Homozygous Pelger Huet anomaly in three different crossbred rabbits: a case report

0
0
7
1 week ago
PDF Preview
Full text
(1)Veterinarni Medicina, 59, 2014 (2): 95–101. Case Report. Homozygous Pelger-Huet anomaly in three different crossbred rabbits: a case report P. Supuka1, D. Mazensky1, A. Supukova2, V. Parkanyi3, L. Ondruska3, S. Hornak1, R. Hromada1, V. Petrovic1 1. University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Kosice, Slovak Republic Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Faculty of Medicine, Kosice, Slovak Republic 3 Animal Production Research Centre Nitra, Luzianky, Slovak Republic 2. ABSTRACT: In this case report, three different crossbreedings of pet rabbits were performed producing affected as well as healthy bunnies. All affected rabbits were smaller and had local alopecia, exophthalmus, and limb deviations compared to their healthy littermates; thus, a homozygous form of Pelger-Huet anomaly was suspected. This anomaly was confirmed by blood examination in which granulocytes with oval nuclei and a very coarse chromatin pattern, as well as lymphocytes with micronuclei were noticed. Karyotype analyses of the lymphocytes revealed many chromosomal aberrations in affected rabbits. Moreover, severe arterial abnormalities in the pelvic cavity and proximal part of the pelvic limbs were also found in these rabbits. Our findings suggest a multigenic origin of Pelger-Huet anomaly in rabbits, because only male and female offspring with the otter colour of fur were severely affected by this congenital disorder. Keywords: laboratory animals; hereditary disease; chromosome; leukocytes; anatomical anomalies. Crossbreeding in rabbits is often done with the intent to create a new breed or to improve the existing breed. Crossbreeding has been routinely performed by breeders to improve the phenotypes of rabbits, and thus increase the quality and quantity of their meat (Ozimba and Lukefahr 1991; Nofal et al. 1997; Oseni et al. 1997). On the other hand, pet rabbits are crossbred widely to reach a wanted phenotype (such as: fur colour and quality, decreased body size). However, in this way genetic aberrations can be introduced into the breed. Thus, crossbreeding may produce offspring with the desired phenotype, but these may actually carry undesired genes leading to hereditary defects that appear in subsequent generations. One of these congenital disorders is the PelgerHuet anomaly (PHA) which was described first in humans by Pelger (1931) and Huet (1932). Until now, this anomaly was observed in rabbits (Undritz 1939), dogs (Schalm 1965; Kiss and Komar 1967; Latimer et al. 1989; Al-Bassam et al. 2010), cats. (Weber et al. 1981; Latimer et al. 1985), mice (Schultz et al. 2003), and horses (Gill et al. 2006). PHA is an inherited heterozygous or homozygous autosomal dominant disorder of leukocyte development, which is characterised by persistent nuclear hyposegmentation of granulocytes and monocytes in the presence of a coarse, mature pattern of chromatin (Tomonaga 2005). Most blood granulocytes and monocytes have indented, band-shaped, or bilobed nuclei, but in the homozygous form of PHA, the nuclei are round to oval with very coarse chromatin patterns (Aznar and Vaya 1981). Similar morphological changes were found in the blood of the affected rabbits in this study (Figure 1, 2 and 4) as compared to their healthy littermates (Figure 3 and 5). Recent studies have demonstrated that PHA is a blood laminopathy caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins of the lamin B receptor (Hoffmann et al. 2002; Best et al. 2003; Schultz et al. 2003). The lamin B receptor is required for morphological but not functional maturation of neutrophils. Supported by the Grant Agency for Science of the Slovak Republic, VEGA (Grants No. 018UVLF-4/2011 and No. 1/0406/12).. 95.

