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SOCIOLOGY REVIEWER

SOCIOLOGY REVIEWER

NAMES NAMES

TERMS & IMPT DEFINITIONS TERMS & IMPT DEFINITIONS

LECTURE#1

LECTURE#1 –  –  SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES

Definition of Sociology: Definition of Sociology:

 The systematic study of theThesystematic study of the

relationship between the individual relationship between the individual and society

and society and of the consequences and of the consequences of different types of

of different types of relationshipsrelationships (( Berger,2007)

Berger,2007) 

 Is the systematic study Is the systematic study of humanof human society

society ( Macionis,2003)( Macionis,2003) 

 Is the systematic study Is the systematic study of socialof social behavior and human groups behavior and human groups (Schaefer,2005)

(Schaefer,2005) Sociology focuses on: Sociology focuses on:

 How social relationships influenceHow social relationships influence people’s attitudes and behavior people’s attitudes and behavior 

 How major social institutions How major social institutions affectaffect us

us 

 How we affect other individuals,How we affect other individuals, groups, and organizations

groups, and organizations Origins of Sociology:

Origins of Sociology: 

 The rise of a factory-based industrialThe rise of a factory-based industrial economy.

economy. 

 The emergence of great cities inThe emergence of great cities in Europe.

Europe. 

 Political changes, including a risingPolitical changes, including a rising concern with individual liberty and concern with individual liberty and rights. (The French Revolution rights. (The French Revolution

symbolized this dramatic break with symbolized this dramatic break with political and social tradition.)

political and social tradition.) Founders of Sociology:

Founders of Sociology: 

 Aguste ComteAguste Comte

-- System of Positive Polity, orSystem of Positive Polity, or Treatise on Sociology, Instituting Treatise on Sociology, Instituting the Religion of Humanity.

the Religion of Humanity. 

 Emile DurkheimEmile Durkheim

-- The Division of Labor in SocietyThe Division of Labor in Society -- The Elementary Forms ofThe Elementary Forms of

Religious Life Religious Life -- SuicideSuicide

 Karl MarxKarl Marx -- Das KapitalDas Kapital 

 Max WeberMax Weber

-- The Protestant Ethic and the RiseThe Protestant Ethic and the Rise of Capitalism

of Capitalism

-- The Sociology of ReligionThe Sociology of Religion -- The theory of Social andThe theory of Social and

Economic organization Economic organization Aguste Comte (1798-1857)

Aguste Comte (1798-1857) 

 “T“The major goal of sociology was tohe major goal of sociology was to understand society as it actually understand society as it actually operates

operates”” 

 PositivismPositivism 

 Three-stage historical development:Three-stage historical development: -- The theological stage, in whichThe theological stage, in which

thought was guided by religion. thought was guided by religion. -- The metaphysical stage, aThe metaphysical stage, a

transitional phase. transitional phase. -- The scientific stageThe scientific stage

Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) - French Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) - French

 Studied the ties that bind the societyStudied the ties that bind the society together

together

 Mechanical solidarityMechanical solidarity

-- Traditional societies are unitedTraditional societies are united by social similarities

by social similarities

 Organic solidarityOrganic solidarity

-- Modern societies are united byModern societies are united by interdependence

interdependence

 AnomieAnomie

-- Rapid social change leads to lossRapid social change leads to loss of social norms and produces of social norms and produces many social problems

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Karl Marx (1818-1883) - German  Involved in social change  “Social scientists should help

improve society”

 Struggle between owners and workers

 Capitalist owners will oppress ordinary people

 Eventually, people become alienated

 People lose control over their lives Max Weber (1864-1920) - German

 Studied impact of industrialization on people’s lives

 Supports value free studies and objective research

Rationalization

 Traditional societies emphasize emotion and personal ties

 Modern societies emphasize calculation, efficiency, self control

 Personal ties decline and people become “disenchanted”

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) –  British

 Society evolves over time in a similar fashion to biological evolution.

 All of the parts of society are interdependent

 He coined the term” the survival of the fittest” and became known for “social Darwinism”.

