or proper

6. determine if the timing is right or proper

7. find out if rapport or interpersonal

7. find out if rapport or interpersonal

relationship with the learner has been

relationship with the learner has been

established

established

8. determine if the learner is showing signs of

8. determine if the learner is showing signs of

motivation

motivation

9. assess if the plan for the teaching matches the

9. assess if the plan for the teaching matches the

developmental level of the learner

(37)

Four Types of Readiness to

Four Types of Readiness to

Learn

Learn

1. 1. P= Physical ReadinessP= Physical Readiness

measures of ability – adequate strength, flexibility and measures of ability – adequate strength, flexibility and

endurance is needed to be ready to learn endurance is needed to be ready to learn

complexity of task – the difficulty level of the subject or complexity of task – the difficulty level of the subject or

the task to be mastered. the task to be mastered.

Environmental effects – refers to an environment that Environmental effects – refers to an environment that is conducive to learning, free from noise and other is conducive to learning, free from noise and other distractions which may affect the physical readiness distractions which may affect the physical readiness to learn.

to learn.

Health status – is the patient in a state of good health or Health status – is the patient in a state of good health or

ill health? Does he still have the energy or ill health? Does he still have the energy or motivation to learn?

motivation to learn?

Gender – studies show that men are less inclined to seek Gender – studies show that men are less inclined to seek

health consultation or intervention than women. health consultation or intervention than women.

(38)

2.

2.

E = Emotional Readiness

E = Emotional Readiness

a. Anxiety level – a moderate level of anxiety

a. Anxiety level – a moderate level of anxiety

contributes to successful learning and is the

contributes to successful learning and is the

best time for learning, however too much

best time for learning, however too much

anxiety interferes with the learning ability.

anxiety interferes with the learning ability.

Fear greatly contributes to anxiety and

Fear greatly contributes to anxiety and

exerts negative effects on readiness to learn

exerts negative effects on readiness to learn

whether it be in the cognitive, psychomotor

whether it be in the cognitive, psychomotor

or affective domains of learning or even

or affective domains of learning or even

lead a patient to deny his or her illness.

(39)

b.

b.

Support system

Support system

a strong support system composed of the immediate a strong support system composed of the immediate

family and friends, significant others, the community family and friends, significant others, the community and church will give the patient increased sense of and church will give the patient increased sense of security and well being, while a weak or absent security and well being, while a weak or absent support system elicits sense of insecurity, despair, support system elicits sense of insecurity, despair, frustration and a high level of anxiety.

frustration and a high level of anxiety.

- nurses who provide emotional support to the

- nurses who provide emotional support to the

patient and family members go through what is

patient and family members go through what is

termed as “ reachable moments” which allow

termed as “ reachable moments” which allow

opportunity for both nurse and client to

opportunity for both nurse and client to

mutually share and discuss concerns and

mutually share and discuss concerns and

possible solutions or alternatives to care.

(40)

c. Motivation

c. Motivation

is strongly associated with emotional

is strongly associated with emotional

readiness or willingness to learn.

readiness or willingness to learn.

A telling cue is when the learner

A telling cue is when the learner

starts asking questions and showing

starts asking questions and showing

interests in what the teacher is doing

interests in what the teacher is doing

or saying.

(41)

d.

d.

Risk taking behavior

Risk taking behavior

are activities that are undertaken without much

are activities that are undertaken without much

thought to what their negative consequences

thought to what their negative consequences

or effects might be.

or effects might be.

the role of the health educator is to develop the role of the health educator is to develop

awareness in the patient as to how this can shorten awareness in the patient as to how this can shorten his life span; how to develop strategies to minimize his life span; how to develop strategies to minimize the risk; to recognize the signs and symptoms of the risk; to recognize the signs and symptoms of probable disease state and what to do should this probable disease state and what to do should this worst case scenario develop.

(42)

e. Frame of Mind

e. Frame of Mind

depends on what the priorities of the

depends on what the priorities of the

learner are in terms of his needs

learner are in terms of his needs

which will determine his readiness to

which will determine his readiness to

learn. An important consideration is

learn. An important consideration is

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as a

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as a

guide in identifying needs

guide in identifying needs

prioritization.

(43)

f.

f.

Developmental stage

Developmental stage

determines the peak time for

determines the peak time for

readiness to learn or “ teachable

readiness to learn or “ teachable

moment “

(44)

3.

3.