(2) Case Report. Veterinarni Medicina, 59, 2014 (2): 95–101. Figure 1 and 2. Blood smears, two different adult rabbits with the homozygous Pelger-Huet anomaly. The nuclear hyposegmentation of neutrophil granulocytes. May-Grunwald and Giemsa stain; magnification power 1000×. (Johanson et al. 1980; Cohen et al. 2007; Grondin et al. 2007; Hoffmann et al. 2007); thus, the physiological function of morphologically malformed neutrophils could be intact (Latimer et al. 1989). Here, we report a case of congenital Pelger-Huet anomaly in three different crossbreed pet rabbits which presumably carried the homozygous allele of the Tan (a t) gene. A limitation of this study is that the genotypes of all six healthy parents were predicted by the phenotypes of their offspring only. It is well known that homozygous PHA cases exhibit low birth weight, delayed growth, and increased intrauterine and early post-natal death (Nachtsheim 1943, 1950; Undritz 1943, Haverkamp Begemann and van Lookeren Campagne 1952). Although it is believed that the homozygous form of PHA is lethal in the uterus, those few animals that are somewhat less severely affected may live for a relatively long time. However, this phenomenon was described previously only in humans with PHA where bones were not deformed (Alexeieff 1967; Aznar and Vaya 1981; Gastearena et al. 1982). All. affected rabbits were smaller and exhibited local alopecia, exophthalmus, and limb deviations compared to their healthy littermates (Figure 6 and 7).. Figure 3. Blood smear, normal nuclear segmentation of neutrophil granulocytes in an adult rabbit with a normal phenotype. May-Grunwald and Giemsa stain; magnification power 1000×. Figure 4. Blood smear, adult rabbit with the homozygous Pelger-Huet anomaly. Note the oval nucleus of a neutrophil granulocyte with a coarse chromatin pattern (detail). MayGrunwald and Giemsa stain; magnification power 1500×. 96. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, the hereditary transmission of homozygous PHA was proven directly as follows: Blue of Vienna (predicted genotype: C/C ED/ED B/B d/d a/a H/H R/R) sire mated Slovak grey-blue Rex (predicted genotype: C/C ED/ED B/B d/d A/at r/r) dam. All six offspring were healthy, but when Slovak grey-blue Rex (predicted genotype: C/C ED/ ED B/B d/d A/at r/r) sire mated the same dam, they produced a litter of seven bunnies (two males and two females with normal phenotypes, and one male and two females with an affected phenotype). Two affected bunnies, one male and one female lived until the 4th and 6th month of life, respectively, but the last affected female was euthanized at the age of 205 days with a body weight of 3.4 kg..

(3) Veterinarni Medicina, 59, 2014 (2): 95–101. Figure 5. Blood smear, normal nuclear segmentation of a neutrophil granulocyte in an adult rabbit with a normal phenotype (detail). May-Grunwald and Giemsa stain; magnification power 1500×. Case Report. Figure 6. An adult rabbit with the homozygous PelgerHuet anomaly, and littermate with a normal phenotype (on the right side of the photo). Dwarf pearl rabbit (predicted genotype: C/C ED/ E B/B d/d A/at R/r) sire mated Dwarf Slovak greyblue Rex (predicted genotype: C/C ED/ED B/B d/d A/ at r/r) dam. This crossbreeding produced a litter of four bunnies (one male and one female with normal phenotypes, and two males with an affected phenotype). Both affected males were euthanized at the age of 185 days weighing 1.2 and 1.4 kg, respectively. In the last crossbreeding, Netherland rabbit (predicted genotype: C/C ED/ED B/B D/D a/a s/s Y1/Y1 Y2/Y2) sire mated Tan rabbit (predicted genotype: C/C ED/ED B/B D/D at/at S/S y1/y1 y2/y2) dam and produced a litter of seven healthy bunnies (four males and three females). Then, two females and one male rabbit (predicted genotypes: C/C ED/ED B/B D/D a/at S/s Y1/y1 Y2/y2) were randomly chosen and a brother-sister crossing was performed. Altogether,. they produced 12 bunnies (five males and three females with normal phenotypes, and three males and one female with an affected phenotype). One male rabbit died at the age of four months, but other affected littermates were euthanized at the age of 175 days with body weights ranging from 1.5 to 1.7 kg. Before euthanasia, blood was collected using v. auricularis media puncture from all affected rabbits and two rabbits with a normal phenotype (one male and one female) from the 3rd crossbreeding, and subsequently, survey radiographs were obtained. Thin blood films were prepared and stained with Giemsa stain for evaluation of white blood cell morphology. Cultivation of lymphocytes from the bone narrow and peripheral blood for chromosomal preparations was performed according to Parkanyi et al. (2004). The corrosion casts were prepared using Duracryl Dental (Spofa-Dental, Czech Republic) as described by Mazensky and Danko (2010).. Figure 7. An adult rabbit with the homozygous PelgerHuet anomaly. Figure 8. C-metaphase, adult rabbit with the homozygous Pelger-Huet anomaly. Karyotype analyses of lymphocytes from the bone narrow with chromosomal aberrations (arrows). Giemsa-Romanowski stain; magnification power 1000×. D. 97.

