148175177 Maneka Gandhi III Sem Consti

15 

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AMITY LAW

AMITY LAW

SCHOOL,

SCHOOL,

NOIDA

NOIDA

CASE STUDY ON

CASE STUDY ON

“MANEKA GANDHI

“MANEKA GANDHI

VS.

VS.

UNION OF INDIA”

UNION OF INDIA”

(

(

AIR 1978 SC 597AIR 1978 SC 597

)

)

SUBMITTED TO-

SUBMITTED TO-

MR.

MR.

TUSHAR V

TUSHAR V

ED SAXENA

ED SAXENA

SUBMITTED

SUBMITTED

BY – KETA

BY – KETA

N RANA (BBALLB) 

N RANA (BBALLB) 

!"!"

 #$% .

 #$% .

E&'*+$! C!*!

E&'*+$! C!*! AIR1978SC597, (1978)1SCC248, [1978]2SCR621AIR1978SC597, (1978)1SCC248, [1978]2SCR621

IN THE SU/REME COURT OF INDIA

IN THE SU/REME COURT OF INDIA

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Writ Petition No. 231 of 1977 e!i"e" #n$ 25.%1.1978

A&&e''nt$ M0#. M*$1* G*2" V#.

Re&on"ent$ U 3 I2* (UOI) *2 A0. C'#$+#

F0 Appellant:

• *"n +ti • . -o/r"n,

F0 Respondents

• S.0. -/&te (Attorne -ener'),

• So'i . Sree (A""ition' So'. -en'. #f In"in), • R.N. S!te n" .N. +ntt, A".

S'45$6! Contit/tion A6!#7R'+$#7O02$0#

P&ort A!t, 1967  Se!tion 1%(3) In"in Pen' Co"e, 186%  Se!tion 6, 7, 1%, 1%(3) n" 11 Criin' Pro!e"/re Co"e (CrPC)  Se!tion 3, 3(2), 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 1%, 1%(1), 1%(3), 1%(5), 11, 11(5), 19, 22, 41, 43 n" 99 Contit/tion of In"i  Arti!'e 14, 19, 19(1), 19(5), 19(6), 21 n" 32

BENCH

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• Cn"r!/", ;.0. • +<ti, P.N. • rinier, 0.R. • =nt<'i, N.>. • ?@''i, Se" */rt@ • i', P.S.

L$8*+

M*9%-A'2 A+!$0*%

/*0!$%:-It eo"ie te !on!e&t in Criin' >< tt no &eron o/'" e !on"ene" /ner" it i in to DUE /ROCESS. Be notion tt n in"ii"/', <oe 'ife, 'iert, or &ro&ert re in 'e' eo&r",  te rit to !onfront te ei"en!e int i or er in  fir erin i one of te f/n"ent' &rin!i&'e of Contit/tion' >< in te =nite" Stte n" n'n".

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Case Note:

(i) Contit/tion  'i"it of &roiion  Arti!'e 14, 19 n" 21 of Contit/tion of  In"i n" Se!tion 1% (3) (!) of P&ort A!t, 1967  'i"it of Se!tion 1% (3) (!) !''ene"  &ro!e"/re in Arti!'e 21 en &ro!e"/re <i! !onfor to &rin!i&'e of nt/r' /ti!e  &o<er !onferre" /n"er Se!tion 1% (3) (!) not /n/i"e" n" it i i&'ie" in it tt r/'e of nt/r' /ti!e <o/'" e &&'i!'e  e'", Se!tion 1% (3) (!) not io'tie of Arti!'e 21.

(ii) Rit of "init  rit to 'ie i not ere' !onfine" to &i!' eDiten!e  it in!'/"e <itin it it rit to 'ie <it /n "init.

(iii) Interre'tioni&  &rin!i&'e of reon'ene &roi"e" /n"er Arti!'e 14 /t &&' to &ro!e"/re  !onte&'te" /n"er Arti!'e 21  Arti!'e 21 !ontro''e"  Arti!'e 19 'o  in !e  '< "oe not infrine Arti!'e 21 een ten it  to eet !''ene of Arti!'e 14 n" 19.

