The Cold War review

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The Cold War  The Cold War  John Lewis Gaddis John Lewis Gaddis

Chapter 1: The Return of Fear  Chapter 1: The Return of Fear  The United States had been

The United States had been born out of struggle against tyranny, and had embraced aborn out of struggle against tyranny, and had embraced a

sociopolitical ideology that constrained power and held individual liberty as its highest virtue. sociopolitical ideology that constrained power and held individual liberty as its highest virtue. The Soviet Union had been founded to unite the working classes under a highly centralized The Soviet Union had been founded to unite the working classes under a highly centralized government to overthrow the exploitative capitalists.

government to overthrow the exploitative capitalists. Both the U.S. and USSR believed that

Both the U.S. and USSR believed that their ideologies were supreme and would spread their ideologies were supreme and would spread to allto all corners of the Earth in due time.

corners of the Earth in due time. Karl Marx (in

Karl Marx (in The Communist ManifestoThe Communist Manifesto) had theorized that capitalism would, by its nature,) had theorized that capitalism would, by its nature, cause the world’s working classes to grow in size and resentment until they inevitably rebelled cause the world’s working classes to grow in size and resentment until they inevitably rebelled against their masters and seized control of the p

against their masters and seized control of the planet. However, Marx believed that capitalismlanet. However, Marx believed that capitalism was a necessary, if cruel, phase that all societies had to go through to build up the state’s

was a necessary, if cruel, phase that all societies had to go through to build up the state’s technology and infrastructure to a level that would

technology and infrastructure to a level that would allow a peasant takeover.allow a peasant takeover. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin wanted the Communist revolution to happen

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin wanted the Communist revolution to happen sooner rather than later tosooner rather than later to end the suffering of the masses. Hence, he an

end the suffering of the masses. Hence, he and his comrades seized control of Russia, whichd his comrades seized control of Russia, which would serve as a base from which Communism would radiate across the world. But in reality, would serve as a base from which Communism would radiate across the world. But in reality, Russia was not ideally suited for sustaining a Communist system because it was technologically Russia was not ideally suited for sustaining a Communist system because it was technologically and industrially underdeveloped

and industrially underdeveloped and remained a and remained a primarily agrarian societyprimarily agrarian society..

Stalin attempted to correct this through massive socioeconomic reorganization programs in Stalin attempted to correct this through massive socioeconomic reorganization programs in which factories were built and agriculture modernized.

which factories were built and agriculture modernized.

The USSR suffered 90 times as many deaths in WWII as the U.S. The USSR suffered 90 times as many deaths in WWII as the U.S. For the W

For the West, things still looked unest, things still looked uncertain in late 1945certain in late 1945:: -No one knew if the

-No one knew if the Great Depression would returnGreat Depression would return -Americans remained reluctant to take a permanen

-Americans remained reluctant to take a permanen t role in European or world affairs and manyt role in European or world affairs and many  just wanted to bring their troops home

 just wanted to bring their troops home -Though fascism had been crushed,

-Though fascism had been crushed, totalitarianism remained strong, best exemplified by thetotalitarianism remained strong, best exemplified by the USSR.

USSR.

-The Red Army was massive and couldn’t be withdrawn from Europe since the USSR was part -The Red Army was massive and couldn’t be withdrawn from Europe since the USSR was part of Europe.

of Europe.

-The USSR had managed to

-The USSR had managed to provide full employment during the prewar years—a feat that hadprovide full employment during the prewar years—a feat that had obviously eluded the

obviously eluded the Depression-racked WDepression-racked Western nations: It was still unclear estern nations: It was still unclear whether whether  Communism or Capitalism was the superior economic system.

Communism or Capitalism was the superior economic system. -Marxism enjoyed strong support in Europe; in large part due to

-Marxism enjoyed strong support in Europe; in large part due to the contributions Communistthe contributions Communist  partisans had made fighting the Nazis.

 partisans had made fighting the Nazis. Stalin’

Stalin’s small stature and s small stature and (5’ (5’ 4”) and u4”) and unpretentious demeanor hid a npretentious demeanor hid a deeply psychopathic anddeeply psychopathic and highly intelligent mind. By 1945, he had

highly intelligent mind. By 1945, he had long since eliminated all of his rivals within the USSR long since eliminated all of his rivals within the USSR  and was firmly in control.

and was firmly in control.

While Communist doctrine stressed the unity of all Communists worldwide, Stalin was While Communist doctrine stressed the unity of all Communists worldwide, Stalin was concerned with his own power abo

concerned with his own power above all else and saw foreign ve all else and saw foreign Communist movements as helpful,Communist movements as helpful, yet distant in importance

yet distant in importance behind the Soviet behind the Soviet Union’Union’s interests.s interests. Stalin and the Soviet people had

Stalin and the Soviet people had the shared mentality that they were owed disproportionatethe shared mentality that they were owed disproportionate

 postwar concessions to compensate for their disproportionate wartime contributions. The Soviets  postwar concessions to compensate for their disproportionate wartime contributions. The Soviets

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wanted a strong “sphere of influence” a

wanted a strong “sphere of influence” among the ring of states bordering this. Furthermore, theymong the ring of states bordering this. Furthermore, they wanted territorial concessions from Turkey and Iran that would give them access to warm water  wanted territorial concessions from Turkey and Iran that would give them access to warm water   ports, among other things.

 ports, among other things.

However, Stalin did not want a new war to secure

However, Stalin did not want a new war to secure these gains and wasn’t sure that the Sovietthese gains and wasn’t sure that the Soviet Union could withstand such an

Union could withstand such an operation anywayoperation anyway. He therefore needed . He therefore needed to cooperation of theto cooperation of the W

West to secure these gains and est to secure these gains and therefore focused on diplomacy following WWII to get his ends.therefore focused on diplomacy following WWII to get his ends. The USSR also needed American loans to rebuild itself.

The USSR also needed American loans to rebuild itself. Stalin’

Stalin’s assessments of probable s assessments of probable postwar Wpostwar Western intentions were clouded estern intentions were clouded by his negativeby his negative misjudgments of the Capitalist mindset. Co

misjudgments of the Capitalist mindset. Communist doctrine held that mmunist doctrine held that Capitalists were greedy,Capitalists were greedy, self-centered, and unable to cooperate

self-centered, and unable to cooperate for long. Communists, therefore, needed only to pafor long. Communists, therefore, needed only to pa tientlytiently wait for the right moment to overpower their divided enemies. History had even given this theory wait for the right moment to overpower their divided enemies. History had even given this theory some vindication: WWI had been a war between Capitalists, and had given rise to the USSR. some vindication: WWI had been a war between Capitalists, and had given rise to the USSR. The Capitalists had pursued self-serving economic policies to try and solve the Great Depression The Capitalists had pursued self-serving economic policies to try and solve the Great Depression instead of working together, and Nazi Germany rose as a result.

instead of working together, and Nazi Germany rose as a result.

Communism also posited that Capitalism was an inherently unstable system that needed to Communism also posited that Capitalism was an inherently unstable system that needed to constantly expand its reach to find new

constantly expand its reach to find new markets to purchase its excess production (hencemarkets to purchase its excess production (hence

colonialism). Stalin believed that the Great Depression would resume following WWII, and that colonialism). Stalin believed that the Great Depression would resume following WWII, and that the Americans would give him loans in a selfish effort to open a new market.

the Americans would give him loans in a selfish effort to open a new market. Stalin also believed that the W

Stalin also believed that the Western powers would begin quarreling with each estern powers would begin quarreling with each other soon,other soon, leaving them divided and

leaving them divided and ripe for internal Communist revolution.ripe for internal Communist revolution.