(4) Case Report. Veterinarni Medicina, 59, 2014 (2): 95–101. Figure 10. C-metaphase, adult rabbit with a normal phenotype. Karyotype analyses of peripheral blood lymphocytes (2n = 44, XX). Giemsa-Romanowski stain; magnification power 1000× Figure 9. C-metaphase, adult rabbit with the homozygous Pelger-Huet anomaly. Karyotype analyses of lymphocytes from the peripheral blood with chromosomal aberrations (arrows). Giemsa-Romanowski stain; magnification power 1000×. Clinical signs of depression were seen in all affected rabbits similarly as described in the case of a five year-old male Basenji dog with PHA (Al-Bassam et al. 2010). From the aforementioned findings, we can presume that only rabbits with the otter colour of fur (genotype: at/at) were affected by the homozygous form of PHA. PHA occurs in congenital and. acquired forms. The acquired form is caused by drug administration or infectious diseases (Dusse et al. 2010), but this was ruled out due to the absence of clinically ill rabbits and because no treatments were applied in any of cases. On the other hand, as mentioned previously, the congenital form of PHA is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the lamin B receptor which affect the structure of this protein (Hoffmann et al. 2002; Best et al. 2003). This receptor is an inner nuclear membrane protein that interacts with heterochromatin, and thus is responsible for the maturation of neutrophil granulocytes (Cohen et al. 2007; Hoffmann et al. 2007). It is presumed that its disruption causes abnormalities in nuclear heterochromatin morphology (Vale et al. 2011), result-. Figure 11. Blood smear, adult rabbit with the homozygous Pelger-Huet anomaly. Lymphocytes and monocytes have micronuclei (arrow) in their cytoplasm. May-Grunwald and Giemsa stain; magnification power 1000×. Figure 12. Radiographic images of an adult rabbit with the apparent homozygous Pelger-Huet anomaly. Note the chondrodystrophy and angular limb deformities and both hind paws with a fifth digit (arrows). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. 98.

(5) Veterinarni Medicina, 59, 2014 (2): 95–101. Case Report. Figure 13 and 14. Irregular origins of bilateral arteria circumflexa ilium profunda in two different adult rabbits with the homozygous Pelger-Huet anomaly. 1 = aorta abdominalis; 2 = arteria iliaca sinistra; 3 = arteria iliaca dextra; 4 = arteria circumflexa ilium profunda sinistra; 5 = arteria circumflexa ilium profunda dextra. Macroscopic image, ventral view; horizontal field width 9.98 × 14.18 cm. ing in altered nuclear activity, impaired structural dynamics, and aberrant cell signalling (Schreiber and Kennedy 2013). The expression of the lamin B receptor in lymphoblastoid cells is reduced in heterozygous cases and is very low in homozygous cases of PHA as compared to normal lymphoblastoid cells (Hoffmann et al. 2002). This could explain the chromosomal aberrations found in lymphocytes from the bone narrow and peripheral blood in affected rabbits (Figure 8 and 9) and their healthy littermates (Figure 10). Micronuclei (Figure 11) are formed when chromosomes or their fragments are. not incorporated into one of the daughter nuclei during mitosis. Moreover, their association to the lamin B receptor mutation has been established (Utani et al. 2007, 2010). In addition to the morphological malformations of neutrophil nuclei, homozygous PHA in humans is characterised by skeletal abnormalities, developmental delay and seizures (Haverkamp-Begemann and van Lookeren Campagne 1952; Aznar and Vaya 1981; Siegert et al. 1983; Hoffmann et al. 2002). Severe chondrodystrophy, developmental anomalies and increased pre- and post-natal mortality. Figure 15. An irregular origin of arteria circumflexa femoris lateralis dextra from arteria iliaca dextra in an adult rabbit with the homozygous Pelger-Huet anomaly. 1 = arteria femoralis dextra; 2 = arteria glutea cranialis dextra; 3 = arteria circumflexa femoris lateralis dextra. Macroscopic image, lateral view; horizontal field width 10.37 × 14.02 cm. Figure 16. The typical arrangement of aorta abdominalis in an adult rabbit with a normal phenotype. 1 = aorta abdominalis; 2 = arteria iliaca externa sinistra; 3 = arteria iliaca externa dextra; 4 = arteria circumflexa ilium profunda sinistra; 5 = arteria circumflexa ilium profunda dextra; 6 = arteria iliaca interna sinistra; 7 = arteria iliaca interna dextra; 8 = arteria sacralis mediana. Macroscopic image, ventral view; horizontal field width 11.72 × 15.46 cm. 99.

