Chicago Endnote & Footnote References Guide

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Chicago Endnote & Footnote

References Guide

Subsequent citations to a source are shown in green font. When you have two consecutive notes from the same source, you may use ‘Ibid.’ and the page number for the second note. Use ‘Ibid.’ alone if the page number is the same.


Single author Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.

Two/three authors Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.

Ward and Burns, War, 59–61.

Leonard V. Smith, Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau, and Annette Becker,

France and the Great War, 1914-1918 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 23.

Smith, Audoin-Rouzeau, and Becker, France and the Great War, 44.

Four or more authors Lynn Hunt et al., The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures

(Boston: Bedford, 2001), 300.

Hunt, et al., The Making of the West, 305.

Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author

Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92.

Lattimore, Iliad, 24.

Gary Kornblith, ed., The Industrial Revolution in America (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998), 221.


Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author

Gabriel García Márquez, Love in the Time of Cholera, trans. Edith Grossman (London: Cape, 1988), 242–55.

García Márquez, Cholera, 244.

Ted Poston, A First Draft of History, ed. Kathleen A. Hauke (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000), 46.

Poston, Draft of History, 49.

Chapters in a book John D. Kelly, “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War,” in Anthropology and Global

Counterinsurgency, ed. John Thoms et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 77.

Kelly, “Seeing Red,” 80-84.

Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)

Quintus Tullius Cicero, “Handbook on Canvassing for the

Consulship,” in Rome: Late Republic and Principate, ed. Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White, vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 35.

Cicero, “Canvassing for the Consulship,” 37.

Book, in an edition other than the first

Andrew F. Rolle, California: A History, 5th ed. (Wheeling: Harlan Davidson, 1998), 243.

Rolle, California, 249.

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

James Rieger, introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern

Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), xx–xxi.

Rieger, introduction, xx-xx.

Book published electronically Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution

(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), accessed February 28, 2010,



Article in a print journal Joshua I. Weinstein, “The Market in Plato’s Republic,” Classical Philology 104 (2009): 440.

Weinstein, “Plato’s Republic,” 452–53.

Article in an online journal Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.

Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 439.

Online resources and other


Book review Benjamin Wittes, “Remember the Titan,” review of Louis D. Brandeis: A Life, by Melvin T. Urofsky, Wilson Quarterly 33, no. 4 (2009): 100.

Wittes, “Remember the Titan.”

Book review online David Kamp, “Deconstructing Dinner,” review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan, New York Times, April 23, 2006, Sunday Book Review, Kamp, “Deconstructing Dinner.”


Web site or weblog (blog) If a site does not have a date of publication or modified date, provide the date you accessed the site.

“Google Privacy Policy,” last modified March 11, 2009,

“Google Privacy Policy.”

“McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts,” McDonald’s Corporation, accessed July 19, 2008,

“McDonald’s Toy Safety Facts.”

George P. Landow, “Victorian and Victorianism,” Victorian Web, last modified August 2, 2009,

“Victorian and Victorianism.”

Electronic book Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), Kindle edition.

Austen, Pride and Prejudice.

YouTube Richard B. Freeman, “Global Capitalism, Labor Markets, and Inequality,”

“Global Capitalism.”

Andre de la Varre, "Havana, Cuba 1930s" "Havana, Cuba 1930s."

Podcast On the Media, "Dirty Documents," December 18, 2009:

"Dirty Documents."

Paul Tiyambe Zeleza, “Africa’s Global Past,” Episode 40, Africa Past and Present, African Online Digital Library, podcast audio, April 29, 2010,


Newspapers and magazines If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.

Daniel Mendelsohn, “But Enough about Me,” New Yorker, January 25, 2010, 68.

Mendelsohn, “But Enough about Me,” 69.

Online newspaper articles If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.

Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear, “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote,” New York Times, February 27, 2010, accessed February 28, 2010,

Stolberg and Pear, “Wary Centrists.”

Item in online database Constant Leung, “Language and Content in Bilingual Education,”

Linguistics and Education 16, no. 2 (2005): 239, doi:10.1016/j.linged.2006.01.004.

Leung, “Language and Content in Bilingual Education.”

Email and personal communication

Depending on context , e-mail messages may be cited in running text, e.g., ‘In an e-mail message to the author on 31 October 2005, John Doe revealed...’ If included in a note display as below:

John Doe, e-mail message to author, February 28, 2010.

Doe, e-mail message to author.

Videos, films, DVDs The Secret of Roan Inish, directed by John Sayles (1993; Culver City, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 2000), DVD.

The Secret of Roan Inish.

TV programmes "A Place of His Own," 1976 episode of Happy Days (ABC, 1974-1984; Paramount, 2008 dvd).


Theses and dissertations Mike Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008).

Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires.”

Online thesis and dissertations Pattama Shimpalee, "The Contribution of Economic and

Institutional Factors to Currency Crises: Additional Evidence from Asia, Europe and the Western Hemisphere,” (PhD diss., University of South Carolina, 2004), 31-33 In ProQuest Digital Dissertations [database on-line]; available from (publication number AAT 3142857; accessed August 8, 2007).

Shimpalee, "The Contribution of Economic and Institutional Factors.”

Named report

Stephen Balsum, Payment to Vietnam Veterans: A Summary. (Canberra, ACT: Department of Veterans’ Affairs, 1998), 243.

Balsum, Payment to Vietnam Veterans, 244.

Unnamed report U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, 1943 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1965), 562.

FRUS, 1954. Vol IV, 567-68.

Lectures/ Conference proceedings

Rachel Adelman, “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition” (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical

Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24, 2009).

Adelman, “Such Stuff as Dreams.”

Interviews Ron Haviv, interview by Charlie Rose, 12 Feb. 2001, The Charlie Rose Show (PBS).

Robert Downey Jr., interview by Graham Norton, The Graham Norton Show, BBC America, December 14, 2009.





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