The Sociological Perspective

 The sociological perspective helps us to see general social patterns in the behavior of particular individuals.  It allows or forces us to look beyond

the outer appearances of our social

world and discover new levels of reality

 It also encourages us to realize that society guides our thoughts and deeds — to see the strange in the familiar

 Sociology also encourages us to see individuality in social context.

The Sociological Imagination

 Provides the ability to see our private experiences and personal difficulties as entwined with the structural arrangements of our society and the times in which we live

 Understand social marginality, the state of being excluded from social activity as an “outsider.”

 “An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, and …the ability to view our society as an outsider might, rather than relying only on our individual perspective, which is shaped by our cultural biases (C. Wright Mills) Theory

 A statement of how and why specific facts are related. The goal of

sociological theory is to explain social behavior in the real world.  Theories are based on theoretical

paradigms, sets of assumptions that guide thinking and research.

3 Theoretical Perspectives

 Structural-Functionalism perspective

 Conflict perspective

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Structural-Functionalist Perspective  Parts of a social system work

together to maintain a balance - Functions are actions that have

positive consequences

- Dysfunctions are actions that have negative consequences - Manifest functions are intended - Latent functions are unintended  A framework for building theory that

sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. - It asserts that our lives are

guided by social structures (relatively stable patterns of social behavior).

- Each social structure has social functions, or consequences, for the operation of society as a whole.

- Key figures in the development of this paradigm include Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer, and Talcott Parsons and Robert Merton

 Robert Merton’s 3 concepts of social function:

- Manifest functions, the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern

- Latent functions, largely

unrecognized and unintended consequences and

- Social dysfunctions, undesirable consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society. The Conflict Perspective

 Society is held together by who has power at a moment in time

- Power allows some to dominate others

- Dominance leads to conflict - Conflict and change are

inevitable

- Conflict holds society together as new alliances are formed and others fail

Social-Conflict Paradigm

 A framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of

inequality that generates conflict and change.

 Sociologists attempt not only to understand society but also to reduce social inequality

 Key figures in this tradition include Karl Marx, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Wright Mills

Weaknesses:

- It ignores social unity based on mutual interdependence and shared values.

- Because it is explicitly political, it cannot claim scientific

objectivity.

- Like the structural-functional paradigm, it envisions society in terms of broad abstractions. The Symbolic Interaction Perspective

 Individuals construct the nature of their social world through social interaction

- Social life is possible only because humans can

communicate through symbols - All human communications take

place through the perception and interpretation of symbols - How people define situations is

important

- There is a general consensus on how situations are defined

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- We do not respond directly to reality but to the symbolic meanings we attach to the real world

Symbolic-Interaction Paradigm

 A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals.  symbolic-interactionism has a

micro-level orientation; it focuses on patterns of social interaction in specific settings.

 Key figures in the development of this paradigm include

- George Herbert Mead - Erving Goffman

- George Homans - Peter Blau

Symbolic Interactionism

 Symbolic interactionism attempts to explain more clearly how individuals actually experience society.

However, it has two weaknesses: - Its micro-orientation sometimes

results in the error of ignoring the influence of larger social structures.

- By emphasizing what is unique, it risks overlooking the effects of culture, class, gender, and race.

LECTURE #3 –  CULTURE Culture

 It is defined as the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and even materials, hairstyles, etc.

(Nyden,1993)

 Is the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior. (Giddens, 2005)

 Is a way of life. (Tischler, 2008) Components of Culture

 Symbols - anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who shared culture

 Language - a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another

 Values and Beliefs - culturally defined standards by which people assess desirability, goodness, and beauty, and that deserve as broad guidelines social living

 Norms - a rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members

- Folkways – norms that are not strictly enforced

- Mores – norms that are believed to be essential to core values and we insist on conformity

 Laws - These are formalized norms enacted by people vested with legitimate authority

Taboo - a strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom that is sacred and or

forbidden based on moral judgment, religious beliefs

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 Dietary restrictions (Halal)  Sex

 Nudity  Profanity 2 kinds of Mores

 Positive Mores - refers to the behavior, which must and ought to be done because they are ethically and morally good

 Negative Mores - refers to societal prohibitions on certain acts which must not be done because they are not only illegal

How is culture transmitted?