However, Stalin failed to appreciate the evolving postwar objectives of the U.S. However, Stalin failed to appreciate the evolving postwar objectives of the U.S. The U.S. had historically championed liberal democrac

The U.S. had historically championed liberal democrac y while remaining isolationist. Presidenty while remaining isolationist. President Wils

Wilson attempted to change on attempted to change this relationship after WWI with the League of Nations and itsthis relationship after WWI with the League of Nations and its mandate for greater world governance

mandate for greater world governance and justice, but the idea was and justice, but the idea was too far ahead of its time.too far ahead of its time. Roosevelt had several strategic wartime objectives:

Roosevelt had several strategic wartime objectives:

-Keep the Allied Powers unified at least until the end of the fighting -Keep the Allied Powers unified at least until the end of the fighting -Get the Allies to agree to a postwar order that balanced power in

-Get the Allies to agree to a postwar order that balanced power in a way designed to preservea way designed to preserve world security

world security. Roosevelt imagined . Roosevelt imagined a collective security organization that a collective security organization that would punish nationswould punish nations for acts of aggression and an international e

for acts of aggression and an international economic system that would coordinate nationalconomic system that would coordinate national  policies to prevent another Depression.

 policies to prevent another Depression.

The British simply aimed to survive WWII at all costs. They accepted that this would mean The British simply aimed to survive WWII at all costs. They accepted that this would mean subservience to the

subservience to the U.S., as America was Britain’U.S., as America was Britain’s key to s key to salvation. Further, they accepted thatsalvation. Further, they accepted that this relationship would need to continue after the

this relationship would need to continue after the warwar. They had no interest in starting a . They had no interest in starting a rivalryrivalry with the Americans as Stalin assumed they would.

with the Americans as Stalin assumed they would. The seeds of

The seeds of the Cold War were sown during WWII as the Allies failed to reconcile the Cold War were sown during WWII as the Allies failed to reconcile seriousserious disagreements:

disagreements: -The Second Front -The Second Front

Early on in the war, Britain and later the U.S. were afraid that

Early on in the war, Britain and later the U.S. were afraid that the USSR might cut a deal withthe USSR might cut a deal with the Nazis, which would have

the Nazis, which would have left virtually all of continental Europe under the cleft virtually all of continental Europe under the c ontrol of hostileontrol of hostile authoritarianism. The W

authoritarianism. The Western Allies thus found it in their interest estern Allies thus found it in their interest to keep the to keep the Soviets suppliedSoviets supplied with enough equipment to keep fighting and avoid being forced to sue for peace. The with enough equipment to keep fighting and avoid being forced to sue for peace. The Anglo-Americans also had to satisfy the Soviets with various concessions, for instance agreeing

Americans also had to satisfy the Soviets with various concessions, for instance agreeing to notto not challenge their eventual re-annexation of

challenge their eventual re-annexation of lost Soviet republics or territories gained through thelost Soviet republics or territories gained through the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact. The Anglo-Americans also agreed to open a second front against the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact. The Anglo-Americans also agreed to open a second front against the  Nazis to relieve pressure on the Russians, though

 Nazis to relieve pressure on the Russians, though the Russians seethed at the seeminglythe Russians seethed at the seemingly insufficient and delayed efforts at such. The A

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liberating European territories with their own forces since it would ensure them

liberating European territories with their own forces since it would ensure them a postwar a postwar  military presence. The Russians had

military presence. The Russians had already made it clear already made it clear that the Wthat the Western Allies would have noestern Allies would have no role in administering Eastern European countries. As the war drew to a close, Stalin beca

role in administering Eastern European countries. As the war drew to a close, Stalin beca meme  paranoid that the W

 paranoid that the West would settle a truce with the Nazis est would settle a truce with the Nazis that would allow Germany to continuethat would allow Germany to continue fighting against the USSR.

fighting against the USSR. -Spheres of influence -Spheres of influence

Roosevelt wanted the nations of Europe to determine their own destinies after the war, which Roosevelt wanted the nations of Europe to determine their own destinies after the war, which meant that Stalin would have to a

meant that Stalin would have to allow them to hold elections. Stalin acquiesced, bullow them to hold elections. Stalin acquiesced, bu t had not had no intention of honoring his promises. Instead, he wanted

intention of honoring his promises. Instead, he wanted to create pro-Soviet satellite regimes thatto create pro-Soviet satellite regimes that would form a Soviet sphere of influence.

would form a Soviet sphere of influence. Russo-Polish animosity was especially bad because of Russo-Polish animosity was especially bad because of  the Soviet invasion in

the Soviet invasion in 1939, the Katyn Wood massacre, the failure of 1939, the Katyn Wood massacre, the failure of the Red Army to supportthe Red Army to support the 1944 Warsaw uprising, and the Soviet-mandated postwar shifting

the 1944 Warsaw uprising, and the Soviet-mandated postwar shifting of Poland’s borders. There,of Poland’s borders. There, Stalin had to impose a friendly government.

Stalin had to impose a friendly government. -Defeated enemies

-Defeated enemies

The Soviets felt cheated by the Anglo-Americans, who only started fighting in continental The Soviets felt cheated by the Anglo-Americans, who only started fighting in continental Europe at the eleventh hour, yet who made large territorial gains. Nowhere was this most Europe at the eleventh hour, yet who made large territorial gains. Nowhere was this most apparent in Germany, where the Allies took the majority of

apparent in Germany, where the Allies took the majority of the country’s land along with its mostthe country’s land along with its most industry- and resource rich areas. The Soviets ran East Germany in a

industry- and resource rich areas. The Soviets ran East Germany in a brutal manner and indulgedbrutal manner and indulged in the mass rape of 2

in the mass rape of 2 million German women by 1947. East Germans quicklmillion German women by 1947. East Germans quickl y grew to hate their y grew to hate their  own government by association. The U.S. refused to allow the Soviets to occupy part of postwar  own government by association. The U.S. refused to allow the Soviets to occupy part of postwar  Japan in

Japan in light of the light of the USSR’USSR’s actions in s actions in GermanyGermany.. -The atom bomb

-The atom bomb

The advent of nuclear

The advent of nuclear weapons skewed the balance oweapons skewed the balance of military power in favor of the U.S., whichf military power in favor of the U.S., which made Stalin more paranoid and committed to hardline politics so as not to appear intimidated. made Stalin more paranoid and committed to hardline politics so as not to appear intimidated. [End]

[End]

The Western powers were willing to allow the Soviet Union to continue to exist, but wanted The Western powers were willing to allow the Soviet Union to continue to exist, but wanted self-determination among

determination among nations and nations and international cooperation international cooperation as means to as means to avert another World Wavert another World War.ar. Stalin, on the other hand, wanted eventual Communist domination of the globe, and felt that Stalin, on the other hand, wanted eventual Communist domination of the globe, and felt that infighting among Capitalist nations would be an

infighting among Capitalist nations would be an inevitable part of that.inevitable part of that. A series of crises immediately following WWII