(6) Case Report. Veterinarni Medicina, 59, 2014 (2): 95–101 that PHA is linked with chromosome 1. Our findings suggest a multigenic origin of PHA in rabbits, because only male and female offspring with the otter colour of fur (genotype: at/at) were severally affected by this congenital disorder. It is well known that the “a t” gene is recessive to the “A” (agouti) gene, but dominant to the “a” gene. In conclusion, further research is required to elucidate how the homozygous allele at/at is associated with the homozygous form of PHA in rabbits.. Figure 17. The typical arrangement of arteria femoralis in an adult rabbit with a normal phenotype. 1 = arteria femoralis sinistra; 2 = arteria profunda femoris sinistra; 3 = arteria iliaca interna sinistra. Macroscopic image, lateral view; horizontal field width 9.91 × 16 cm. were observed in rabbits with the homozygous form of PHA (Undritz 1943; Nachtsheim 1950). Stillborn kittens affected by PHA were small, had a hydrocephalus-like skull, shortened and thickened limbs with a severe medial deviation and cup-shaped methaphyses (Latimer et al. 1985). In our study, similar radiographic skeletal abnormalities were seen in all affected rabbits (Figure 12). Moreover, radiographic findings in all affected rabbits were consistent with chondrodysplasia as in the case of the aforementioned study. Sparseness of hair, presence of scales, decreased body size and bony and soft tissue fusion between digits were observed in mice by Schultz et al. (2003) too. These authors stated that these skin lesions are manifestations of epidermal hyperplasia with orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and abnormal piliary canals. In carnivores, Latimer et al. (1989) found necrotic lesions in central areas of the physis which were associated with a failure of vascular invasion. Severe vascular abnormalities were found in our affected rabbits (Figure 13, 14 and 15) as compared to their healthy littermates (Figure 16 and 17), and the physiological arterial arrangement in the pelvic cavity and proximal part of the pelvic limbs (Ahasan et al. 2013). To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of fast-flow vascular malformations in rabbits affected with PHA. Congenital vascular abnormalities are always present at birth, tend to grow proportionately with the body, persist throughout life and may not be visible clinically. However, they can result in severe health problems and even pre-mature death. In mice and humans, Hoffmann et al. (2002) performed a genome-wide linkage screen and found 100. REFERENCES Ahasan ASML, Islam MS, Kabria ASMG, Rahman ML, Hassan MM, Uddin M (2013): Major variation in branches of the abdominal aorta in New Zeland White rabbit (Orycotolagus Cuniculus). International Journal of Natural Sciences 2, 91–98. Al-Bassam L, Eldaghayes I, Tarhuni O, Al-Dawek A (2010): First report of Pelger-Huet anomaly in a male Basenji dog in Libia. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advance 2, 130–134. Alexeieff G (1967): Absence of granulocyte nuclear segmentation (type stodtmeister), resembling the anomaly Pelger-Huet homozygosity. Consideration on acquired anomalies (Pseudo-Pelger) of the nuclear segmentation of granulocytes (in French). Nouvelle Revue Francaise d´Hematologie 7, 457–461. Aznar J, Vaya A (1981): Homozygous form of the PelgerHuet leukocyte anomaly in man. Acta Haematologica 66, 59–62. Best S, Salvati F, Kallo J, Garner C, Height S, Thein SL, Rees DC (2003): Lamin B-receptor mutations in Pelger-Huet anomaly. British Journal of Haematology 123, 542–544. Cohen TV, Klarmann KD, Sakchaisri K, Cooper JP, Kuhns D, Anver M, Johnson PF, Williams SC, Keller JR, Stewart CL (2007): The lamin B receptor under transcriptional control of C/EBPepsilon is required for morphological but not functional maturation of neutrophils. Human Molecular Genetics 17, 2921–2933. Dusse LM, Moreira AM, Vieira LM, Rio DR, Morais ESRM, Carvalho MD (2010): Acquired Pelger-Huet: What does it really mean? Clinica Chimica Acta 411, 1587–1590. Gastearena J, Orue MT, Perez Equiza E, Hernandez MC, Ardanaz MF, Uriz MJ (1982): Pelger-Huet anomaly of homozygous. Apropos of a case (in Spanish). Sangre (Barcelona) 72, 1079–1081. Gill AF, Gaunt S, Sirninger J (2006): Congenital Pelger-Huet anomaly in a horse. Veterinary Clinical Pathology/American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology 35, 460–462..