E = Experiential Readiness

E = Experiential Readiness

refers to the previous learning experiences

refers to the previous learning experiences

which may positively affect willingness to

which may positively affect willingness to

learn.

learn.

a. Level of Aspiration – depends on the short

a. Level of Aspiration – depends on the short

term or long term goals that the learner has set.

term or long term goals that the learner has set.

b. Past Coping Mechanism – refers to how the

b. Past Coping Mechanism – refers to how the

learner was able to cope with or handle

learner was able to cope with or handle

previous problems or situations and how

previous problems or situations and how

effective were the strategies

(45)

c.

c.

Cultural Background Cultural Background

d. Locus of Control – refers to motivation to learn d. Locus of Control – refers to motivation to learn

which may internal or external locus of control. which may internal or external locus of control. e. Orientation – this refers to

e. Orientation – this refers to a person’s point –of- view a person’s point –of- view which may be

which may be

Parochial – close minded thinking, conservative in their Parochial – close minded thinking, conservative in their approach to new situations, less willing to learn new approach to new situations, less willing to learn new materials and have great trust in the physician.

materials and have great trust in the physician. Cosmopolitan – more worldly perspectives and more Cosmopolitan – more worldly perspectives and more receptive to new or innovative ideas like current receptive to new or innovative ideas like current trends.

(46)

4.

4.

K = Knowledge Readiness

K = Knowledge Readiness

It refers to :

It refers to :

Present Knowledge Base – also referred to as stock Present Knowledge Base – also referred to as stock

knowledge, or how much one already knows about the knowledge, or how much one already knows about the

subject matter from previous and vicarious learning subject matter from previous and vicarious learning

Cognitive Ability – involves lower level of learning which Cognitive Ability – involves lower level of learning which includes memorizing, recalling, or recognizing concepts includes memorizing, recalling, or recognizing concepts

and ideas and the extent to which information is and ideas and the extent to which information is

processed indicates the level at which the learner is processed indicates the level at which the learner is

capable of learning. capable of learning.

(47)

PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING

PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING

( MOTIVATION)

( MOTIVATION)

1.

1.

Use several senses

Use several senses

When dealing with the question of how much

When dealing with the question of how much

people are able to retain what has been learned,

people are able to retain what has been learned,

it has been shown that people retain :

it has been shown that people retain :

10% of what they read

10% of what they read

20% of what they hear

20% of what they hear

30% of what they see or watch

30% of what they see or watch

50% of what they see and hear

50% of what they see and hear

70% of what they say

70% of what they say

(48)

2.

2.

Active Learner Involvement

Active Learner Involvement

To actively involve the patients or clients in

To actively involve the patients or clients in

the learning process. Use more interactive

the learning process. Use more interactive

methods involving the participation of the

methods involving the participation of the

learners like role playing, buzz sessions, Q

learners like role playing, buzz sessions, Q

& A format, case studies, small group

& A format, case studies, small group

discussion, demonstration and return

discussion, demonstration and return

demonstration

(49)

3. Conducive Learning Environment

3. Conducive Learning Environment

Always consider the comfort and

Always consider the comfort and

convenience of the learner

convenience of the learner

4. Learning Readiness

4. Learning Readiness

5. Relevance of Information

5. Relevance of Information

Anything that is perceived by the

Anything that is perceived by the

learner to be important or useful will be

learner to be important or useful will be

easier to learn and retain.

(50)

6.

6. Repeat InformationRepeat Information

Continuous repetition of information over a period of Continuous repetition of information over a period of

time enhances learning; applying the information to a time enhances learning; applying the information to a different situation and asking the learner to apply the different situation and asking the learner to apply the information to another situation or rewording it and information to another situation or rewording it and giving practical applications will help in the learning giving practical applications will help in the learning process.

process.

7. Generalize Information 7. Generalize Information

Cite applications of the information to a number of Cite applications of the information to a number of

applications. Give examples which will illustrate or applications. Give examples which will illustrate or concretize the concept.

concretize the concept.

8. Make Learning a Pleasant Experience 8. Make Learning a Pleasant Experience

(51)

9.

9.

Be Systematic

Be Systematic

Begin with what is known; move towards the

Begin with what is known; move towards the

unknown. A pleasant and encouraging

unknown. A pleasant and encouraging

learning experience if information is presented

learning experience if information is presented

in an organized manner and with information

in an organized manner and with information

that the learner already knows or is familiar.

that the learner already knows or is familiar.

10. Be Steady

10. Be Steady

Present information at an appropriate rate.

Present information at an appropriate rate.

This refers to the pace in which information is

This refers to the pace in which information is

presented to the learner….are you talking too

presented to the learner….are you talking too

fast or too slow about the topic you are

fast or too slow about the topic you are

discussing?

Figure

Updating...

References

Updating...

Related subjects :