(i) Pot"e!iion' erin  &etitionerE &&ort i&o/n"e" n" not ien &re "e!iion' noti!e n" erin  -oernent !onten"e" tt r/'e /"i 'ter  &rte /t e eD!'/"e" e!/e it  e fr/trte" er &/r&oe of 

i&o/n"in &&ort  !on!e&t of &ot"e!iion' erin "ee'o&e" to intin  'n!e et<een "initrtie effi!ien! n" firne to in"ii"/'  Co/rt

tree" tt fir o&&ort/nit of ein er" fo''o<in ie"ite' #r"er  i&o/n"in &&ort <o/'" tif n"te of nt/r' /ti!e.

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FACTS OF THE

CASE:-• #n /' %4, 1977 St. *ne -n"i, re!eie"  'etter fro  Reion'

P&ort #ffi!er, e'i intitin er to /rren"er te &&ort (No.  869668) <itin een " fro te "te of re!ei&t of te 'etter,  it < "e!i"e"  te -oernent of In"i to i&o/n" er &&ort /n"er Se!tion 1% (3) (!) of te P&ort A!t 1967 in F&/'i! interetG1.

• Be Petitioner ie"ite' en"  'etter to Reion' P&ort #ffi!er in 

reon n" reH/etin i to &roi"e  !o& of te :* #!*!$%$! 3 0$*##; for in te or"er.

• #n te re&', it < ent  te *initr of Dtern' Affir, -oernent of 

In"i, on /' %6, 1977 ttin tt -oernent  "e!i"e" to i&o/n" te  &&ort

o Fin te interet of te ener' &/'i!G n"

o  Not to n" oer er  !o& of te tteent of reon.

• So, te Petitioner fi''e" te &etition.

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ISSUES OF THE

CASE:-In te 'it of ?!t te i/e rie" in te !e re  fo''o<$

1. I Se!tion 1%(3) (!) of In"in P&ort A!t,1967, io'te of te Arti!'e 14 of te Contit/tion of In"i

2. I Se!tion 1%(3) (!) of In"in P&ort A!t,1967, io'te of te Arti!'e 19() or () of te Contit/tion of In"i

3. I te rit to o ro"  Arti!'e 19() or ()of te In"in Contit/tion 4. I ?ree"o of S&ee! n" D&reion !onfine" to te territor of In"i 5. Weter te i&/ne" or"er i intr ire Se!tion 1%(3) (!) of te In"in

P&ort A!t, 1967

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ARGUMENT

ADVANCED:-<. I# S$6! <=(>) (6) 3 I2* /*##?0! A6!,<@, +*!$# 3 !"$

A0!6+$ < 3 !"$ C#!!'! 3 I2*

• =n"er Se!tion 1%(3) (!) of te P&ort A!t, te P&ort A/torit

i&o/n"e" te &&ort of te &etitioner Fin te interet of te ener'  &/'i!G.

• B/, it !onfer /n/i"e" n" /nfettere" &o<er to te P&ort A/torit • It i io'tie of te eH/'it !'/e !ontine" in Arti!'e 14

• Arti!'e 21 to/ fre"  to &&er   ie'" o&ertin netie'

int eDe!/tie en!ro!ent oer oetin !oere"  tt ie'", i te 'e' re!onition of ot te &rote!tion or te ie'"  <e''  of <t it  &ro te!t <i! 'ie enet tt ie'"2 3

R$#?2$!

A08'$#-Be <or" Fin te interet of te ener' &/'i!G e  !'er' <e''"efine" enin.

Se!tion 1%(3) (!) i not <i"er tn te !ontit/tion' &roiion in Arti!'e 19(5) of te !ontit/tion.

Be P&ort A/torit i reH/ire" to re!or" in <ritin  rief tteent of  reon for i&o/n"in te &&ort n", e in !ertin eD!e&tion' !ir!/tn!e, to /&&'  !o& of /! tteent to te &eron ffe!te". Be &o<er i eDer!ie"  te Centr' -oernent ite'f. So, it !n fe'  e /e" tt te Centr' -oernent <i'' eDer!ie te &o<er in 

reon'e n" re&oni'e nner.

2 A.. -o&'n . Stte of *"r, [195%] SCR 88

(8)

.