Characteristics of culture  Organized

 Transferable  Universal  Varied

 Product of Human Creativity  Adaptive  Relative  Learned  Symbolic  Continuous  Borrowed

 Stable yet dynamic Culture is learned and acquired

 Culture is learned and acquired not instinctive

 acquired through the senses and from experience

 may be acquired through imitation, conditioning

Culture is shared and transmitted  transmission through ideas  passed on to generations using

language and other symbolic means of com

Culture is social

 it’s a group product

 it’s social due to man’s natural tendency to socialize

Culture is ideational

 Man forms ideas and uses them to assign meanings to his environment and experiences

Culture gratifies human needs  Culture’s provision to satisfy

biological and sociological needs of people i.e. food, clothing, shelter, protection, love, security, sex, etc.

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 The patterns of culture continue to persist if they continue to persist if they continue to satisfy man’s needs.

Culture tends toward integration  elements or traits that make up

culture are (customs) mostly adjusted to or consistent with one another

 Integration implies that the person equally embraces ethnic as well as dominant culture.

Culture is adaptive

 culture is dynamic

 Culture change over time

 The culture of any society is the people’s adjustment to the various conditions of life which include their physical, social, and supernatural environment.

Culture is cumulative

 Through the ages, the people of any given place are able to retain certain features of their culture that are significant in their relationship and interaction with their fellow

humans.

Assimilation - A process in which an individual entirely loses any awareness of his/her previous group identity and takes on the culture and attitudes of another group.

Types of Culture

 Material Culture - refers to the concrete and tangible things that man creates and uses

 Nonmaterial culture - ways of using material objects as well as customs,

beliefs, government, ideas patterns of communication, laws, techniques, lifestyle, and knowledge

Functions of Culture

 Serves as trademark or special  feature that distinguishes one

society from another.

 It brings together, contains, and interprets values of a society  in a more or less systematic manner.  It provides social solidarity .  Serves as the dominant factor  in

establishing the social personality  It provides meaning and direction of

his existence. Cultural Variation

 Subculture - segment of the society that shares a distinct pattern of mores, folkways and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society

 Counterculture -a subculture that

deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture.

 Culture shock - the feeling of

surprise, disbelief and disorientation that people experience when they encounter cultural practices

different Cultural Variability

 Cultural Universal - meaning that every culture has the same customs but it varied how they execute and perform such customs

Attitudes toward Cultural Variation  Enthnocentrism - the tendency to

assume that one’s own culture are superior to all others

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 Cultural Relativism - the viewing of people’s behavior from the

perspective of their own culture  Xenocentrism - the belief that the

products, styles, or ideas of one’s society are inferior to those that originate elsewhere

 Culture Lag - inability of a given society to adapt to a culture immediately

Other Symbolic Uses of Culture

 Culture of Poverty - refers to the learned ways of life of the poor, a vicious cycle of deprivation and want transmitted from one generation to another

 Culture of Opulence - refers to the ways of life of the rich and the famous in their world of glitz and glamour

 Culture of Corruption - refers to the established patterns of illegally amassing wealth and obtaining power or concessions in the government or private office

 Pop Culture - refers to the popular ways, practices and interests of contemporary society

 Culture of Silence - refers to the individual or group attitude to keep silent response to authority

LECTURE #4 –  DEVIANCE

Deviance – violation of norms, It is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act, that makes something deviant

Relativity of Deviance

 Deviance is defined within a group’s framework.

 What is deviant in one group may not be in another

What causes a person to be deviant?  Biological - medicalization of

deviance, a physical illness

 Psychological – personality disorder  Sociological - socialization into

deviance (social perspectives) Physiological/Biological Theories

 Most physiological theories argue that particular individuals are more prone to deviance than others because of their genetic make-up  Genetically inherited characteristics

either directly cause or predispose them towards deviance

Cesare Lombroso

 one of the first to link crime to human biology

 argued that criminals were

throwbacks to an earlier and more primitive form of human being  identified a number of genetically

determined characteristics which were often found in criminals

- Large jaws

- High cheekbones - Large ears

- Extra toes and fingers - Extra nipples

- Insensitivity to pain

Mesomorphs (i.e. stocky, rounded body type) tend to be more active and aggressive and are therefore more likely to commit crime (Sheldon & Glueck)

Genetic Predispositions  Alcoholism  Suicide

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 Mental Illness

 Other deviant and criminal behavior XYY Theory

 Based on studies of inmates  “super-male”

 Problems with XYY Theory  Violent and criminal behavior

Problems with the physiological approach  Lomboso’s research was carried out

amongst inmates in Italian prisons - he was studying very poor

people whose physical development had been affected by poverty, poor nutrition etc.

