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Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations

Description: Find in-depth coverage of general networking concepts and basic instruction on Windows Server 2008 installation and management including active directory, DNS, Windows storage, and TCP/IP and IPv4 networking basics in Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations. One of three new books by best-selling author Mark Minasi, this guide explains what servers do, how basic networking works (IP basics and DNS/WINS basics), and the fundamentals of the under-the-hood technologies that support staff must understand. Learn how to install Windows Server 2008 and build a simple network, security concepts, and basic Windows Server administration.

Contents: Introduction xvii

Chapter 1 - Why Network? 1

What’s the Point of Networks and Networking? 1 Choosing a Network Type 3

Network Client and Server Software 3

Networks Need Connection Hardware and Links 6 Considering the Hardware 6

Clients and Servers Must Speak the Same Protocols 10 A Brief History of Windows 12

Chapter 2 - Building a Simple Network 15

Getting Your Free Copy of Windows Server 2008 16 Downloading the Software 16

Extending the 30-Day Version to 180 Days 17 Performing the Installation 18

Performing the Basic Network Setup 22 Changing the Machine Name 24 Changing the Network Name 26 Creating User Accounts 27

Sharing Resources with Other Computers 30 Accessing Resources on Another Computer 33 Accessing Resources Temporarily 34

Making Resource Access Automatic 34 Chapter 3 - Security Concepts in Windows 37


Understanding the Need to Secure Windows 37 Considering What You Need to Secure in Windows 38 Understanding Authentication versus Authorization 40 Understanding How Authentication Works 42

Where Windows Stores Users and Passwords 43 Securing the User Account Database 44

Networkable, Centralized Accounts: Domains 44 Secure Logons Across a Network 45

Understanding How Authorization Works 46 Permissions and Access Control Lists (ACLs) 46 Understanding What Tokens Do 48

Access to Earlier Security Systems 50 Defining File and Folder Security 50

Chapter 4 - Installing Windows Server 2008: Basics 55 Choosing a Windows Server 2008 Edition 55

Performing a Windows Server 2008 Full Version Installation 57 Considering the Installation Choices 58

Using the DVD Installation Method 59 Using the Initial Tasks Page 65 Providing Computer Information 65 Update the Server 66

Customizing This Server 69

Understanding Roles and Features 70

Determining the Need for Specific Roles and Features 71 Installing Roles and Features 81

Adding Roles 82 Removing Roles 85

Adding and Removing Features 86

Chapter 5 - Controlling Windows Server: MMC 89 Fixing the Server 2008 GUI 89

Restoring Your Desktop Icons and Start Menu 90 Setting Administrator-Friendly Folder Options 92


A Microsoft Management Console Primer 93 What Is This MMC Thing? 94

MMC Terms to Know 95

The Computer Management Console 97 Other MMC Tools 99

Building Your Own MMC Tools 101

Building a Simple Microsoft Saved Console 101 Creating the Removable Storage Manager Console 104

Chapter 6 - Controlling Windows Server: The Command Line 107 Why You Give a Hoot about the Command Line Interface 108 Reasons to Use the Command Line 108

Situations Where the Command Line Is Less Useful 110 Elements of the Command Line 112

Command Line Rights 113

Command Prompt Window Configuration 114 Command Prompt Personalization 118 Internal Versus External Commands 121 Basic Command Examples 124

Getting Help at the Command Line 124 Checking the Status of the System 128 Viewing and Managing Tasks 129

Locating Specific Files Based on Content 130 Simple Batch Files 131

Chapter 7 - Controlling Windows III: The Registry 135 Computer Configuration and the Registry 135 Why Should You Care About the Registry? 136 The Registry Is the Real Control Panel 136

Some Administrative Tasks Require Direct Registry Editing 137 Looking at the Registry 138

The Keys 139


Changing Registry Entries 143

Changing Registry Entries from the Command Line 145 Registry Entry Types 145

Researching the Registry 146

Discovering Registry Keys on Your Own 147

Dealing with a ‘‘Hey, Where Is It?’’ Registry Value 148 Creating/Deleting a New Registry Entry 150

Creating and Deleting Registry Entries from the CLI. 151 Backing Up and Restoring a Registry Subkey 151 Securing the Registry 152

Subkeys Have Permissions 152

Registry Security: the Idea and the Effects 154 Where the Registry Lives: Hives 156

A Look at the Hive Files 156 Fault Tolerance in the Registry 157 Remote Registry Modification 158 Backing Up and Restoring a Registry 159