I# S$6! <=(>) (6) 3 I2* /*##?0! A6!,<@, +*!$# 3 !"$

*0!6+$ <@(<)(*) 0 (8) 3 I2* C#!!'!

o Arti!'e19(1) A'' !iti@en e te rit of  to free"o of &ee! n" eD&reion

• to &r!ti!e n &rofeion, or to !rr on n #!!/&tion, tr"e or /ine • Be rit, <i! i o/t to e retri!te"  Se!tion 1%(3) (!) n" te or"er,

i !"$ 08"! ! 8 *40*2 n" tt i not ne"   f/n"ent' rit.

• +/t te r/ent of te &etitioner < tt te 08"! ! 8 *40*2 # *

!$80*+ ?*0! 3 !"$ 30$$2% 3 #?$$6" *2 $9?0$## n" <eneer Stte !tion, e it '< or eDe!/tie fit, retri!t or interfere <it te rit to o ro", it ne!eri' ino'e !/rti'ent of free"o of &ee! n" eD&reion.

• Be rit of tre' n" to o o/ti"e te !o/ntr i in!'/"e" in te fit to

 &eron' 'iert4

R$#?2$!

A08'$#-• Be rit to o ro" !o/'" not &oi' e !o&reen"e" <itin free"o of 

&ee! n" eD&reion, e!/e te rit of free &ee! n" eD&reion /rntee" /n"er Arti!'e 19(1) () < eDer!i'e on' <itin te territor of  In"i n" te /rntee of it eDer!ie "i" not eDten" te /rntee of it eDer!ie "i" not eDten" o/ti"e te !o/ntr n" en!e Stte !tion retri!tin or   &reentin eDer!ie of te rit to o ro" !o/'" not e i" to e io'tie

of free"o of &ee! n" eD&reion.

>. I# !"$ 08"! ! 8 *40*2 4 A0!6+$ <@(*) 0 (8)3 !"$ I2*

C#!!'!

• Be =nion of In"i !''ene" tt it < te i! &ro&oe of te Contit/tion

tt te f/n"ent' rit /rntee"  it <ere i''e on' <itin te territor of In"i, for it !o/'" neer e een te intention of !ontit/tion er to !onfer rit <i! /torit of te tte !o/'" not enfor!e.

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A08'%$!# 3 !"$

/$!!$0-• Bee rit <ere !on!eie"  te Contit/tion er not in  nrro< 'iite"

in!e /t in teir <i"et <ee&. ?or te i n" oe!tie < to /i'"  ne< o!i' or"er <ere n <i'' not e  ere &'tin in te n" of te Stte or   fe< &rii'ee" &eron /t tere <i'' e f/'' !o&e n" o&&ort/nit for i to !iee te Di/ "ee'o&ent of i &eron'it n" te "init of te in"ii"/' <i'' e f/'' /re".

• Co/'" te !ontit/tion er e inten"e" tt  !iti@en o/'" e ti

free"o in In"i not o/ti"eJ

• ?ree"o of &ee! n" eD&reion !rrie <it it te rit to ter infortion

 'o to &e n" eD&re onee'f t oe n" ro" n" to eD!ne to/t n" i"e <it oter not on' in In"i /t 'o o/ti"e.

• Be <or" Fin te territor of In"iG !o/'" e een ""e" t te en" of Arti!'e

19(1) (). +/t it < "e'ierte' refrine" fro /in n <or" of 'iittion.

• Wi'e te !ontit/tion' "ete < oin on, te =:R < "o&te" n" ot

of te f/n"ent' rit <i! i in!'/"e" in &rt III <ere re!oni@e" n" "o&te"  te =.N.  te in'ien'e rit of n in =:R.

• Arti!'e 13 of te =:R "e!'re" tt Feer one  te rit to free"o of 

o&inion n" eD&reion ti rit in!'/"e free"o to o'" o&inion <ito/t interferen!e n" to ee, re!eie n" i&ort infortion n" i"eK.G

• Bi < te 'orio/ "e!'rtion of te f/n"ent' free"o of &ee! n"

eD&reion 4+$  66$?! *2 '$0#*+  #6?$- <i! < efore te <en te !ontit/tion er en!te" Arti!'e 19(1) ().