A series of crises immediately following WWII initiated the Cold initiated the Cold WWar:ar: -Iran, Turkey

-Iran, Turkey, the , the Mediterranean—and containmentMediterranean—and containment Stalin demanded favorable

Stalin demanded favorable adjustments to Turkey’adjustments to Turkey’s border with s border with the USSR, control of the the USSR, control of the TurkishTurkish straits, control over some ex-Italian Mediterranean colonial ports, and refused to pull its troops straits, control over some ex-Italian Mediterranean colonial ports, and refused to pull its troops out of northern Iran where they had

out of northern Iran where they had jointly occupied the country with the British. The Wjointly occupied the country with the British. The Westest refused all of Stalin’s demands and took

refused all of Stalin’s demands and took the Iran issue to the Iran issue to the UN Security Council. Americanthe UN Security Council. American naval forces were also deployed offshore of Iran. Stalin backed

naval forces were also deployed offshore of Iran. Stalin backed down, and it was clear down, and it was clear that hethat he had reached the limits of what his demands alone could accomplish. Moscow Foreign Service had reached the limits of what his demands alone could accomplish. Moscow Foreign Service officer George Kennan authored a seminal letter in 1946 that found aggression and expansion to officer George Kennan authored a seminal letter in 1946 that found aggression and expansion to  be characteristic of the Soviets, and called

 be characteristic of the Soviets, and called for an American response of containment.for an American response of containment. -The Truman Doctrine and the

-The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall PlanMarshall Plan In 1947, the U.S. took

In 1947, the U.S. took over direct military and economic assistance to Greece and Turkey as theover direct military and economic assistance to Greece and Turkey as the British could no longer afford it. Truman announced that this would begin a policy of active U.S. British could no longer afford it. Truman announced that this would begin a policy of active U.S. assistance to countries that were facing [Communist] insurrection, since violence undermined assistance to countries that were facing [Communist] insurrection, since violence undermined thethe ability to pursue self-determination. Secretary of State George C. Marshall also developed the ability to pursue self-determination. Secretary of State George C. Marshall also developed the Marshall Plan that same

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and poverty

and poverty, and as a , and as a way to give the U.S. moral auway to give the U.S. moral authority over the USSR. Stalin forbade thethority over the USSR. Stalin forbade the leaders of the ostensibly “free” eastern European nations from meeting Marshall to

leaders of the ostensibly “free” eastern European nations from meeting Marshall to work out aidwork out aid arrangements.

arrangements. -Czechoslovakia, Y

-Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and ugoslavia, and the Berlin Blockthe Berlin Blockadeade

In September 1947, Stalin formed Cominform, which was an

In September 1947, Stalin formed Cominform, which was an organization meant to enforceorganization meant to enforce Communist orthodoxy in eastern Europe: In reality, it ensured allegiance to Moscow and to the Communist orthodoxy in eastern Europe: In reality, it ensured allegiance to Moscow and to the USSR’

USSR’s interpretation of Marxism. In s interpretation of Marxism. In 1948, Stalin had 1948, Stalin had Czech communists forcefully subvertCzech communists forcefully subvert their government, which

their government, which was the only remaining was the only remaining democracy in eastern Europe. democracy in eastern Europe. In YIn Yugoslavia,ugoslavia, Marshall Ti

Marshall Tito ran a Communist government that to ran a Communist government that was wildly popular and that had purelywas wildly popular and that had purely indigenous roots. He resented Russian intervention in his affairs and openly broke

indigenous roots. He resented Russian intervention in his affairs and openly broke with thewith the Soviets in 1948. He was soon rece

Soviets in 1948. He was soon receiving Ameriiving American economic assistance. Stalin also instituted thecan economic assistance. Stalin also instituted the Berlin Blockade in 1948 to try and strangle West Berlin (which was rebuilding much faster than Berlin Blockade in 1948 to try and strangle West Berlin (which was rebuilding much faster than the eastern part o

the eastern part of the city) and f the city) and maybe force the Western powers out. But the West was able tomaybe force the Western powers out. But the West was able to ship in supplies by air, and this operation gained the admiration and

ship in supplies by air, and this operation gained the admiration and trust of the Germans.trust of the Germans. Overall, Stalin’

Overall, Stalin’s actions badly backfired: The events in Czechoslovakia s actions badly backfired: The events in Czechoslovakia persuaded Europeanpersuaded European countries that they needed a c

countries that they needed a collective security network to protect against Soviet aggression, andollective security network to protect against Soviet aggression, and  NA

 NATO was formed. Tito showed that Communism without TO was formed. Tito showed that Communism without Soviet domination was possible. TheSoviet domination was possible. The failed Berlin Blockade made Stalin look brutal

failed Berlin Blockade made Stalin look brutal and incompetent.and incompetent. However, during the same period, a number of ap

However, during the same period, a number of ap parent setbacks to the Wparent setbacks to the West occurred:est occurred: -The Marshall Plan and America’s entire postwar European doctrine rested

-The Marshall Plan and America’s entire postwar European doctrine rested on the assumptionon the assumption that nuclear weapons would deter

that nuclear weapons would deter the Soviets, obviate the need for an American conventionalthe Soviets, obviate the need for an American conventional forces buildup, and allow a focus

forces buildup, and allow a focus on reconstruction. The Soviet detonation of a fission bomb on reconstruction. The Soviet detonation of a fission bomb inin 1949 happened

1949 happened years ahead of years ahead of schedule and shattered American weapons supreschedule and shattered American weapons supremacymacy. An arms. An arms race thus ensued: the U.S. had

race thus ensued: the U.S. had to increase conventional forces in Europe, to increase conventional forces in Europe, build more fissionbuild more fission  bombs, and build an even more powerful fusion bomb to keep the lead.

 bombs, and build an even more powerful fusion bomb to keep the lead. In 1949

In 1949

-Mao Zedong won the

-Mao Zedong won the Chinese civil war in 1949, and Chinese civil war in 1949, and the Nationalists fled to Tthe Nationalists fled to Taiwan. Neither aiwan. Neither  Stalin nor Truman had anticipated such a victory so soon. Mao failed to realize that the

Stalin nor Truman had anticipated such a victory so soon. Mao failed to realize that the

Americans had given up on Chiang Kai-shek long ago and were willing to deal with Communist Americans had given up on Chiang Kai-shek long ago and were willing to deal with Communist China so long as it followed a nonaligned path like Yugoslavia. Mao instead feared a U.S.

China so long as it followed a nonaligned path like Yugoslavia. Mao instead feared a U.S. invasion of

invasion of his country (impossible given America’s weakened military, commitments in Europe,his country (impossible given America’s weakened military, commitments in Europe, and domestic attitudes) and closely allied himself with Stalin for protection and ou

and domestic attitudes) and closely allied himself with Stalin for protection and ou t of t of  ideological admiration (Mao was a pure Marxist-Leninist). In late 1949,

ideological admiration (Mao was a pure Marxist-Leninist). In late 1949, Stalin and MaoStalin and Mao concluded a mutual self-defense treaty and, to

concluded a mutual self-defense treaty and, to the fears of the Wthe fears of the West, agreed to work together toest, agreed to work together to spread Communism in their different regions of the world.

spread Communism in their different regions of the world.