 Also, not everyone who commits crime ends up in prison

 Any association between physical characteristics and deviant behavior can be explained in other ways Psychological Theories

 Psychological theories see the deviant's sickness as lying in mental processes

 John Bowlby explained deviance in terms of a child’s upbringing

- If a child was deprived of motherly love during the early years, a psychopathic personality could develop Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis has lead some psychologists to argue that crime can results from an imbalance between

different parts of the mind- unconscious consisting of irrational thoughts and feelings causes us to commit deviant acts Problems with Psychological Theories

 Sociologists often dismiss available psychological explanations of deviance because psychological theories often neglect social and cultural factors

 Psychoanalytic theories are criticized for being unscientific

Functions of Deviance:  promotes solidarity

 affirms cultural values and norms  teaches normal behavior by

providing examples of rule violation  Offers society’s members an

opportunity to rededicate

themselves to their social controls. Promotes Solidarity

 take for granted one another  meaning of their social

interdependence

 reawakens their group attachments  it represents a threat to the moral

order of the group

Affirms Cultural Values and Norms

 focuses people’s attention on the value of the group

 needed to define and support morality

 without periodic violations of the norms , it would become less clear and thus less strongly held

 The deviant act focuses people’s attention on the value of the group. Deviance is needed to define and support morality.

Teaches Normal Behavior

 It helps teach society’s rules by providing illustrations of violation  Knowing what is wrong is a step

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Symbolic Interaction Perspective  Differential Association Theory  Self-Esteem Theory

 Control Theory  Labelling Theory

Differential Association Theory (Edwin Sutherland)

 argues that people learn to be

deviant when their associates favour deviance more than they do

conformity Self-Esteem Theory

 Suggest that people choose

deviance or conformity depending on which will do the most to

enhance their self-esteem. Control Theory

 Our inner controls involve morals.  Our outer controls consist of people

who influence us not to deviate (e.g., parents).

 When these controls are weak deviance results

 Argues deviance occurs when individuals

lack the ties to conventional society that are

necessary Labeling Theory

 Labels become a part of our self-concept, they set us on paths that propel us into or divert us from deviance.

 Labels open and close doors of opportunity.

Functional Theory Perspective

 Deviance is natural and functional for society.

 Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms.

 Deviance promotes social unity  Deviance promotes social change Types of Strain Deviance

Conformists - are generally considered to be persons whom believe both in the established cultural goals of any given

society as well as the normative methods of attaining those goals. A self-assured and successful investor would be a primary example of a conformist under Merton's theory.

Ritualists - are persons who do not believe in the established cultural goals of his contemporary society but yet believe in, and abide by, the "correct" behaviors

necessary to fulfill or at least pay lip service to that same cultural goal. A

middle-management worker who cares little for wealth or influence but continues to participate

Innovators - are persons whom accept the cultural goals of a society but reject the conventional methods of attaining those goals are known as. A drug dealer, a thief, a

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pornography artist, all of these typologies could in many ways be seen as innovative Retreatists - typically reject both the established cultural goals as well as the traditional means of attaining that goal – a somewhat dark and somber attitude but one many persons are possessed of. A true nihilist might be an example of a retreatist. Rebels - not only reject the established cultural goals as well as the normative means of attaining those goals; but they also substitute a new schema of goals and acceptable means of attaining those goals individually. A revolutionary, political activist or even a punk or extreme metal musician may fulfill the role of rebellion against the norm.

Anomie (Durkheim)

 A situation where the norms of a society

are unclear or no longer applicable to

current conditions.