. I# F0$$2% 3 S?$$6" *2 E9?0$## 63$2 ! !"$ !$00!0 3

I2*

(10)

Be rit of free &ee! n" eD&reion n" te rit to &rofeion !n e eninf/' !ontent n" it eDer!ie !n e effe!tie' on' if te rit to tre' ro" i en/re" n" <ito/t it te forer rit <o/'" e 'iite"   eor&i!' !ontrint n" retrin.

. W"$!"$0 !"$ %?'8$2 02$0 # !0* 0$# S$6! <=(>) (6) 3 !"$

I2* /*##?0! A6!, <@

Be re&on"ent !'i te or"er < !!or"in to te tte" Se!tion /t te Petitioner !'i tt te or"er < io'tin te e!tion, e!/e !!or"in to te Se!tion A/torit o/'" ie te reon. +/t te re&on"ent "nLt.

. I# !"$ %?'8$2 02$0 C#!!'!*++ V*+2

Be ro io'tion of te nt/r' /ti!e eo"ie" in te Di audi alteram partem.

Berefore, N/'' n" 0oi".

It <o/'" e entire' for te Coiion of InH/ir to "e!i"e" <eter er   &reen!e i ne!er or not. +/t te i&/ne" or"er < on te i of 

ere o&inion  te Centr' -oernent tt te Petitioner 'ie' to e reH/ire" in !onne!tion <it te &ro!ee"in efore te Coiion of  inH/ir <, in te !ir!/tn!e, !'er' /nreon'e.

It i 'o io'tie of te Arti!'e 19(2) (6)

(Be tet of 'i"it of retri!tion i&oe" /&on te rit !oere"  Arti!'e 19(1) <i'' e fo/n" in !'/e (2) to (6) of Arti!'e 19.)

(11)

 JUDGEMENT:-Bo te eDtent to <i! e!tion 1%(3) (!) of te P&ort A!t, 1967 /toritie to  &&ort /torit to i&o/n"  &&ort Fin te interet of te ener' &/'i!G, it io'tie of Arti!'e 14 of te Contit/tion in!e it !onfer *8'$ *2 '2$3$2 ?$0 on te &&ort /torit

Se!tion 1%(3) (!) i oi"  !onferrin n ritrr &o<er in!e it "oe not  &roi"e for  erin to te o'"er of te &&ort efore te &&ort i

i&o/n"e"

Se!tion 1%(3) (!) i o'tie of Arti!'e 21 of te Contit/tion in!e it "oe not  &re!rie &ro!e"/re <itin te enin of tt rti!'e n" te &ro!e"/re  &r!ti!e" i <ort.

Se!tion 1%(3) (!) i int Ari!'e 19(1) () n" 19(1) () in!e it &erit retri!tion to e i&oe" on te rit /rntee"  tee rti!'e /n"er  Arti!'e 19(2) n" 19(6).

A ne< D6!0$ 3 /#! D$6#*+ T"$0 < eo'e".

In words of M.H. e!" C.J.

Be !e efore / ino'e H/etion re'tin to i! /n rit. #n /! H/etion I e'iee tt /'ti&'i!it of ie< iin te &&ro! of e! eer  of ti Co/rt i not  "i"nte if it !'rifie o/r not infreH/ent' "ifferin &&ro!e. It o/'" en'e '' interete" to &&re!ite etter te inifi!n!e of  o/r Contit/tion.

A I  in ener' reeent <it  'erne" retren +<ti n" rin Ier. I <i'' en"eo/r to !onfine  oertion to n in"i!tion of  o<n &&ro! on oe tter for !oni"ertion no< efore /. Bi ee to e to e

(12)

 &rti!/'r' ne!er   'erne" roter i', <o  'o ien / te  enefit of i e&rte o&inion,   oe<t "ifferent &&ro!. I e " te

"nte of oin tro/ te o&inion of e! of  tree 'erne" retren.