-At exactly the same time, several high-profile cases of Communist espionage

-At exactly the same time, several high-profile cases of Communist espionage became public inbecame public in America, and Senator Eugene McCarthy began his crusade.

America, and Senator Eugene McCarthy began his crusade. The Korean War 

The Korean War 

-U.S. and Soviet troops simultaneously moved into the Korean peninsula from opposite ends -U.S. and Soviet troops simultaneously moved into the Korean peninsula from opposite ends during the closing weeks of WWII. The two superpowers agreed to

during the closing weeks of WWII. The two superpowers agreed to divide the country at the 38divide the country at the 38thth

 parallel and both honored promises to pull their own forces out by 1949. Both installed puppet  parallel and both honored promises to pull their own forces out by 1949. Both installed puppet governments that claimed the right to rule the entire peninsula and that threatened each other  governments that claimed the right to rule the entire peninsula and that threatened each other  with forceful reunification.

with forceful reunification.

-The leaders of North and South Korea were Kim Il-sung and Syngman Rhee, respectively. -The leaders of North and South Korea were Kim Il-sung and Syngman Rhee, respectively. -Both pressed their superpower patrons to give them the

-Both pressed their superpower patrons to give them the necessary support to conquer the other,necessary support to conquer the other, and both were repeatedly turned down out of fear of starting an unnecessary and expanding war  and both were repeatedly turned down out of fear of starting an unnecessary and expanding war 

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until 1950, when Stalin became

until 1950, when Stalin became emboldened and convinced emboldened and convinced that America would not supportthat America would not support South Korea in

South Korea in a war.a war. *The U.S. had done

*The U.S. had done nothing to stop the Chinese Nationalists from losing the year benothing to stop the Chinese Nationalists from losing the year be fore.fore. *A recently announced American “defensive perimeter” in East Asia conspicuously excluded *A recently announced American “defensive perimeter” in East Asia conspicuously excluded South Korea.

South Korea.

*Stalin realized that proxies could be used to fight the Capitalist states without directly *Stalin realized that proxies could be used to fight the Capitalist states without directly endangering the USSR.

endangering the USSR.

-The U.S. response to the invasion was swift and

-The U.S. response to the invasion was swift and was heavily influenced by the fact that ewas heavily influenced by the fact that exactlyxactly this type of naked aggression had led

this type of naked aggression had led to WWII.to WWII.

-Moscow had not anticipated fast deployment of the American army in Japan to Korea

-Moscow had not anticipated fast deployment of the American army in Japan to Korea and hadand had forgotten that its own ambassador to the UN was absent

forgotten that its own ambassador to the UN was absent in protest over the refusal to admitin protest over the refusal to admit Communist China as a

Communist China as a member. member. A Security Council resolution for action was thus A Security Council resolution for action was thus easilyeasily approved.

approved.

The end of WWII did not bring security to an

The end of WWII did not bring security to anyone and in fact merely recast the old pyone and in fact merely recast the old players aslayers as new enemies.

new enemies.

Chapter 2: Deathboats and lifeboats Chapter 2: Deathboats and lifeboats Some called for the use of nu

Some called for the use of nuclear weapons in Korea to halt the clear weapons in Korea to halt the Chinese advance, but TrumanChinese advance, but Truman rejected the idea because it

rejected the idea because it risked widening the conflict and subjecting American allies to Sovietrisked widening the conflict and subjecting American allies to Soviet nuclear counterattack.

nuclear counterattack.

 Nuclear weapons changed the whole concept of war since a nuclear exchange could destroy  Nuclear weapons changed the whole concept of war since a nuclear exchange could destroy

entire states, leaving a horrendously damaged victor o

entire states, leaving a horrendously damaged victor o r no victor at all. Even r no victor at all. Even without nuclear without nuclear  weapons, the World W

weapons, the World Wars had clearly shown ars had clearly shown that modern technologthat modern technology was making warfarey was making warfare increasingly destructive.

increasingly destructive.

Truman realized that nuclear weapons were radically different from past weapons in their effects Truman realized that nuclear weapons were radically different from past weapons in their effects and ramifications, so he did not allow

and ramifications, so he did not allow the military to have unfettered control over their use: Onlythe military to have unfettered control over their use: Only the President would be able to authorize a nuclear attack.

the President would be able to authorize a nuclear attack. Truman erred in keeping nuclear planning and

Truman erred in keeping nuclear planning and doctrine out of the hands of the doctrine out of the hands of the generals for sogenerals for so long—this interfered with the ability to create a cohesive, rational, credible

long—this interfered with the ability to create a cohesive, rational, credible nuclear strategy tonuclear strategy to deter the Soviets.

deter the Soviets.

The Soviet nuclear program put greater

The Soviet nuclear program put greater strain on the USSR than the Manhattan Project did ostrain on the USSR than the Manhattan Project did o n then the U.S. The Soviets routinely used forced labor and disregarded health

U.S. The Soviets routinely used forced labor and disregarded health and environmental standardsand environmental standards to make progress.

to make progress.

Even though the U.S. had 300+ nukes in 1951 and Russia only had 5 at best, there were Even though the U.S. had 300+ nukes in 1951 and Russia only had 5 at best, there were numerous reasons why we didn’t nuke Chinese forces in

numerous reasons why we didn’t nuke Chinese forces in Korea:Korea: -The Chinese armies were spread out in

-The Chinese armies were spread out in the wilderness and weren’t concentrated anywhere.the wilderness and weren’t concentrated anywhere.  Nuclear blasts would therefore have had disappointing tactical effects.

 Nuclear blasts would therefore have had disappointing tactical effects. -Bombing Chinese cities would have had

-Bombing Chinese cities would have had a bigger impact on Mao, a bigger impact on Mao, but the political costs wouldbut the political costs would have been severe, and the USSR might have been provoked into entering the fighting. If a have been severe, and the USSR might have been provoked into entering the fighting. If a U.S.-Soviet war broke out over Korea,

Soviet war broke out over Korea, Europe would probably also become Europe would probably also become a battleground. Wa battleground. Westernestern Europe knew this and protested aga

Europe knew this and protested against possible escalation in Korea.inst possible escalation in Korea.

-By spring of 1951, the Chinese had outrun their supply lines and were being driven back by -By spring of 1951, the Chinese had outrun their supply lines and were being driven back by improved UN tactics.

improved UN tactics.

Stalin was willing to concede all of Korea to America rather than get involved. Stalin was willing to concede all of Korea to America rather than get involved.

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Both the U.S. and USSR covered

Both the U.S. and USSR covered up the presence of Soviet fighter pilots over up the presence of Soviet fighter pilots over Korea, who battledKorea, who battled against American planes.

against American planes. The hydrogen bomb was p

The hydrogen bomb was projected to be so powerful that military planners could not rojected to be so powerful that military planners could not conceive of conceive of  a practical use for it. Truman only authorized its construction because he feared

a practical use for it. Truman only authorized its construction because he feared the Sovietsthe Soviets would get it first.

would get it first.

The Soviets had actually started their H-bomb development

The Soviets had actually started their H-bomb development before the Americans and relied onbefore the Americans and relied on their own talents instead of espionage. The first American and Soviet H-bomb tests occurred in their own talents instead of espionage. The first American and Soviet H-bomb tests occurred in 1952 and

1952 and 1953, respectively1953, respectively..