 Durkheim believed that it was a major

 Cause of suicide in industrialization.  Strain Theory (Robert Merton)  Suggests that deviance occurs when

culturally-approved goals cannot be reached by culturally-approved means

Conflict Theory Perspective (deviance = power struggle)

 proposes that competition and class conflict within society create

deviance

 Those at top use power to create  laws to maintain social inequality

 Laws are often instruments of oppression.

 The powerful are more able to bypass the court system.

Forms of Social Deviation

 Crimes - Acts that are subject to legal or civil penalties

Types of Crime 1. Street Crime - Murder -Rape -Robbery Assault 2. Professional Crime -Burglary -Safecracking -Hijacking of Cargo -Pick pocketing -Shoplifting

3. White Collar Crime - Illegal acts committed in the course of business activities, often by affluent,

“respectable” people.

4. Organized Crime - Secret,

conspiratorial activity that generally invades law enforcement.

5. Political Crime - The abuse of a government or political office of position

Social control

 Refers to social processes used to minimize deviance from social norms

 is the forces and processes that encourage conformity, including self- control, informal control and formal control

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Types of Social Control

 Self Control - Occurs because individuals internalize the norms and values of their group

 Informal Social Control - Self-restraint exercised because of fear of what others will think

 Formal Social

Control -Administrative sanctions such as: fines, expulsion, and imprisonment Conclusion

 Sociologists have looked at the available physiological and psychological explanations for deviance and believe that they do not tell the whole story

 Sociologists therefore want to look at broader explanations for crime & deviance

 Sociological explanations are influenced by the different perspectives

LECTURE 5v2 –  SOCIALIZATION Socialization

 The lifelong process in which people learn the attitude, values, and

behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture. (Schaefer, 2005)

 Refers to the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture. (Macionis,2003) The role of Socialization

Nature vs Nature

I. Social Environment: The Impact of Isolation

A. Feral Children B. Isolated Children

C. Institutionalized Children II. The Social Development of the Self,

Mind, and Emotions

A. Charles H. Cooley: concluded that human development is socially created – that our sense of self develops from interaction with others. He coined the term “looking-glass self ” to describe this process. The Steps: 1. we imagine how we look to others 2. we interpret other’s reactions 3. we develop a self-concept A favorable reflection in the “social mirror” leads to a  positive self-concept, while a

negative reflection leads to a negative self-concept.

B. George H. Mead: He agreed with Cooley, but added that  play  is critical to the

development of a self. In a  play , we learn to take the

role of others: to understand  and anticipate how others feel and think.

1. children are first able to take only the role of significant others ; as self develops, children internalize the expectations of other people,

eventually the entire group

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2. Stages of self development

- imitation (mimic-gestures, words)

- play (starts in age three -Cinderella)

- games (involves in a team game and must learn the - role of each member of the

team)

C. Jean Piaget: The Four Stages a child goes through in

learning

1. The sensorimotor stage (

0-2):understanding is limited to direct contact with the environment

2. The preoperational stage ( 2-7):children develop the ability to use symbols which allow them to experience things w/o direct contact. 3. The concrete operational stage (7-12): reasoning abilities become much more developed-understand numbers, causation, and speed but have difficulty with abstract concepts such as truth. 4. The formal operational stage ( 12 +): capable of abstract thinking, and

can use rules to solve abstract problems Children pass through these stages at different speeds; children

everywhere go through them in the same order. An individual’s cognitive development can be limited by social experiences.

D. Sigmund Freud: The Three Elements of Personality

1. TheId : (inherited drives for self-gratification) which demands fulfillment of basic needs such as attention, safety, food and sex.