(7) Veterinarni Medicina, 59, 2014 (2): 95–101 Grondin TM, DeWitt SF, Keeton KS (2007): Pelger-Huet anomaly in an Arabian horse. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 36, 306–310. Haverkamp Begemann N, van Lookeren Campagne A (1952): Homozygous form of Pelger-Huet’s nuclear anomaly in man. Acta Haematologica 7, 295–303. Hoffmann K, Dreger CK, Olins AL, Olins DE, Shultz LD, Lucke B, Karl H, Kaps R, Muller D, Vaya A, Aznar J, Ware LE, Cruz NS, Lindner TH, Herrmann H, Reis A, Sperling K (2002): Mutations in the gene encoding the lamin B receptor produce an altered nuclear morphology in granulocytes (Pelger-Huet anomaly). Nature Genetics 31, 410–414. Hoffmann K, Sperling K, Olins AL, Olins DE (2007): The granulocyte nucleus and lamin B receptor: avoiding the ovoid. Chromosoma 116, 227–235. Huet GJ (1932): Over a family type anomaly there leukocyte (in German). Maandschrift voor Kindergeneeskunde 1, 173–181. Johanson CA, Bass DA, Trillo AA, Snyder MS, DeChatelet LR (1980): Functional and metabolic studies of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the congenital Pelger-Huet anomaly. Blood 55, 466–469. Kiss M, Komar G Jr (1967): Pelger-Huet nuclear anomaly in leukocytes in a dog. Berliner und Münchener tierärztliche Wochenschrift 80, 474–476. Latimer KS, Rakich PM Thompson DF (1985): Pelger-Huet anomaly in cats. Veterinary Pathology 22, 370–374. Latimer KS, Kircher IM, Lindl PA, Dawe DL, Brown J (1989): Leukocyte function in Pelger-Huet anomaly of dogs. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 45, 301–310. Mazensky D, Danko J (2010): The importance of the origin of vertebral arteries in cerebral ischemia in the rabbit. Anatomical Science International 85, 102–104. Nachtsheim H (1943): The Pelger anomaly and its verebung in humans and animals (in German). Die Erbarzt 11, 129–142. Nachtsheim H (1950): The Pelger-Anomaly in man and rabbit. Journal of Heredity 45, 131–137. Nofal RY, Toth S, Virag G (1997): Evaluation of seven genetic groups of rabbits for carcass traits. Archiv Tierzucht 40, 61–67. Oseni S, Odubote I, Akinokun O, Somade B (1997): Productivity levels of three breeds of rabbits and their cross over a three year period in the humid tropics. Archiv Tierzucht 40, 469–476. Ozimba CE, Lukefahr SD (1991): Evaluation of purebred and crossbred rabbits for carcass merit. Journal of Animal Science 69, 2371–2378.. Case Report Parkanyi V, Chrenek P, Rafay J, Suvegova K, Jurcik R, Makarevich AV, Pivko J, Hetenyi L, Paleyanda RK (2004): Aneuploidy in the transgenic rabbit. Folia Biologica (Prague) 50, 194–199. Pelger K (1931): The value of the morphological blood image (in Dutch). Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 75, 439. Schalm OW (1965): Interesting features in canine leukocytes. California Veterinarian Journal 19, 25–27. Schreiber KH, Kennedy BK (2013): When lamins go bad: Nuclear structure and disease. Cell 152, 1365–1375. Schultz LD, Lyons BL, Burzeski LM, Gott B, Samuels R, Schweitzer PA, Dreger C, Herrman H, Kalscheur V, Olirolins DE, Sperling K, Hoffmann K (2003): Mutations at the mouse icthyosis locus are within the Lamin B receptor gene: Gene model for human Pelger-Huet anomaly. Human Molecular Genetics 12, 61–69. Siegert E, Beier L, Grabner H (1983): Homozygotic PelgerHuet anomaly. Kinderarztliche Praxis 51, 164–169. Tomonaga M (2005): Nuclear abnormalities in Pelger-Huet anomaly; progress in blood cell morphology. Japanese Journal of Clinical Pathology 53, 54–60. Undritz E (1939): Pelger Hutsch blood when partners and its significance for the developed lung-blood geschicte (in German). Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 69, 1177–1186. Undritz E (1943): The exclusive occurrence of mature around polynuclear leukocytes in Pelger reingezuechteten Huëtschen anomaly of the rabbit and the importance of Pelger leukocytes in comparative hematology (in German). Folia Haematologica 67, 249–291. Utani K, Kawamoto JK, Shimizu N (2007): Micronuclei bearing acentric extrachromosomal chromatin are transcriptionally competent and may perturb the cancer cell phenotype. Molecular Cancer Research 5, 695–704. Utani K, Kohno Y, Okamoto A, Shimizu N (2010): Emergence of micronuclei and their effects on the fate of cells under replication stress. Plos One, 5, e10089. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0010089. Vale AM, Tomaz LR, Sousa RS, Soto-Blanco B (2011): PelgerHuet anomaly in two related mixed-breed dogs. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 23, 863–865. Weber SE, Evans DA Feldman BF (1981): Pelger-Huet anomaly of granulocytic leukocyte in two feline littermates. Feline Practice 11, 44–47. Received: 2013–05–21 Accepted after corrections: 2014–02–25. Corresponding Author: Vladimir Petrovic, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Clinic of Small Animals, Komenskeho 73, 041 81 Kosice, Slovak Republic Tel. +421 904 122 021, E-mail: vpetrovic@centrum.sk. 101.

(8)

New documents

Policing vulnerability through building community connections
The underlying aim is to explore how far there is capacity within this community to generate assets that can be drawn on to improve the health and well-being of local people; in this
1 Amino N,N di­benzyl 1,6 di­de­oxy β L fructo­furan­ose
Department of Chemical Crystallography, Chemical Research Laboratory, Oxford University, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA, England, and bDepartment of Organic Chemistry, Chemical Research
A proteomic approach for the rapid, multi informative and reliable identification of blood
Since blood provenance is also a forensic question of interest and as the m/z of haem would not permit the determination of the blood source, the m/z of intact Haemoglobin chains were
L Phenyl­alanine L phenyl­alaninium malonate
Data collection: CAD-4 EXPRESS Enraf–Nonius, 1994; cell refinement: CAD-4 EXPRESS; data reduction: XCAD4 Harms & Wocadlo, 1996; programs used to solve structure: SHELXS97 Sheldrick,
3 [(2R*,3S*) 3 (2 Meth­oxy­anilino) 2 methyl 3 phenyl­propionyl]­spiro­[2H 1,3 benzoxazine 2,1′ cyclo­hexan] 4(3H) one
Data collection: PROCESS-AUTO Rigaku, 1998; cell refinement: PROCESS-AUTO ; data reduction: CrystalStructure Rigaku/ MSC, 2004; programs used to solve structure: SHELXS97 Sheldrick,
Competitiveness and the Process of Co adaptation in Team Sport Performance
This definition supports the need to create, within the same team, an ‘interteam’ environment e.g., small-sided and conditioned games, designing task constraints representative of
1,3,3 Trimeth­yl 6′ (4 phenyl­piperazin 1 yl) 2,3 di­hydro­spiro­[1H indole 2,3′ 3H naphth[2,1 b][1,4]oxazine]
Data collection: SMART Bruker, 1998; cell refinement: SAINT Bruker, 1999; data reduction: SAINT; programs used to solve structure: SHELXS97 Sheldrick, 1997; programs used to refine
Band gap narrowing in ferroelectric KNbO3 Bi(Yb,Me)O3 (Me=Fe or Mn) ceramics
Hence, based on both permittivity measurements and Raman spectroscopy analysis all ceramics studied exhibit dielectric anomalies associated with structural phase transitions and their
An orthorhombic polymorph of di­chloro­bis­­[4 (di­methyl­amino)­phenyl]­tellurium
Data collection: SMART Bruker, 2000; cell refinement: SAINT Bruker, 2000; data reduction: SAINT; programs used to solve structure: SHELXS97 Sheldrick, 1997; programs used to refine
Understanding travel behaviour change during mega events: Lessons from the London 2012 Games
An initial outcome was the understanding that those with a specific intention to change behaviour during the Games or equally, at the minimum, contemplating in reference to the stages

Related documents

Human Norovirus NS3 Has RNA Helicase and Chaperoning Activities
B to D R*/R substrate 0.1 pmol was reacted with 20 pmol MBP-NS3 in the absence or presence of individual NTP B, increasing concentrations of Mg2⫹ C, or different
0
0
18