In early 1953, Truman left office and Stalin died. New leaders took over the

In early 1953, Truman left office and Stalin died. New leaders took over the reins of power.reins of power. Eisenhower viewed nuclear weapons differently than Truman, and he stated that he had no Eisenhower viewed nuclear weapons differently than Truman, and he stated that he had no qualms using them in war, even against weak adve

qualms using them in war, even against weak adve rsaries like the North Koreans in distantrsaries like the North Koreans in distant corners of the globe. He wanted credible nuclear attack to be a cornerstone of U.S. deterrence. corners of the globe. He wanted credible nuclear attack to be a cornerstone of U.S. deterrence. However, the 1954 American BRA

However, the 1954 American BRAVO test exploded VO test exploded a 15-megaton H-bomb a 15-megaton H-bomb that produced a that produced a hugehuge amount of fallout that was detected around the world. It gave analysts an appreciation of the

amount of fallout that was detected around the world. It gave analysts an appreciation of the global effects of nuclear weapons, and forced them to consider the consequences of an all-out global effects of nuclear weapons, and forced them to consider the consequences of an all-out exchange of said weapons. Leaders began to realize that nuclear weapons could bring about the exchange of said weapons. Leaders began to realize that nuclear weapons could bring about the end of humanity, and therefore couldn’t be used.

end of humanity, and therefore couldn’t be used. Stalin was replaced b

Stalin was replaced by Nikita Khrushchev. Like Eisenhower, Khrushchev was a lifelong y Nikita Khrushchev. Like Eisenhower, Khrushchev was a lifelong militarymilitary man who had seen combat and been of high rank during WWII. Both understood the horrors of  man who had seen combat and been of high rank during WWII. Both understood the horrors of  war better than their advisors and developed

war better than their advisors and developed an instinctive aversion to using nuclear weapons.an instinctive aversion to using nuclear weapons. After BRA

After BRAVO, Eisenhower came to understand that VO, Eisenhower came to understand that nuclear war would mean the nuclear war would mean the end of humanend of human life. However, he also understood that nuclear weapons could deter the USSR, so he designed the life. However, he also understood that nuclear weapons could deter the USSR, so he designed the American nuclear arsenal around a

American nuclear arsenal around a doctrine of massive, non-gradated use. The Communists,doctrine of massive, non-gradated use. The Communists, whom we believed to be

whom we believed to be superior in conventional military terms, would overrun Wsuperior in conventional military terms, would overrun Western forcesestern forces in a standard war. The only protection was to threaten massive nuclear retaliation for any attack, in a standard war. The only protection was to threaten massive nuclear retaliation for any attack, however minor.

however minor.

By 1957, Russia had long-range bo

By 1957, Russia had long-range bombers and ICBM’s capable of reaching the U.S. Theymbers and ICBM’s capable of reaching the U.S. They inspired great anxiety in

inspired great anxiety in the Wthe West, in large part best, in large part because of Khrushchev’s constant declarations of ecause of Khrushchev’s constant declarations of  their capabilities and numbers. But unbeknownst to

their capabilities and numbers. But unbeknownst to the Wthe West, during this period, the Russiansest, during this period, the Russians had very few bombers, and the

had very few bombers, and they could only reach the U.S. on y could only reach the U.S. on one-way missions. Soviet ICBM’one-way missions. Soviet ICBM’ss were also very inaccurate and limited in n

were also very inaccurate and limited in numberumber..

Khrushchev was a boisterous, crude, insecure man whose own power was uncertain. Khrushchev was a boisterous, crude, insecure man whose own power was uncertain. During the 1956 Suez Crisis, Khrushchev publicly threatened

During the 1956 Suez Crisis, Khrushchev publicly threatened to destroy the French/Englishto destroy the French/English forces with “rocket weapons” [Nasser had previously broken with the British over the forces with “rocket weapons” [Nasser had previously broken with the British over the long-running Suez Canal ownership dispute and

running Suez Canal ownership dispute and was buying huge quantities of weapons was buying huge quantities of weapons from thefrom the W

Warsaw Pact] unless they withdrew. Eisenhower had pubarsaw Pact] unless they withdrew. Eisenhower had pub licly told the French alicly told the French and British tond British to withdraw or face economic sanctions. The Franco-Anglo forces did

withdraw or face economic sanctions. The Franco-Anglo forces did withdrawwithdraw, but due to U.S. as, but due to U.S. as opposed to Soviet pressure. However, it appeared to everyone else tha

opposed to Soviet pressure. However, it appeared to everyone else tha t Khrushchev’s words hadt Khrushchev’s words had done the deed. This emboldened

done the deed. This emboldened Khrushchev, who became even more bellicose as a result andKhrushchev, who became even more bellicose as a result and who threatened nuc

who threatened nuclear annihilation even lear annihilation even more frequentlymore frequently..

In truth, Khrushchev was all talk, and he was smart enough to understand that a nuclear war  In truth, Khrushchev was all talk, and he was smart enough to understand that a nuclear war  would wreck his own

would wreck his own countrycountry..

Khrushchev visited the U.S. for the first and onl

Khrushchev visited the U.S. for the first and onl y time in 1959.y time in 1959. In 1956, the U.S. fielded the

In 1956, the U.S. fielded the U2 spy plane, which could U2 spy plane, which could fly higher than the Soviets couldfly higher than the Soviets could intercept with planes or missiles. It was an invaluable tool an

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determine the sadly underdeveloped nature

determine the sadly underdeveloped nature of the Soviet nuclear arsenal. The Soviets were soof the Soviet nuclear arsenal. The Soviets were so embarrassed by their own inability to shoot down the U2’s that they kept their protests quiet. embarrassed by their own inability to shoot down the U2’s that they kept their protests quiet. The USSR only had six ICBM launching pa

The USSR only had six ICBM launching pads, and each ICBM took ds, and each ICBM took 20 hours to fuel. Therefore,20 hours to fuel. Therefore, assuming a Soviet first strike, Khrushchev would have been

assuming a Soviet first strike, Khrushchev would have been able to hit his enemies with 6able to hit his enemies with 6 ICBM’

ICBM’s at best s at best before his missile capabilities were debefore his missile capabilities were destroyed in kind.stroyed in kind.

The USSR developed an antiaircraft missile capable of hitting the U2, and used it in 1960 to The USSR developed an antiaircraft missile capable of hitting the U2, and used it in 1960 to shoot down Gary Powers’ spy plane. It was probab

shoot down Gary Powers’ spy plane. It was probab ly to have ly to have been the last been the last U2 flight anyway,U2 flight anyway, since the U.S. was preparing to launch its first spy satellite into orbit.

since the U.S. was preparing to launch its first spy satellite into orbit. Kennedy popped Khrushchev’s bubble in 1961 by making

Kennedy popped Khrushchev’s bubble in 1961 by making public the classified findings aboutpublic the classified findings about the USSR’s inflated nuclear claims. The “missile gap” had

the USSR’s inflated nuclear claims. The “missile gap” had never existed. Khrushchev’s leveragenever existed. Khrushchev’s leverage over the Wes

over the West largely evaporated once t largely evaporated once his lies were exposed.his lies were exposed.