Chapter 8 - Controlling Windows Server: Group Policy 161 The Power of Group Policy 161

Working with LGPOs 163 Local Group Policy 165

Administrators or Non-Administrators LGPO 166 User Specific LGPO 167

Group Policy Breakdown: How LGPOs Are Organized and Structured 168 Computer Node vs. User Node 168

LGPO . . . Just a Glorified Registry Editor 169 Introducing ADM Templates and ADMX Files 172 Not All Group Policy Settings Are Registry-Based 174 Introducing Client Side Extensions 176

Essential Policy Settings 176 Using Scripts in Group Policy 180


LGPOs and Active Directory GPOs 182

Chapter 9 - Windows Storage Concepts and Skills 183 Disk Management versus DiskPart 183

The Disk Management Gooey (GUI) 183

Meet DiskPart, the Command-Line Interface 185 The Basics of Disk Management 186

Physical/Logical Disks: How to Slice Them Up 186 Basic Disks versus Dynamic Disks 189

Server 2008 Setup and System Disk Meet Dynamic Disks 198 RAID in Server 2008 204

Mirrored Volumes — RAID-1 205 RAID-5 210

Moving a Dynamic Disk 214 Performing Disk Maintenance 215

Background: Disk Geometry and File Formats 216 Formatting Disks 220

Dealing Out Disk Space . . . Managing Disk Quotas 224 Volume Shadow Copy Service 230

Encrypting NTFS Files and Folders 235 Tools of Disk Maintenance 244 Defragmenting Disks 248 Remote Storage 251

The Evolution of Storage 252

Chapter 10 - TCP/IP and IPv4 Networking Basics 253 A Brief History of TCP/IP 254

Origins of TCP/IP: From the ARPANET to the Internet 255 Goals of TCP/IP’s Design 257

Getting There: The Internet Protocol (IP) 259 A Simple Internet 259

Subnets and Routers: ‘‘Should I Shout, or Should I Route?’’ 259


Where Your System Gets Its IP Address From 262 IP Routers 265

Routing in More Detail 265

Class A, B, and C Networks, CIDR Blocks, and Routable and Nonroutable Addresses 267 A, B, and C Class Networks 268

Routable and Nonroutable Addresses 269 You Can’t Use All of the Numbers 270 Subnet Masks 272

Exercise: Using IPConfig to View Network Information 273 Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) 275

What IP Doesn’t Do: Error Checking 277 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 278 Sequencing 279

Flow Control 279

Error Detection/Correction 279

Sockets, Ports, and the Winsock Interface 279 How Ports and Sockets Work: An Example 281 Routing the Nonroutable, Part II: PAT and NAT 282 Winsock Sockets 285

Internet Host Names 285

Simple Naming Systems (HOSTS) 286 Domain Name System (DNS) 287 E-Mail Names: A Note 288 Attaching to an Internet 289 Dumb Terminal Connection 290 PPP Serial Connection 290

Cable Modem and DSL Connections 291 LAN Connection 291

Terminal Connections versus Other Connections 291

The Basics of Setting Up TCP/IP on Windows Server 2008 with Static IP Addresses 292 Configuring TCP/IP with a Static IP Address 293


Testing Your IP Configuration 295

Configuration Continued: Setting Domain Suffixes 298

Handling Old Names: Configuring Your Workstation for WINS 301 Adding IP Addresses to a Single NIC 303

Lower-Cost LAN-to-WAN Routing with Internet Connection Sharing 305

Step One: Connect the Internal Network — and Meet Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing (APIPA) 306

Step Two: Get Connected to Your ISP 307 Step Three: Turn ICS On 309

Step Four: Configure the Intranet Machines 311 What About the Firewall? 311

Chapter 11 - What’s in a Name? Network Name Overview 313 What Is Naming All About: What a Name Server Does for You 313

Name Resolution in Perspective: Introduction to WINS, NetBIOS, DNS, and Winsock 314 The Old: WINS, NetBIOS, and LMHOSTS 314

The New: Domain Naming System (DNS) 315 Two Different Lineages, Two Different Names 316 Application Program Interface = Modularity 316

Chapter 12 - Old Names: Understanding NetBIOS, WINS, and NetBIOS over TCP/IP 319 NetBIOS and Winsock 319

Handling Legacy and NetBIOS Names: The Windows Internet Name Service 320 NetBIOS atop TCP/IP (NBT) 320