Understanding and strengthening effective coral reef governance: a map & compass to guide strategic change in Southeast Asia
1.1 A B C D 1.2 A B C D 1.3 A B C D 1.4 A B C D The ultimate goal of our organization is To manage coastal and coral reef areas in a way that reduces conflicts To conserve coral reef
0
0
33
Controlled propagation of spiking dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers : towards neuromorphic photonic networks
a-b Time series and c-d temporal maps measured at the output of T-VCSEL a, c and R-VCSEL b, d.The inset at the top shows the externally injected signal into T-VCSEL characterized by a
0
0
8
Large herbivores maintain a two‐phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi‐arid savanna
6       a b c d F I G U R E 3   Changes in proportional cover of stoloniferous grasses a, tufted bunchgrasses b, low‐forage‐value grasses c, and ascending bunchgrasses d over
0
0
10
Investment Facility annual report 2004. ACP - EU Cotonou Partnership Agreement
• A f r i c a • C a r i b b e a n • P a c i f i c • A f r i c a • C a r i b b e a n • P a c i f i c • A f r i c a • C a r i b b e a n Investment Facility ACP EU
0
0
36
The Nduindui : a study in the social structure of a New Hebridean community
THE NDUINDUI A S tu d y i n th e S o c ia l S tr u c tu r e o f a New H ebridean Community A t h e s i s su b m itte d f o r th e d e g re e o f D o cto r o f P h
0
0
415
Investment Facility annual report (1st) 2003. ACP - EU Cotonou Partnership Agreement
A f r i c a • C a r i b b e a n • P a c i f i c • A f r i c a • C a r i b b e a n • P a c i f i c • A f r i c a • C a r i b b e a n • Investment Facility ACP EU
0
0
32
LES investigation of two frequency effects on acoustically forced premixed flame
a b c d Figure 11: Flow fields with two frequency forcing for different cases from the present LES: a case C11; b case C13; c case C31; d case C33 see Table 2, showing the volumetric
0
0
15
Effect of sugar on male Anopheles gambiae mating performance, as modified by temperature, space, and body size
Days of cohabitation Figure Insemination sucrose 38-L cages, 4onstarting small proportion A, after C and the of females males' large B, emergence inseminated D males, at± 27°C SEM A,
0
0
13
The cyclic nature of crime and the notion of heredity in Agamemnon, Troades and Thyestes
This thesis examines in detail the complex themes behind the nature of familial crime and the notion of heredity within the three plays concerning the Tantalid dynasty : Agamemnon,
0
0
163
Detailed investigation of defect states in Erbium doped In2O3 thin films
Researchers also reported on the improved detection of UV light by Er doped In2O3 In2O3:Er TFs as compared to undoped In2O3 TFs and investigated the removal of oxygen-related defect
0
0
26
Microstructure and wear behaviour of powder and suspension hybrid Al2O3–YSZ coatings
α is the alpha alumina phase, γ represents the gamma alumina phase and t indicates the tetragonal YSZ peak Figure 5 a Hardness and b fracture toughness of the four coatings with error
0
0
21
Formation mechanism of electrical discharge TiC Fe composite coatings
a b s t r a c t Comparison of electric discharge ED processed single deposit and continuum TiC-Fe cermet coatings, formed from a sacrificial powder metallurgy TiC tool electrode at
0
0
9
Simulating the effect of an integrated emergency post in Enschede Verification and application of a general and flexible discrete event simulation model
Appendices Appendix A: Steps in a simulation study Appendix B: Arrivals GP post and ED Appendix C: Urgency per time interval Appendix D: Urgency distribution per arrival type Appendix
0
0
119
Immunological attributes of blood and milk neutrophils isolated from crossbred cows during different physiological conditions
Relative mRNA expression of CXCR1 A, CXCR2 B, IL-8 C, CD 62L D, and CD-11b E genes in healthy, mastitic, pregnant, and newly calved crossbred cows means with different letters differ
0
0
9
Show more