Fidel Castro’s takeover of Cuba was unexpected in both the U.S. and USSR. Fidel Castro’s takeover of Cuba was unexpected in both the U.S. and USSR.

Soviet academics saw the spontaneous nature of the revolution as proof that the class struggle Soviet academics saw the spontaneous nature of the revolution as proof that the class struggle elucidated by Marx was indeed inevitable and part of the natural human condition.

elucidated by Marx was indeed inevitable and part of the natural human condition. W

Washington’ashington’s “counterrevolutionary” efforts exemplified s “counterrevolutionary” efforts exemplified by the by the Bay of Pigs Bay of Pigs invasion, theinvasion, the attempts to assassinate Castro, and the economic embargo convinced

attempts to assassinate Castro, and the economic embargo convinced the Soviets that the U.S.the Soviets that the U.S. would stop at nothing to prevent Communism from spreading in the Caribbean. Khrushchev would stop at nothing to prevent Communism from spreading in the Caribbean. Khrushchev  believed that he had

 believed that he had to show a strong presence in that to show a strong presence in that part of the world to combat Americanpart of the world to combat American efforts and encourage more domestic uprisings. This could be accomplished b

efforts and encourage more domestic uprisings. This could be accomplished b y installing nuclear y installing nuclear  missiles in Cuba. This also had the practical effect of doubling the

missiles in Cuba. This also had the practical effect of doubling the number of Soviet missilesnumber of Soviet missiles capable of hitting America.

capable of hitting America. The U.S. had

The U.S. had installed similar nuclear missiles in Britain, Italy and installed similar nuclear missiles in Britain, Italy and Turkey during the late 1950Turkey during the late 1950’’ss to target the Soviets.

to target the Soviets.

Kennedy believed that allowing the nukes to stay in Cuba would have destabilized the Western Kennedy believed that allowing the nukes to stay in Cuba would have destabilized the Western Hemisphere by emboldening Communist groups and intimidating pro-U.S. governments.

Hemisphere by emboldening Communist groups and intimidating pro-U.S. governments. Medium-range missiles were in place to hit the U.S. mainland,

Medium-range missiles were in place to hit the U.S. mainland, along with short-range ones toalong with short-range ones to stop amphibious landings. Local commanders were also a

stop amphibious landings. Local commanders were also a uthorized to fire the nukes to uthorized to fire the nukes to repel anrepel an invasion.

invasion.

Kennedy agreed never to invade Cuba again and to remove U.S. missiles from Turkey if the Kennedy agreed never to invade Cuba again and to remove U.S. missiles from Turkey if the Soviet missiles were extracted from Cu

Soviet missiles were extracted from Cuba. So, while Khrushchev’s ill-thought-out gamble hadba. So, while Khrushchev’s ill-thought-out gamble had failed to accomplish its strategic objective of fomenting Communist revolution in

failed to accomplish its strategic objective of fomenting Communist revolution in Latin AmeriLatin America,ca, it did produce some gains.

it did produce some gains.

Upon assuming office, Kennedy was shocked to find

Upon assuming office, Kennedy was shocked to find that Eisenhower’s sole nuclear war doctrinethat Eisenhower’s sole nuclear war doctrine called for the simultaneous use of 3,000 nukes against all Communist countries. Kennedy

called for the simultaneous use of 3,000 nukes against all Communist countries. Kennedy ordered McNamara to devise a

ordered McNamara to devise a gradated and more humane strategy. McNamara believed that hegradated and more humane strategy. McNamara believed that he could negotiate with the Soviets to create advance “ground rules” for the use of nuclear weapons could negotiate with the Soviets to create advance “ground rules” for the use of nuclear weapons against military targets only

against military targets only. But . But this was an ill-fated effort since nuthis was an ill-fated effort since nukes are so pkes are so powerful andowerful and military facilities so frequently located near civilian populations that a nuclear exchange would military facilities so frequently located near civilian populations that a nuclear exchange would inevitably kill millions of innocent people. Misses (a real concern g

inevitably kill millions of innocent people. Misses (a real concern g iven the poor automatediven the poor automated guidance systems of the time) and “cheating” were

guidance systems of the time) and “cheating” were also problematic considerations.also problematic considerations. McNamara gave up on

McNamara gave up on his original idea and instead reverted to his original idea and instead reverted to Eisenhower’s doctrine of Eisenhower’s doctrine of 

guaranteed massive attack, coining it “mutually assured destruction” (MAD). This strategy was guaranteed massive attack, coining it “mutually assured destruction” (MAD). This strategy was the most likely to avert a nuclear war.

the most likely to avert a nuclear war. “W

“War could no ar could no longer be an longer be an instrument of statecraft [‘Winstrument of statecraft [‘War is the coar is the continuation of politics by other ntinuation of politics by other  means.’]—rather

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Both sides came to understand that n

Both sides came to understand that nuclear war had to be uclear war had to be prevented at all costs, and after theprevented at all costs, and after the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962), various treaties were signed to pursue this end. The two

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962), various treaties were signed to pursue this end. The two came to thecame to the same logical conclusions and were united

same logical conclusions and were united by fear more than they were divided by fear more than they were divided by ideologyby ideology.. Chapter 3: Command versus spontaneity

Chapter 3: Command versus spontaneity Of course, the Cold W

Of course, the Cold War was also a war of ideas, ar was also a war of ideas, chiefly concerning the organization of societychiefly concerning the organization of society and the rights of individuals.

and the rights of individuals.

Khrushchev often admitted that the Eastern Bloc

Khrushchev often admitted that the Eastern Bloc lagged behind the West in terms of technologylagged behind the West in terms of technology and standards of living, but always boasted that Communism would lead his side to inevitably and standards of living, but always boasted that Communism would lead his side to inevitably surpass its enemies. This is best enc

surpass its enemies. This is best encapsulated in his famous apsulated in his famous statement: “Wstatement: “We will bury you.”e will bury you.” But by 1971, the Eastern Bloc economies had stagnated. By 1981, their life expectancies had But by 1971, the Eastern Bloc economies had stagnated. By 1981, their life expectancies had declined, which was totally aberrant for industrialized nations outside of wartime.

declined, which was totally aberrant for industrialized nations outside of wartime. Karl Marx lived in England and

Karl Marx lived in England and observed the ill social effects caused by highly unequalobserved the ill social effects caused by highly unequal

distributions of wealth. Marx believed that Capitalism sowed the seeds of its own destruction in distributions of wealth. Marx believed that Capitalism sowed the seeds of its own destruction in the form of masses of suffering, embittered workers (the proletariat) who would one day arise the form of masses of suffering, embittered workers (the proletariat) who would one day arise against their masters and

against their masters and divide all property equally, permanently eliminating class divisions anddivide all property equally, permanently eliminating class divisions and the resentment they caused and inaugurating a new age of human happiness.

the resentment they caused and inaugurating a new age of human happiness. Whether they listened to Marx or not, b

Whether they listened to Marx or not, by the turn of the century, most governments alsoy the turn of the century, most governments also recognized the dangers posed

recognized the dangers posed by such inequalities, and they chose to by such inequalities, and they chose to mitigate them by followingmitigate them by following moderate paths and creating welfare states. [All citizens are entitled to certain government

moderate paths and creating welfare states. [All citizens are entitled to certain government services and benefits, meaning none can fall below a certain standard of living.]

services and benefits, meaning none can fall below a certain standard of living.]