2. TheEgo: ( in normal  people) balances

between the needs of the id and the

demands of the society

3. TheSuperego: (the social conscience) we have internalized from social groups, giving us feelings of guilt or shame when we break rules, and feelings or pride and self-satisfaction when we follow them. E. Erik H. Erikson: 8 Stages of

Development 1. Stage 1- Infancy o the challenge of trust (vs mistrust) o from birth -18 months

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o establishes a sense of trust that the world is a safe place

2. Stage 2- Toddlerhood o the challenge of

autonomy( vs doubt and shame) o learn new skills

to cope with the world in a

confident way o failing to gain

self-control leads children to doubt their abilities 3. Stage 3- Preschool o the challenge of initiative ( vs guilt) o 4-5 years old o experience guilt at failing to meet the expectations of parents and others 4. Stage 4-Preadolescence o the challenge of industriousness (vs inferiority) o 6-13 years old o children enter school o make friends o they feel proud of

their accomplishment 5. Stage 5- Adolescence o the challenge of gaining identity ( vs confusion)) o during teens years

o struggle to establish their own identity

o want to be unique 6. Stage 6- Young Adult

o the challenge of intimacy (vs isolation) o to form and maintain intimate relationships 7. Stage 7- Middle Adulthood o the challenge of making a difference (vs self-absorption) o middle age o focus is to contribute to the lives of others( family, at work and larger world) 8. Stage 8- Old Age

o The challenge of integrity ( vs despair)

o Near the end of our lives

o people hope to look back on what they have accomplished with a sense of integrity and satisfaction Agents of Socialization

1. Family - experiences with the family have a life-long impact on us laying down a basic sense of self,

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2. School - serves many manifest / latent functions like teaching skills and values

3. Peer Groups - next to the family , peer group is the most powerful socializing force in the society 4. Religion - influences morality but

also about dress, speech, and manners

5. Mass Media - influence our attitude values, and other orientations of life 6. Workplace - is a major agent

socialization agent among adult, matching of values and attitude Social Interaction

I. Levels of Sociological Analysis A. Macrosociological

Perspective:

1. Social Structure: refers to the patterned

relationships between people that persist over time. Major components: culture, social class,

social status, roles, institutions, and groups

 Culture refers to a group’s language, beliefs, values, behaviors, and

gestures.

 Social Class is based on income, education, and occupational prestige

 Social Status refers to the positions that an individual occupies

 Ascribed Status are positions an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntary later in life

 Achieved status are positions that are earned, accomplished, or involve at least some effort or activity on the individual ‘s part.

 Roles are the behaviors, obligations,

 and privileges attached to a status

 Groups consists of people who regularly and consciously interact with

 one another and typically share similar values, norms, and

expectations.

 Social Institutions are society’s standard ways or meeting its basic needs (family, religion, law, politics, economics, education, science, medicine, and military)

II. Microsociological Perspective: Social Interaction in Everyday Life

1. focus on face-to-face social interaction or what people do when they are in the presence of one another.

2. interested in symbols

3. Dramaturgy is an analysis of how we present ourselves in

everyday life (drama or stage) LECTURE #6v2 –  SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Social Stratification - defined as a system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy

Class System - is a social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence mobility

Social mobility - Is the movement up or down in the social class ladder

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Estate System  feudalism

 Required peasants to work on land leased to them by nobles in

exchange for military protection and other services.

Marxian Theory of Stratification  Developed by Karl Marx

 In which social stratification was explained primarily in economic terms.

Max Weber view of Stratification  He identified three analytically

distinct components of stratification. 3 Ps  property  prestige  power

Class - people who have a similar level of wealth and income.

Status group - refers to people who have the same prestige or lifestyle, independent of their class positions.

Power - is the ability to exercise one’s will over others.

Social stratification is universal

Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore claimed that stratification is inevitable

a) society must make certain that its position are filled;

b) some positions are more important than others;

c) the more important positions must be filled by the more qualified people;

d) to motivate the more qualified

people to fill these positions, society must offer them greater rewards. Gaetano Mosca argued that every society will be stratified by power for 3 reasons

a) society cannot exist unless it is organized, thus, there must be politics to get the work of society done;

b) politics results in inequalities of power because some people take leadership positions and others follow;

c) it is human nature to be

self-centered, thus, people in position of power use their positions to bring greater rewards to themselves.

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Conflict theorists stress that conflict is the basis of social stratification

a) Every society has only limited

resources to go around, and in every society group struggles with one another for those resources.

b) The dominant group takes control of the social institutions.

c) Groups “within” the same class compete for scarce resources, resulting in conflict between many groups.

Figure

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