Name Resolution before WINS: LMHOSTS 326 Introducing LMHOSTS 326

WINS: A NetBIOS Name Service for Windows 329 WINS Needs NT or Later Server 329

WINS Holds Name Registrations 329 WINS Client Failure Modes 330 It’s My Name, but for How Long? 330 Installing WINS 331

Configuring a WINS Server 333 Designing a Multi-WINS Network 337


Adding the Second WINS Server 338 Keeping the Second Server Up-to-Date 339 Avoiding WINS Problems 343

Deleting, Tombstoning, and Purging WINS Records 344 WINS Proxy Agents 345

Name Resolution in More Detail 347 Review: Winsock versus NBT 347 DNS/Winsock Name Resolution 347

Controlling WINS versus DNS Order in Winsock 349 NetBIOS Name Resolution Sequence 350

Chapter 13 - New Names: How DNSWorks 353 What DNS Does 353

Anatomy of a DNS Name 354 DNS Labels 1: The Host Name 355 DNS Labels 2: DNS Domains or Zones 355 DNS Domains Versus Active Directory Names 355 DNS from the Client Side 356

Preferred and Alternate DNS Servers 356 Configuring Your DNS Client Software 356 Configuring Your DNS Domain Membership 359 Configuring the DNS Suffix Search List 360 Caching Query Results 361

Caching Negative Query Results 362 Setting Up a Simple DNS Server 363 Find Your IP Addresses 363

Installing the DNS Server Software 364 Point the DNS Client to the DNS Server 365 Try Your DNS Server Out 365

Meet a Better DNS Tool: NSLOOKUP 366 Troubleshooting the Simple DNS Server 367 We Just Built a ‘‘Caching-Only’’ DNS Server 367


DNS Concepts: ‘‘The Hierarchy’’ 368

Introducing the Hierarchy: Back to Left-to-Right 369 Why Build the DNS Hierarchy This Way? 370

The Root, Top-Level, Second-Level, and Child Domains 370 Building a More Complex DNS Server 376

Connect and Name the Systems 376

Set Up the IP Addresses and Preferred DNS Servers 377 Open the Firewalls to Allow Pings 377

Test Connectivity 378 Install DNS Suffixes 378

Make Winserver a DNS Server 379

Creating The Birth of a Domain 380 Configuring Your Zone with DNS Records 384 Adding Hosts to a Zone: ‘‘A’’ Records 384 Setting Up Reverse Lookups 386 Reading NS and SOA DNS Records 388

Working with A Records and Understanding Glue Records 390 Seeing All of the Records: The Zone Files Themselves 392 Giving a Host Multiple Names with CNAMEs 395

Identify Your E-mail Servers with MX Records 398 Modifying Your Zone’s SOA Record 401

Spreading the Work: Secondary DNS Servers 401

Secondary DNS Servers Hold Read-Only Zone Copies 402 How Primaries Keep Secondaries Up-to-Date 402 Delegating: Child Domains/Subdomains 411 Revising Bigfirm 411

Time for a Subdomain: 414

Easier Record Maintenance: Dynamic DNS (DDNS) 416 Seeing DDNS Work 416

What DDNS Does, Under the Hood 417

Why You Need a Dynamic Reverse Lookup Zone 418 Keeping Your Systems from Registering PTRs 418


What Triggers DDNS Registrations? 419 Stopping All DDNS Registrations 420

Troubleshooting Failed DDNS Registrations 421 Keeping Your Zones Clean with DNS Scavenging 421 DDNS and Security 426

Tweaking DNS Performance 426

Cheap ‘‘Clusters’’: Building Fault Tolerance with Multiple A Records and Round-Robin DNS 427 dnscmd Cheat Sheet 430

Chapter 14 - Automatic IP Setup: DHCP Essentials 435 DHCP: Automatic TCP/IP Configuration 435

Simplifying TCP/IP Administration: BOOTP 435 DHCP: BOOTP Plus 436

Installing and Configuring DHCP Servers 437 Monitoring DHCP 462

Rebuilding a Damaged DHCP Server 462 DHCP on the Client Side 463

DHCP in Detail: How DHCP Works 463 Designing Multi-DHCP Networks 471

Chapter 15 - Things to Come: A Peek at Active Directory 473 Centralized User Accounts and Authorization 474

Group Policy Centralizes Management, Security, and Configuration 475 AD Provides a Central List of Resources 475

Your Data Follows You Around, and It’s Easier to Secure 476 Index 477

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