But WWI cast doubts on the ability of capitalist, progressive nations to preserve the pe

But WWI cast doubts on the ability of capitalist, progressive nations to preserve the pe ace for theace for the sake of their citizens.

sake of their citizens.

Lenin differed from Marx and Engels in his determination to

Lenin differed from Marx and Engels in his determination to move from theory to action, and tomove from theory to action, and to accelerate the course of history. Lenin took the ongoing example of WWI as proof that

accelerate the course of history. Lenin took the ongoing example of WWI as proof that Capitalism caused injustice and war. He demanded the use of authoritarianism to defeat Capitalism caused injustice and war. He demanded the use of authoritarianism to defeat Communism’

Communism’s enemies in Russia and free the s enemies in Russia and free the Russian proletariat from bondage.Russian proletariat from bondage. President W

President Wilson, who was a staunch international cilson, who was a staunch international critic of Communism from the 1917ritic of Communism from the 1917 Revolution, favored a different approach. He recogn

Revolution, favored a different approach. He recogn ized that democracy and Capitalism, as theyized that democracy and Capitalism, as they were practiced at the time, we unfair to many people and led to irresponsible governance and were practiced at the time, we unfair to many people and led to irresponsible governance and warfare. However, rather than forsaking both

warfare. However, rather than forsaking both systems entirely as Marx desired, Wilson wanted tosystems entirely as Marx desired, Wilson wanted to reform them:

reform them:

-Future wars could be prevented b

-Future wars could be prevented by creating an international security organization that wouldy creating an international security organization that would allow nations to work out disputes peacefully, and that would marshal many nations together to allow nations to work out disputes peacefully, and that would marshal many nations together to  put down individuals

 put down individuals behaving aggressivelybehaving aggressively.. -More people across the world could b

-More people across the world could be freed from oppression through de-colonialism ande freed from oppression through de-colonialism and democracy.

democracy.

-New economic policies that prevented worker a

-New economic policies that prevented worker abuse, unfair wages, monopolies, protectionism,buse, unfair wages, monopolies, protectionism, and other bad practices would ease the agonies of the proletariat and make economies more and other bad practices would ease the agonies of the proletariat and make economies more stable.

stable.

With these new rules in place, the worldwide proletariat would gradually gain the

With these new rules in place, the worldwide proletariat would gradually gain the means tomeans to socially

socially, econ, economicallyomically, an, and politically d politically liberateliberate themselvesthemselves rather than relying on an authoritarianrather than relying on an authoritarian government to free them.

government to free them.

After WWI, it was unclear which system would prevail in bringing about social justice in After WWI, it was unclear which system would prevail in bringing about social justice in modern industrial societies.

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The events of

The events of the 1919-1945 the 1919-1945 period seemingly proved Wilson’period seemingly proved Wilson’s ideas fanciful as ideas fanciful and Marx’s morend Marx’s more realist, and the USSR became a world power, weathered the Great Depression with full

realist, and the USSR became a world power, weathered the Great Depression with full employment and economic expansion, and world totalitarianism grew stronger.

employment and economic expansion, and world totalitarianism grew stronger.

The New Deal had helped ease the Depression, but only the military expenditures of WWII had The New Deal had helped ease the Depression, but only the military expenditures of WWII had ended it. As the war closed, there were real fears the econo

ended it. As the war closed, there were real fears the econo mic problems would return.mic problems would return. The pivotal event that shaped the second half of the 20

The pivotal event that shaped the second half of the 20thth century was the bombing of Pearlcentury was the bombing of Pearl

Harbor

Harbor. Not only . Not only did it lead did it lead to America’to America’s entry into WWII, but it s entry into WWII, but it forever convinced Americans— forever convinced Americans—  a formerly isolationist people—that geographical distance no longer guaranteed security, and that a formerly isolationist people—that geographical distance no longer guaranteed security, and that the status of the rest of the world cou

the status of the rest of the world could affect the U.S. directlyld affect the U.S. directly. Dictatorships thus had to be. Dictatorships thus had to be resisted everywhere.

resisted everywhere.

After WWII, people understood the

After WWII, people understood the logic of Wilson’logic of Wilson’s ideas. Capitalism had s ideas. Capitalism had to be protected to be protected fromfrom its own self-destructive influences, which led to wealth disparities and attendant social

its own self-destructive influences, which led to wealth disparities and attendant social problems,problems, followed by economic instability and collapse, which led

followed by economic instability and collapse, which led to the discrediting of democraticto the discrediting of democratic governments and the

governments and the search for authoritarian alternatives. To ensure stability was to obviatesearch for authoritarian alternatives. To ensure stability was to obviate WWIII.

WWIII.

Roosevelt planned to create three

Roosevelt planned to create three international bodies to ensure economic liberalization and international bodies to ensure economic liberalization and toto  prevent interstate aggression: the World Bank, IMF

 prevent interstate aggression: the World Bank, IMF, and U.N. , and U.N. Stalin was initially invited to Stalin was initially invited to joinjoin all three. These fulfilled two

all three. These fulfilled two of the three of the three main principles of Wilson’main principles of Wilson’s revived Fourteen Points.s revived Fourteen Points. The third—self-determination—would proceed in colonized areas where the

The third—self-determination—would proceed in colonized areas where the U.S. had influence,U.S. had influence,  but Roosevelt conceded that

 but Roosevelt conceded that it would have to stall in Soviet-dominated areas to it would have to stall in Soviet-dominated areas to placate theplacate the USSR.

USSR.

Stalin joined the UN because of the

Stalin joined the UN because of the Security Council vote, but didn’t want to be a Security Council vote, but didn’t want to be a part of thepart of the others once he discovered that

others once he discovered that they were meant to save capitalism and they were meant to save capitalism and not just fund USSR not just fund USSR  recovery.

recovery.

Major speeches given by Stalin, Truman, and Churchill in the 2 years after WWII laid the Major speeches given by Stalin, Truman, and Churchill in the 2 years after WWII laid the groundwork for an ideological struggle in which

groundwork for an ideological struggle in which the two sides demonized the othe two sides demonized the otherther. It was made. It was made clear by high government officials that America was taking on permanent global responsibilities clear by high government officials that America was taking on permanent global responsibilities to fight Communism, and that assuring a stable world economy was central to keeping the

to fight Communism, and that assuring a stable world economy was central to keeping the masses from supporting Communism.

masses from supporting Communism.

Both capitalism and communism promised better lives for adherents. The ke

Both capitalism and communism promised better lives for adherents. The ke y difference was thaty difference was that only the second relied upon instilling fear in the populace to maintain power and to enact

only the second relied upon instilling fear in the populace to maintain power and to enact changes.

changes.

Europeans living in Nazi-occupied Europe

Europeans living in Nazi-occupied Europe were thankful for Soviet liberation, but were alsowere thankful for Soviet liberation, but were also made uneasy b

made uneasy by Stalin’y Stalin’s reputation and s reputation and by the behavior by the behavior of the Red Armyof the Red Army..