It ee to e tt tere !n e 'itt'e "o/t tt te rit to tre' n" to o o/ti"e te !o/ntr, <i! or"er re/'tin i/e, /&enion or i&o/n"in, n" !n!e''tion of &&ort "ire!t' ffe!t, /t e in!'/"e" in rit to M&eron' 'iertM on te trent of "e!iion of ti Co/rt iin  er <i"e it to te rit to &eron' 'iert5

Arti!'e 21 of te Contit/tion re"  fo''o< $

Prote!tion of 'ife n" &eron' 'iert. No &eron '' e "e&rie" of i 'ife or   &eron' 'iert eD!e&t !!or"in to &ro!e"/re et'ie"  '<.

It i ei"ent tt Arti!'e 21, to/ o fre"  to &&er   ie'" o&ertin netie' int eDe!/tie en!ro!ent oer oetin !oere"  tt ie'", i te 'e' re!onition of ot te &rote!tion or te ie'"  <e''  of <t it  &rote!t <i! 'ie enet tt ie'". It  een, o inter&rete"  'on o  in

A. K. G?*+* . S!*!$ 3 M*20*#, <ere,  &ointe" o/t  e in A22!*+

D#!06! M*8#!0*!$, *4*+?'0 . S. S. S"'1+* *2 O0#.

In tt !e, */eree ., fter !on!e"in tt te rit ien  Arti!'e 19(1)(") <o/'" e in!i"ent'' !ontrene"  n or"er of &reentie "etention (ee &. 261)

 St<nt Sin S<ne . . Rrtn, Aitnt P&ort #ffi!er, -oernent of In"i,  Ne< e'i n" #r. [1967]3SCR525 , r Sin . Stte of =.P. n" #r. 1963Cri>329 .

6 195%Cri>1383

(13)

n" eD&rein te o&inion tt  <i"er inifi!n!e < ien  +'!tone to te ter M&eron' 'iertM, <i!  in!'/"e te rit to 'o!ootion,  *r.  Nir, 'erne" Co/ne' for A. . -o&'n, <nte" te Co/rt to infer, e 

nrro<er !onnottion to M&eron' 'iertM,  Mfree"o fro &i!' !ontrint or  !oer!ionM on'. */ere, ., !ite" i!e for i ore retri!tie ie< tt M&eron' 'iertM <o/'" en $ M &eron' rit not to e /e!te" to i&rionent, rret or oter &i!' !oer!ion in n nner tt "oe not "it of 'e' /tifi!tionM. :e ten i" $

It i, in  o&inion, ti netie rit of not ein /e!te" to n for of   &i!' retrint or !oer!ion tt !ontit/te te een!e of &eron' 'iert n"

not ere free"o to oe to n &rt of te In"in Berritor.

CRITICA#

EVA#UATION:-• In ti !e te :onL'e !o/rt inter&rete" "ifferent Arti!'e of te

Contit/tion er ri''int'.

• +/t te ?#! 2$6#*+ 26!0$, <i! < ien in ti !e, I tin, i

not oo".

• A &eron o/'" e ien te Cn!e of "efen"in ie'f, efore te

(14)

I#IOGRA$H%:-CASES

REFERRED-• Stte of #ri . r. +in&ni ei 1967 SC • R.C.Coo&er . =#I 197% SC

• r Sin . Stte of =.P. 1962 SC • A.. -o&'n . Stte of *"r 195% SC • :r"n S . Stte of W+ 1974 SC • S.N. Srr . W+ 1973SC

• '&/r . S. S/' 1976 SC

• I.C. -o'nt . Stte of P/n 1967 SC

• Stte of #ri . r. (*i) +in&ni ei n" #r. (1967)II>>266SC • :r"n S . Be Stte of Wet +en' n" #r.  [1973]1SCR856 • S/ Nt Srr . Stte of Wet +en'

SITES REFERRED$

<<<.oo'e.!o*nen"i!e

• <<<.in"innoon.or"o!1766147

(15)

BOOKS

REFERRED-B<ni, C.., F>e!t/re on A"initrtie ><G, tern +oo 

Co&n, "n. 4

t

 , 2%1%.

• In"in Contit/tion ><, *. P. in SiDt "ition (>eDi NeDi

+/tter<ort W"< N&/r )

• Be Contit/ion #f In"i , P.*. +i (=nier' >< P/'iin Co.

 Ne< e'i In"i )

• Coentr on Contit/tion of In"i, /r  +/, 0o'/e 3, 8 t

Figure

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References

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