Stalin wanted to instill Communist governments in Eastern Europe, but he knew that this could Stalin wanted to instill Communist governments in Eastern Europe, but he knew that this could only be accomplished through force. At the same time, it couldn’t appear as if Co

only be accomplished through force. At the same time, it couldn’t appear as if Co mmunism weremmunism were  being forced on the people because such a thing would be bad for appearances: Pains would have  being forced on the people because such a thing would be bad for appearances: Pains would have

to be taken to make sure that the Eastern European countries at least appeared to support to be taken to make sure that the Eastern European countries at least appeared to support indigenous Communist movements. Co

indigenous Communist movements. Communism would take over Western Europe throughmmunism would take over Western Europe through internal movements that would

internal movements that would seize upon capitalist disunity.seize upon capitalist disunity.

Stalin did not start to calm down in old age and after the defeat of Hitler: When he died, Soviet Stalin did not start to calm down in old age and after the defeat of Hitler: When he died, Soviet  prisons were fuller than ever, mass executions were ongoing, and Stalin had

 prisons were fuller than ever, mass executions were ongoing, and Stalin had plans to deport allplans to deport all Russian Jews to Siberia.

Russian Jews to Siberia.

Post-WWII, the plan to make Germany and Japan into democracies seemed unlikely to succeed Post-WWII, the plan to make Germany and Japan into democracies seemed unlikely to succeed given the nature of their recent governments and the fact that democratic culture had never taken given the nature of their recent governments and the fact that democratic culture had never taken

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root (democratic governments had briefly ruled both cou

root (democratic governments had briefly ruled both cou ntries in the early 20ntries in the early 20thth centurycentury, but , but failedfailed

in part because the peop

in part because the people didn’t appreciate what they stood for).le didn’t appreciate what they stood for).

The U.S. realized that successfully rebuilding these nations would require h

The U.S. realized that successfully rebuilding these nations would require h uge infusions of uge infusions of  American money.

American money.

Soviet leaders after Stalin attempted to extricate Stalinism from Marxism, believing that Soviet leaders after Stalin attempted to extricate Stalinism from Marxism, believing that Communism was fundamentally viable yet had been

Communism was fundamentally viable yet had been corrupted by Stalin.corrupted by Stalin.

The first post-Stalin leader was Beria. While a very unsavory character, he was a definite The first post-Stalin leader was Beria. While a very unsavory character, he was a definite improvement upon his

improvement upon his predecessorpredecessor..

Stalin resisted the idea of formally splitting Germany into two nations, and he repea

Stalin resisted the idea of formally splitting Germany into two nations, and he repea tedly soughttedly sought to reunify the country on favorable terms. The formation of West Germany in 1949 dashed those to reunify the country on favorable terms. The formation of West Germany in 1949 dashed those hopes.

hopes.

East Germany was disadvantaged since it had

East Germany was disadvantaged since it had always been an agricultural area and always been an agricultural area and most of whatmost of what little industry it had had been taken

little industry it had had been taken by the Russians as reparations. Ulbricht, the leader of Eastby the Russians as reparations. Ulbricht, the leader of East Germany

Germany, set about correcting this through a , set about correcting this through a harsh and intense industrialization program, whichharsh and intense industrialization program, which caused highly embarrassing riots in the country and caused

caused highly embarrassing riots in the country and caused thousands of Germans to flee west.thousands of Germans to flee west. Beria actually proposed the idea of cu

Beria actually proposed the idea of cutting ties with East Germany and allowing the country totting ties with East Germany and allowing the country to reunify under a capitalist government, but he was arrested and then executed by Khrushchev for  reunify under a capitalist government, but he was arrested and then executed by Khrushchev for   betraying Communism first. Soviet troops were then sent into East Germany to forcefully put  betraying Communism first. Soviet troops were then sent into East Germany to forcefully put

down the riots. down the riots.

Khrushchev pushed aside Malenkov and Molotov to take supreme command of the USSR. Khrushchev pushed aside Malenkov and Molotov to take supreme command of the USSR.

In 1956, Khrushchev shocked the world by candidly denouncing Stalin and his crimes before the In 1956, Khrushchev shocked the world by candidly denouncing Stalin and his crimes before the 20

20thth Soviet Congress. Khrushchev honestly hoped to revive Soviet Congress. Khrushchev honestly hoped to revive Soviet Marxism, but realized that thisSoviet Marxism, but realized that this

required the admission of past errors first. However, doing such also meant admitting that Soviet required the admission of past errors first. However, doing such also meant admitting that Soviet ideology could be imperfect, which was at odds with the pronouncements of Lenin and Marx. ideology could be imperfect, which was at odds with the pronouncements of Lenin and Marx. Khrushchev implied that Communism would require popular suppo

Khrushchev implied that Communism would require popular suppo rt to succeed and to rt to succeed and to rulerule morally

morally, but his later actions showed a , but his later actions showed a lack of commitment to this ideal.lack of commitment to this ideal.

In 1956, the Poles restored an old leader who had been purged under Stalin. Khrushchev was In 1956, the Poles restored an old leader who had been purged under Stalin. Khrushchev was furious, but begrudgingly accepted. Hungary next became emboldened and went into open furious, but begrudgingly accepted. Hungary next became emboldened and went into open rebellion against Moscow.

rebellion against Moscow. The USSR responded by sending in troops, The USSR responded by sending in troops, killing 20,000 Hungarianskilling 20,000 Hungarians and suffering 1,500 friendly deaths.

and suffering 1,500 friendly deaths.

China played a major role in making Khrushchev put down the Hungarian rebellion instead of  China played a major role in making Khrushchev put down the Hungarian rebellion instead of  allowing them to leav

allowing them to leave the We the Warsaw Pact.arsaw Pact. Mao in many ways admired Stalin, though he

Mao in many ways admired Stalin, though he was not subservient to him. Mao had was not subservient to him. Mao had a differenta different take on Marxist ideology, which later combined with a cult of personality to form Maoism. take on Marxist ideology, which later combined with a cult of personality to form Maoism. Maoism did not emphasize industrialization as Stalinism did, and instead viewed

Maoism did not emphasize industrialization as Stalinism did, and instead viewed the farmer the farmer   peasant as the basic societal unit.

 peasant as the basic societal unit. Mao’

Mao’s “Great Leap Forward” was an attempt bos “Great Leap Forward” was an attempt both to collectivize farmers and to industrializeth to collectivize farmers and to industrialize through cottage industries. The resulting famine killed at least 30 million people—far more through cottage industries. The resulting famine killed at least 30 million people—far more thanthan those killed by Stalin’s failed agricultural reforms. Of course, none of this was known at the time those killed by Stalin’s failed agricultural reforms. Of course, none of this was known at the time since Mao, like Stalin, censored all of his ce

since Mao, like Stalin, censored all of his censuses and had his country closed off to outsidersnsuses and had his country closed off to outsiders and the free press.

and the free press.

While the failures of Communism could be hidden

While the failures of Communism could be hidden in the USSR and China, thein the USSR and China, they could not iny could not in Berlin, where the

Berlin, where the two systems were directly contrasted. Westwo systems were directly contrasted. West Berlin thrived thanks t Berlin thrived thanks to generousto generous subsidies from W

subsidies from West Germany and America. It was surrounded est Germany and America. It was surrounded by several hundred by several hundred thousandthousand Soviet troops and could have

Soviet troops and could have been cut off by land at anbeen cut off by land at any time. y time. Airborne resupply becameAirborne resupply became impossible later on thanks

Figure

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References

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